Presentation on theme: "Adolescent Mental Health"— Presentation transcript:
1 Adolescent Mental Health Oliver O’ConnellPsychiatrist
2 Adolescent Mental Health Definition of AdolescenceBiopsychosocial development during adolescenceBiopsychosocial tasks of adolescenceNormal vs. abnormal adolescent behaviourResolution of AdolescenceMental Illnesses arising in adolescence
3 Adolescent Mental Health Definition:Adolescence is the developmental phase that spans the transition period from the ending of the relatively complete childhood reliance on parents to the relatively complete reliance on oneself to manage one's own life. Thus the beginning and end dates vary greatly.
4 Adolescent Mental Health Definition:“adolescence begins in biology and ends in culture” longstanding definition of the onset of adolescence links it to puberty, when hormone activity produces the development of secondary sex characteristics (pubic hair and voice change in males; breast development and menarche in females). However, while these biological changes are evidence of the transition from childhood to adolescence, the transition out of adolescence is less well defined.Age has changed with earlier onset due to better nutrition.
5 Adolescent Mental Health Definition:A hundred years ago, notions of adolescence were scarcely understood, since teens did not attend high school and most assumed adult roles of providing for their family and getting married at average ages of 14 and 15.the time period of adolescence has been extended to include the ages of 10 through the mid twenties, with most researchers dividing the age span into early (10–13), middle (14–17) and late (18–mid twenties) adolescent
6 Adolescent Mental Health Biopyschosocial tasks of adolescence:(Physical, psychological and social development ). The problem is that these three domains may not keep up with each other. In the last 100 years the average age of puberty occurs 2 years earlier but there is no evidence that psychosocial developmental has kept pace.
7 Adolescent Mental Health Physical developmentA growth spurt precedes puberty by 1 year with girl's commencing about two years before boys and finishing at an earlier age. Emotional adjustment may be a problem for those whose pubertal level is out of synchrony with their peers. It is noted to be a problem for very early developing girls and late developing boys.
8 Adolescent Mental Health Physical DevelopmentGrowth and maturation of the brainThis leads to new behaviours that irritate and frustrate parents including changes inattentionmotivation…………need rewardrisk taking behaviourMessy room, disobedient, reckless, careless………………need for instant gratification, impulsivity, novelty seeking and risk taking behaviour promoted
9 Adolescent Mental Health Psychosocial Development through adolescence.Early adolescence:Growth spurtPuberty commencesSocial move away from family towards peers (peer group becomes an alternative for life advice)Thinking is concrete
10 Adolescent Mental Health Mid Adolescence: 14-17yearsAbility to think abstractlyMetacognitionBeginning of consolidation of the sense of selfScant empathy and lack of tolerance for views of others
11 Adolescent Mental Health Late Adolescence: 18 to mid twentiesAbstract thinking and ability to consider the future, deductive reasoningIdealism becomes more practical and less doctrinaireParental values less likely to be challenged automatically
12 Adolescent Mental Health Biopyschosocial tasks of adolescence:To come to terms with body/brain changesTo cope with sexual development and psychosexual drivesTo establish and confirm sense of identityTo learn more about sex rolesTo synthesize personalityTo struggle for independence and emancipation from family
13 Adolescent Mental Health Normal adolescent behaviour:is it normal to be abnormal in adolescence?What Is Normal?Become Aware of the Attitudes and Behaviours of Adolescents Your Child's AgeHow Often Does the Behaviour Occur?Does the Behaviour Interfere with the Teenager's Ability to Function in the Environment?Does the Behaviour Interfere with Others?Consider Individual DifferencesUse your intuition
14 Adolescent Mental Health Normal Adolescent BehaviourRisk takingImpulsivityNovelty seekingReckless behaviourDisobedience
15 Adolescent Mental Health Normal Adolescent Behaviour:Inconsistent, unpredictable, and paradoxical behaviourExploration and experimentation with self and worldEagerness for peer approval and relationshipsStrong moral and ethical perceptionsCompetitive in play; erratic work play patternsBetter use of language and other symbolic materialCritical of self and othersAlternates between anxiety over loss of parent nurturing and hostility to parents
