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Geography 409 Advanced Spatial Analysis and GIS Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Julia Siemer U of R, Winter 2006

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2/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Geographic Modelling and Mapping Data model Real world Data base Visuali- sation in GIS Carto- graphic model Conceptual generalisationCartographic generalisation Geographic analyses Maps, reports

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3/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Cartographic Generalisation Basic techniques Selection Relevance, size Simplification Major characteristic

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4/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Cartographic Generalisation Basic techniques Combination Size, distance, relevance Locational shift and size exaggeration Distance, relevance

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5/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Cartographic Generalisation Type of map e.g. statistical map (cartograms) or topographic map Natural and man-made features e.g. coastline or administrative unit/border

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6/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Qualitative and Quantitative Information Qualitative information e.g. road types, countries, animals,… Quantitative information e.g. population density, (absolute) number of immigrants,… Different kind of data - geographic primitives Points, lines or areas

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7/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Quantitative Mapping Choropleth maps (area or shaded maps) Colour shading applied to areas (administrative/statistical areas) Variety of classification methods to depict the spatial array of data Represented data need to be => relative values like ratios, proportions => of intensive spatial form like population density (people/km 2 ) => no absolute numbers (e.g. people/district)

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8/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Quantitative Mapping Areal display of absolute values => only with regular grid as spatial units

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9/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Quantitative Mapping Colour schemes for choropleth maps Univariate maps => one theme Unipolar data Use changes of colour value and intensity Low values: light value/intensity High values: high value/intensity Inhabitants per sq km <<<<<<<<

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10/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Quantitative Mapping Colour schemes for choropleth maps Bipolar maps => one theme with natural or meaningful dividing point => increase/decrease => above/below the mean Use complementary colours Internal Migration Balance as % of Population >> ><>> >< Colour circle

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11/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design variable Quantitative Mapping Bivariate maps: two variables and their correlation 0 variable Variable 1 Variable 2 variable 2

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12/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Quantitative Mapping Bivariate map

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13/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Quantitative Mapping Colour schemes Use conventions yellow-orange-red for populations data red: female, blue: male Use associations red: warm, blue: cold, green: vegetation Cultural influences

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14/14 J. Siemer – U of R – Winter 2006 GEOG 409 – 2 Cartography Principles of Effective Cartographic Design Quantitative Mapping Nature of colours Additive colour primaries (electronic display) Subtractive colour primaries (printing, painting)

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