Presentation on theme: "US History January 14, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: Why do wars start? Brainstorm 3 reasons. (Using GPRITE categories would be a good."— Presentation transcript:
US History January 14, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: Why do wars start? Brainstorm 3 reasons. (Using GPRITE categories would be a good start) Learning Target: I know the four main causes of WWI. Success Criteria: I will complete notes on what caused WWI.
WWI Unit Essential Question: What causes conflict? 2-4 weeks 3 Assessments Quiz on Causes of WWI DAW (Zimmerman Note) Mini CBA on League of Nations Quiz and DAW will be part of Semester 1 grades Focus will be why the US entered WWI and how WWI lead to WWII
Crash Course in History: WWI On the back of your warm up half sheet: Causes of WWI Results of WWI Question about WWI or things you found interesting and would like to know more about.
US History January 15, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: Why did WWI start and what was everyone fighting over? (based on the video from yesterday) Learning Target: I know the four main causes of WWI. Success Criteria: I will complete notes on what caused WWI.
WWI Unit Essential Question: What causes conflict? 2-4 weeks 3 Assessments Quiz on Causes of WWI DAW (Zimmerman Note) Mini CBA on League of Nations Quiz and DAW will be part of Semester 1 grades Focus will be why the US entered WWI, the aftermath and how WWI lead to WWII
: The Great War : The Great War
WWI Overview – US enters in 1917 WWI sets the stage for WWII New Technology Changes War War is hell: 8.5 million die – 37 million casualties (dead, wounded, missing)
Differing Viewpoints “The Great War” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
Country Total Mobilized Forces KilledWounded Prisoners and Missing Total Casualties Casualties as % of Forces ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS Russia12,000,0001,700,0004,950,0002,500,0009,150, British Empire 8,904,467908,3712,090,212191,6523,190, France8,410,0001,357,8004,266,000537,0006,160, Italy5,615,000650,000947,000600,0002,197, United States 4,355,000116,516204,0024,500323,0187.1
ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS Germany11,000,0001,773,7004,216,0581,152,8007,142, Austria- Hungary 7,800,0001,200,0003,620,0002,200,0007,020, Turkey2,850,000325,000400,000250,000975, Bulgaria1,200,00087,500152,39027,029266, TOTAL22,850,0003,386,2008,388,4483,629,82915,404, GRAND TOTAL 65,038,8108,528,83121,189,1547,750,91937,466, Country Total Mobilized Forces KilledWounded Prisoners and Missing Total Casualties Casualties as % of Forces
Causes of the War
The Causes of WW1 M ilitarism A lliances I mperialism N ationalism
Militarism Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships. The British feared an attack on their Empire Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies Germany 1.3m5.0m France 0.73m4.0m Russia 0.40m1.2m
Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%
US History January 16, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: What is militarism? How did it contribute to WWI? Ex. Militarism means _____________. Militarism contributed to WWI by ___________. Learning Target: I know the four main causes of WWI. Success Criteria: I will complete notes on what caused WWI.
Militarism The policy of aggressive military preparedness. Using military power to gain a country’s goals or expand its power.
Alliances An agreement between two or more countries to help each other. It can include military help, money or providing of weapons. – Designed to keep peace in Europe, instead pushed continent towards war – Many Alliances made in secret
Alliances By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances. The alliances made it more likely that a war would start. Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread.
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:
Imperialism All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory. The British feared Germany in Africa. The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the Balkans
Colonial Rivalries : Africa in 1914
Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914
Nationalism This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence. War was seen as a noble cause. War was a way to show patriotism Serbia’s national flag
Nationalism People were exited to show pride in their country through war. In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule. Serbia’s national flag
Europe in 1914
Economic & Imperial Rivalries
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
The Balkan Wars:
The Balkans in 1914
The Crisis 28 June 1914 Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo. Capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria. Hotbed of Slav nationalism Seal of the Black Hand group
The Crisis “Black Hand” terrorists attack the Arch Duke Bomb attempt fails in morning Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon. Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.
The Crisis 3. Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum. Serbia agrees to all but two terms of the ultimatum. Russia mobilises her troops to support Serbia Germany demands that Russia stands her armies down. Germany declares war on Russia “Demands must be put to Serbia that would be wholly impossible for them to accept …”
The Assassination: Sarajevo
Why did Britain get involved? Britain had Ententes with France and Russia. Only “friendly agreements” but French and Russians given impression Britain would fight. The Schlieffen Plan Sir Edward Grey British Foreign Secretary … “There’s some devilry going on in Berlin”
The Schlieffen Plan Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia. “Knock out blow” aimed at France first. Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium. Germans thought Britain would not intervene.