16 Adolescent Mental Health Abnormal Adolescent Behaviour:Apprehensions, fears, guilt and anxiety about sex, health, educationDefiant, negative, impulsive or depressed behaviourFrequent somatic or hypochondriacal complaintsIllness denying behaviourLearning erratic or deficientSexual preoccupationPoor or absent personal relationships with adults or peersImmature or precocious behaviourUnwillingness to assume greater autonomyComplete inability to substitute or postpone gratifications
17 Adolescent Mental Health Severely abnormal Adolescent Behaviour:Complete withdrawal into self, extreme depressionActs of delinquency, asceticism, ritualism, obsessionsNeuroses, especially phobias; persistent anxiety, compulsions, inhibitions,Persistent hypochondriasisSexual devianceComplete inability to socialize or studyAnorexia, Bulimia,Psychoses:
18 Adolescent Mental Health Resolution of Adolescence:Separation from parents commensurate with being able to decide the course of one's own lifeAttainment of a stable sexual identityAbility to form a long-term sexual relationshipAttainment of a steady job or the preparation for a careerAttainment of a personal value system that respects both the needs of the self and the needs of others
19 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescenceEpidemiology1 in 4 have a mental disorder9% are highly distressed18-24year olds have the highest prevalenceYouth suicide is the leading cause of death in year olds
20 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescenceBiology/GeneticsRisk factors:Family historyProtective factors:High Intelligence
21 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescenceSocial EnvironmentRisk FactorsPovertyDiscrimination based on race, religion etc.Bullying, trauma, sexual abuseCriminal opportunities
22 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescenceSocial EnvironmentProtective factorsQuality SchoolsCohesive FamilyNeighbourhood ResourcesInterested Adults
23 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescencePerceived EnvironmentRisk FactorsModels for deviant behaviourParent-friends conflict the norm
24 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescencePerceived EnvironmentProtective FactorsModels for conventional behaviourHigh control against deviant behaviour
25 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescencePersonalityRisk FactorsLow perceived life chancesLow Self-EsteemRisk-Taking Propensity
26 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescencePersonalityProtective FactorsValue on achievementValue on healthIntolerance of deviance
27 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescenceAlcohol and drug abuseAnorexia, bulimia and other eating disordersAnxiety disorders, OCD, Phobias, PTSD, PDAttention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderConduct DisorderBipolar Disorder/Depression
28 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescenceLearning DisordersPsychosisSchizophreniaTourette’s
29 Adolescent Mental Health Alcohol and drug abuseWarning SignsA drop in school performanceA change in group of friendsDelinquent behaviourDeterioration in family relationships
30 Adolescent Mental Health Alcohol and drug abuseWarning SignsRed eyesPersistent coughChanges in eating and sleeping patternsAnxiety and depression
31 Adolescent Mental Health Anorexia and Bulimia Warning signsPreoccupation with body image or foodBingeing, restricting, dietingRapid weight changesSocial withdrawalIrritabilityMoodiness
32 Adolescent Mental Health Anxiety DisordersObsessive Compulsive DisorderPhobiasPost Traumatic Stress DisorderPanic Attacks and Panic Disorder
33 Adolescent Mental Health Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderNormally begins in childoodInattentionDaydreaming or hyperactiveForgetfulnessImpulsivityInability to complete tasksInterrupts others
34 Adolescent Mental Health Conduct DisorderRepetitive and persistent pattern of behaviour in which the basic human rights of others or major age-appropriate norms are violated
35 Adolescent Mental Health Bipolar Disorder/DepressionIncreased risk taking and recklessnessImpulsivityPoor school performanceLow self-esteemInsomnia or HypersomniaChanges in appetite or weightLoss of emotional control
36 Adolescent Mental Health Mental Illnesses arising in adolescenceLearning DisordersPsychosis/SchizophreniaTourette’s
37 Adolescent Mental Health Psychosis/Schizophrenia
38 Adolescent Mental Health TourettesCo-occur with ADHD and OCDTic disorder
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