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US History January 14, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: Why do wars start? Brainstorm 3 reasons. (Using GPRITE categories would be a good.

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Presentation on theme: "US History January 14, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: Why do wars start? Brainstorm 3 reasons. (Using GPRITE categories would be a good."— Presentation transcript:

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2 US History January 14, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: Why do wars start? Brainstorm 3 reasons. (Using GPRITE categories would be a good start)  Learning Target: I know the four main causes of WWI.  Success Criteria: I will complete notes on what caused WWI.

3 WWI Unit Essential Question: What causes conflict?  2-4 weeks  3 Assessments  Quiz on Causes of WWI  DAW (Zimmerman Note)  Mini CBA on League of Nations  Quiz and DAW will be part of Semester 1 grades  Focus will be why the US entered WWI and how WWI lead to WWII

4 Crash Course in History: WWI  On the back of your warm up half sheet:  Causes of WWI  Results of WWI  Question about WWI or things you found interesting and would like to know more about. 

5 US History January 15, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: Why did WWI start and what was everyone fighting over? (based on the video from yesterday)  Learning Target: I know the four main causes of WWI.  Success Criteria: I will complete notes on what caused WWI.

6 WWI Unit Essential Question: What causes conflict?  2-4 weeks  3 Assessments  Quiz on Causes of WWI  DAW (Zimmerman Note)  Mini CBA on League of Nations  Quiz and DAW will be part of Semester 1 grades  Focus will be why the US entered WWI, the aftermath and how WWI lead to WWII

7 : The Great War : The Great War

8 WWI Overview  – US enters in 1917  WWI sets the stage for WWII  New Technology Changes War  War is hell: 8.5 million die – 37 million casualties (dead, wounded, missing)

9 Differing Viewpoints  “The Great War”  “The War to End All Wars”  “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”

10 Country Total Mobilized Forces KilledWounded Prisoners and Missing Total Casualties Casualties as % of Forces ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS Russia12,000,0001,700,0004,950,0002,500,0009,150, British Empire 8,904,467908,3712,090,212191,6523,190, France8,410,0001,357,8004,266,000537,0006,160, Italy5,615,000650,000947,000600,0002,197, United States 4,355,000116,516204,0024,500323,0187.1

11 ALLIED AND ASSOCIATED POWERS Germany11,000,0001,773,7004,216,0581,152,8007,142, Austria- Hungary 7,800,0001,200,0003,620,0002,200,0007,020, Turkey2,850,000325,000400,000250,000975, Bulgaria1,200,00087,500152,39027,029266, TOTAL22,850,0003,386,2008,388,4483,629,82915,404, GRAND TOTAL 65,038,8108,528,83121,189,1547,750,91937,466, Country Total Mobilized Forces KilledWounded Prisoners and Missing Total Casualties Casualties as % of Forces

12 Causes of the War

13 The Causes of WW1 M ilitarism A lliances I mperialism N ationalism

14 Militarism  Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships.  The British feared an attack on their Empire Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies  Germany 1.3m5.0m  France 0.73m4.0m  Russia 0.40m1.2m

15 Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73%

16 US History January 16, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: What is militarism? How did it contribute to WWI? Ex. Militarism means _____________. Militarism contributed to WWI by ___________.  Learning Target: I know the four main causes of WWI.  Success Criteria: I will complete notes on what caused WWI.

17 Militarism  The policy of aggressive military preparedness.  Using military power to gain a country’s goals or expand its power.

18 Alliances  An agreement between two or more countries to help each other. It can include military help, money or providing of weapons. – Designed to keep peace in Europe, instead pushed continent towards war – Many Alliances made in secret

19 Alliances  By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances.  The alliances made it more likely that a war would start.  Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread.

20 Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers: Central Powers:

21 Imperialism  All the great powers were competing for colonies / territory.  The British feared Germany in Africa.  The Austrians feared Serbia / Russia in the Balkans

22 Colonial Rivalries : Africa in 1914

23 Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914

24 Nationalism  This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence.  War was seen as a noble cause.  War was a way to show patriotism Serbia’s national flag

25 Nationalism  People were exited to show pride in their country through war.  In Europe Slavs, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule. Serbia’s national flag

26 Europe in 1914

27 Economic & Imperial Rivalries

28 Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe

29 The Balkan Wars:

30 The Balkans in 1914

31 The “Spark”

32 The Crisis  28 June 1914  Heir to Austrian throne Franz Ferdinand visits Sarajevo.  Capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Austria.  Hotbed of Slav nationalism Seal of the Black Hand group

33 The Crisis  “Black Hand” terrorists attack the Arch Duke  Bomb attempt fails in morning  Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and wife in the afternoon.  Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists.

34 The Crisis 3.  Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum.  Serbia agrees to all but two terms of the ultimatum.  Russia mobilises her troops to support Serbia  Germany demands that Russia stands her armies down.  Germany declares war on Russia “Demands must be put to Serbia that would be wholly impossible for them to accept …”

35 The Assassination: Sarajevo

36 Why did Britain get involved?  Britain had Ententes with France and Russia.  Only “friendly agreements” but French and Russians given impression Britain would fight.  The Schlieffen Plan Sir Edward Grey British Foreign Secretary … “There’s some devilry going on in Berlin”

37 The Schlieffen Plan  Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia.  “Knock out blow” aimed at France first.  Avoid French defences by invasion of Belgium.  Germans thought Britain would not intervene.

38 Britain’s Reaction  UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium.  Britain also scared of Germany controlling Channel ports.  Did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe. Britain next?  UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium. War declared August

39 Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

40 Who’s To Blame?

41 German Atrocities in Belgium

42 Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! But my heart's right there! It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!  Home by Christmas!  No major war in 50 years!  Nationalism! HHHHome by Christmas! NNNNo major war in 50 years! NNNNationalism!