Britain’s Reaction UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium. Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports. Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next? UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
Who’s To Blame?
German Atrocities in Belgium
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!
Exit Slip What is Nationalism? How did it contribute to WWI? Ex. Nationalism means ____________. Nationalism contributed to WWI by _________.
A Young Australian Recruit
Recruits of the Central Powers Austro- Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
New French Recruits
A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
Women and the War Effort
Financing the War
French Women Factory Workers
German Women Factory Workers
Working in the Fields
A Woman Ambulance Driver
Red Cross Nurses
Russian Women Soldiers
Posters: Wartime Propagand a
Financing the War
German Poster Think of Your Children!
The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front
“No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
War Is HELL !!
Sacrifices in War
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
The Eastern Front
Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”,
T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles,
The “Colonial” Fronts
Sikh British Soldiers in India
Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China
US History January 17, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: What are alliances? How did they contribute to WWI? Ex. Alliances are _____________. Alliances contributed to WWI by ___________. Learning Target: I know the four main causes of WWI. Success Criteria: I will write 4 potential quiz questions on the causes of WWI. I can recall the 4 causes of WWI from memory.
Imperialism Reteach Test Everyone who took it again improved their score. All but one person doubled their core. 2.57 average score over both tests.
Grades Check on your assessments 5 paragraph essay PPT DAWs Imperialism Test Revisions You may revise anything except for the Imperialism test for a higher grade. I am available to help most days after school until 4pm
M.A.I.N Activity Part I. Match the examples to a cause of WWI. – Write the four causes at the top of the paper – Tape the examples under each cause. – Do in table groups.
M.A.I.N Activity Part II. Write two test questions related to each of the 4 causes of WWI. – Questions can be multiple choice, short answer, essay, fill in the blank, matching etc… 8 total questions: Write on the back of your paper. – Questions could be used on the quiz. – We will take the quiz on Wednesday
Exit Slip From Memory: What does M.A.I.N stand for?
US History January 22, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: How could technology influence war? Learning Target: I know how new technology shaped WWI. Success Criteria: I will complete my C-Notes on WWI, and be able to describe how new technology influenced the war.
The War of the Industrial Revolution: Old Tactics, New Technology
Traditional European Rules of War 1. A country must declare war before attacking another country. 2. Each side must wear uniforms or identify themselves to each other before attacking. Soldiers wearing an enemy uniform will be shot as a spy.
Traditional European Rules of War 3. Commanding officers should not be targeted 4. Civilians, Surrendering Soldiers and Medical Personnel will not be attacked.
Traditional European Rules of War 5. Hand to Hand combat is honorable, shooting from a distance is cowardly 6. Soldiers must be given the opportunity to surrender honorably.
World War I Trench Warfare Aerial photo of German Trenches to the right and British trenches to the left. The area between the trenches is called no mans land.
World War I Trench Warfare British Army in the Trenches1916
World War I Trench Warfare German trenches in a French Forest devastated by war.
World War I - Trench Warfare Going over the top!
Artillery Launched artillery shells over 15 km that exploded into deadly fragments over enemy positions. British Howitzer
Tanks Tanks developed specifically to end the stalemate on the western front Very unreliable at first and designs varied greatly.
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Airplanes New technology Early in the war just used to scout opponents position Later in the war they would drop “bombs” Late in the war machine guns were mounted for dog fights
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Poison Gas Machine Gun
Poison Gas Used in artillery shells- explosion would release gas into trenches. 2 Main types used: Chlorine Gas- destroyed the respiratory organs of its victims and this led to a slow death by asphyxiation. Mustard Gas- caused internal and external bleeding and attacked the bronchial tubes, stripping off the mucous membrane. **Most important piece of equipment was a soldiers gasmask. On average, soldiers exposed to either gas would suffer for 3-5 weeks before finally dying.
Machine Guns & Bolt Action Rifles Machine Guns fired 400 to 600 rounds per minute – Each side set up groups of machine guns along trenches to stop enemy advance Machine Gun Bolt Action Rifle Bolt Action rifles could be shot accurately up to 600 meters Continue
Machine Guns Each had the firepower of approx. 100 rifles. Dramatically increased the number of casualties during WWI
The War Comes to an End. War of Attrition
German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!
9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead
The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey Erzerum215,0001,500 Van197, Kharbert204,00035,000 Diarbekir124,0003,000 Bitlis220,00056,000 Sivas225,00016,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia371,80027,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000 European Turkey194,000163,000 Trapizond District73,39015,000 Total 2,133,190387,800