43 Recruitment Posters

44 Exit Slip  What is Nationalism?  How did it contribute to WWI?  Ex. Nationalism means ____________.  Nationalism contributed to WWI by _________.

45 A Young Australian Recruit

46 Recruits of the Central Powers Austro- Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

47 New French Recruits

48 A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier

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50 Women and the War Effort

51 Financing the War

52 For Recruitment

53 Munitions Workers

54 French Women Factory Workers

55 German Women Factory Workers

56 Working in the Fields

57 A Woman Ambulance Driver

58 Red Cross Nurses

59 Russian Women Soldiers

60 Posters: Wartime Propagand a

61 Australian Poster

62 American Poster

63 Financing the War

64 German Poster Think of Your Children!

65 The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

66 A Multi-Front War

67 The Western Front

68 Trench Warfare

69 “No Man’s Land”

70 Verdun – February, 1916 e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties. e German offensive. e Each side had 500,000 casualties.

71 The Somme – July, 1916 e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. e 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. e Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.

72 War Is HELL !!

73 Sacrifices in War

74 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

75 The Eastern Front

76 Turkish Cavalry in Palestine

77 T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”,

78 T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles,

79 The “Colonial” Fronts

80 Sikh British Soldiers in India

81 Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]

82 Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

83 Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China

84 US History January 17, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: What are alliances? How did they contribute to WWI? Ex. Alliances are _____________. Alliances contributed to WWI by ___________.  Learning Target: I know the four main causes of WWI.  Success Criteria: I will write 4 potential quiz questions on the causes of WWI. I can recall the 4 causes of WWI from memory.

85 Imperialism Reteach Test  Everyone who took it again improved their score.  All but one person doubled their core.  2.57 average score over both tests.

86 Grades  Check on your assessments  5 paragraph essay  PPT  DAWs  Imperialism Test  Revisions  You may revise anything except for the Imperialism test for a higher grade.  I am available to help most days after school until 4pm

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88 M.A.I.N Activity Part I.  Match the examples to a cause of WWI. – Write the four causes at the top of the paper – Tape the examples under each cause. – Do in table groups.

89 M.A.I.N Activity Part II.  Write two test questions related to each of the 4 causes of WWI. – Questions can be multiple choice, short answer, essay, fill in the blank, matching etc… 8 total questions: Write on the back of your paper. – Questions could be used on the quiz. – We will take the quiz on Wednesday

90 Exit Slip  From Memory:  What does M.A.I.N stand for?

91 US History January 22, 2014Mr. Davolt On a half sheet of paper Warm Up: How could technology influence war?  Learning Target: I know how new technology shaped WWI.  Success Criteria: I will complete my C-Notes on WWI, and be able to describe how new technology influenced the war.

92 The War of the Industrial Revolution: Old Tactics, New Technology

93 Traditional European Rules of War 1. A country must declare war before attacking another country. 2. Each side must wear uniforms or identify themselves to each other before attacking. Soldiers wearing an enemy uniform will be shot as a spy.

94 Traditional European Rules of War 3. Commanding officers should not be targeted 4. Civilians, Surrendering Soldiers and Medical Personnel will not be attacked.

95 Traditional European Rules of War 5. Hand to Hand combat is honorable, shooting from a distance is cowardly 6. Soldiers must be given the opportunity to surrender honorably.

96 World War I Trench Warfare Aerial photo of German Trenches to the right and British trenches to the left. The area between the trenches is called no mans land.

97 World War I Trench Warfare British Army in the Trenches1916

98 World War I Trench Warfare German trenches in a French Forest devastated by war.

99 World War I - Trench Warfare Going over the top!

100 Artillery  Launched artillery shells over 15 km that exploded into deadly fragments over enemy positions. British Howitzer

101 Tanks  Tanks developed specifically to end the stalemate on the western front  Very unreliable at first and designs varied greatly.

102 French Renault Tank

103 British Tank at Ypres

104 U-Boats

105 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats

106 The Airplane “Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

107 Airplanes  New technology  Early in the war just used to scout opponents position  Later in the war they would drop “bombs”  Late in the war machine guns were mounted for dog fights

108 Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant

109 The Zeppelin

110 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

111 Poison Gas Machine Gun

112 Poison Gas Used in artillery shells- explosion would release gas into trenches. 2 Main types used: Chlorine Gas- destroyed the respiratory organs of its victims and this led to a slow death by asphyxiation. Mustard Gas- caused internal and external bleeding and attacked the bronchial tubes, stripping off the mucous membrane. **Most important piece of equipment was a soldiers gasmask. On average, soldiers exposed to either gas would suffer for 3-5 weeks before finally dying.

113 Machine Guns & Bolt Action Rifles  Machine Guns fired 400 to 600 rounds per minute – Each side set up groups of machine guns along trenches to stop enemy advance Machine Gun Bolt Action Rifle Bolt Action rifles could be shot accurately up to 600 meters Continue 

114 Machine Guns  Each had the firepower of approx. 100 rifles.  Dramatically increased the number of casualties during WWI

115 The War Comes to an End. War of Attrition

116 German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918

117 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

118 11 a.m., November 11, 1918 The Armistice is Signed!

119 9,000,000 Dead 9,000,000 Dead

120 The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died

121 World War I Casualties

122 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!

123 Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey Erzerum215,0001,500 Van197, Kharbert204,00035,000 Diarbekir124,0003,000 Bitlis220,00056,000 Sivas225,00016,800 Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey Western Anatolia371,80027,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria309,00070,000 European Turkey194,000163,000 Trapizond District73,39015,000 Total 2,133,190387,800


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