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Monarch Butterflies PowerPoint Pizzazz by the ‘Butterfly Lady’ Jacqui Knight of Russell, Bay of Islands, NZ Danaus plexippus.

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Presentation on theme: "Monarch Butterflies PowerPoint Pizzazz by the ‘Butterfly Lady’ Jacqui Knight of Russell, Bay of Islands, NZ Danaus plexippus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Monarch Butterflies PowerPoint Pizzazz by the ‘Butterfly Lady’ Jacqui Knight of Russell, Bay of Islands, NZ Danaus plexippus

2 2 Life Cycle of a Monarch Butterfly 1- Egg Ovum – Egg/Ovum 4 days (longer if cool)

3 3 smaller than a pin male dies soon after mating one female laid 1179 eggs!* average female lays 400 eggs! Egg (Ovum) Photo and statistics:* Monarch Lab, University of Minnesota, used with permission

4 4 after about four days eggs are transparent (can be as little as one day or may take all winter) black face of caterpillar can be seen

5 5 Life Cycle : Caterpillar 1 - Egg Ovum 2 - Caterpillar Larva – Caterpillar/Larva days 1 – Egg/Ovum 4 days

6 6

7 7 Caterpillars (Larvae) emerges only 2mm long eats egg shell grows in stages (five instars) eats day and night for 9-14 days (Summer) slower in Winter

8 8 egg to chrysalis, caterpillar grows in size times five pairs of legs

9 9 finally 5-6cm long Not palatable generally to birds - chemical defence against predators

10 10 Life Cycle : Chrysalis 1 - Eggs Ovum 2 - Caterpillar Larva 3 – Chrysalis Pupa 4 2 – Caterpillar/Larva days 1 – Egg/Ovum 4 days 3 - Chrysalis/Pupa days

11 11 Chrysalis caterpillar lays down mat of silk in centre of mat a tiny white silk button clasps button with last two prolegs and lets go with front legs hangs upside down in a J formation

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13 13 skin splits, revealing chrysalis inside

14 14 wriggling chrysalis pushes old skin up and out of the way

15 15

16 16

17 17

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19 19 chrysalis wriggles and moulds into smooth shape

20 20 The make-up of the specks of gold unknown. The green colouration is caterpillar’s blood or haemolymph.

21 21 pale green changes to jade green

22 22

23 23 cuticle (skin) actually transparent hangs days as butterfly body forms inside

24 24 Fourth Stage : Adult 1 - Eggs Ovum 2 - Caterpillar Larva 3 - Pupa Chrysalis 4 - Adult Imago 2 – Caterpillar/Larva days 1 – Eggs/Ovum 4 days 4 – Adult/Imago mates 3 - Chrysalis/Pupa days

25 25 Chrysalis shell breaks open Monarch butterfly emerges

26 26 Adult pumps fluid into wings to straighten and strengthen Then knits together two parts of mouth (proboscis)

27 27 finds a mate… … and life cycle begins all over again

28 28 Females have broader veins Adult Photograph courtesy of Dale McClung,

29 29 Adult Males have a black dot, a scent pouch, on their lower wing Their black veins are also thinner Photograph courtesy of Dale McClung,

30 30 Food Sources - Butterfly –Echium fastuosum ‘Pride of Madeira’ –Schinus molle (Pepper Tree) –Tweedia –Buddleia –Bottlebrush, Poinsettia, Hibiscus –Cosmos, Lantana, Asters, Sage, Yarrow, Phlox, Zinnias –any flowering plants, nectar-rich

31 31 Butterfly feeder sugar water OR apple juice pour a little onto a sponge or paper towel leave on brightly coloured plate

32 32 Butterfly feeder 1 teaspoon sugar dissolved in 2 cups water DO NOT USE HONEY (can spread disease from bees to other insects)

33 33 Milkweed (Gomphocarpus sp.) was called Asclepias sp. poisonous cardenolides or cardiac glycosides cardenolides are poisonous to vertebrates (animals with backbone) Food Sources - Caterpillars

34 34 Food Sources - Caterpillars Swan Plant Gomphocarpus fruticosus –grows 1-2 metres –slender leaves –clusters of small cream flowers –seedpods resembling swans, silvery green, –seeds slightly bigger than a pin-head, hard, black –plants often stripped by Monarch caterpillars and die in height of season

35 35 Food Sources - Caterpillars Giant Swan Plant Gomphocarpus physocarpus –2-3 metres –large round leaf –larger cream flowers –round seedpods more like hairy golfballs –rapid growth, strong plant, usually outlives caterpillars’ attacks –may need staking - plant out of strong winds

36 36 WARNING!!! milky latex-like sap poisonous can cause itching if eaten - vomiting, stupor, weakness, spasms

37 37 ALTERNATIVE FOOD SOURCES Only suitable for caterpillars 2cm + Pumpkin, cucumber rind, courgettes Put thin slivers on to a plate Use the ‘moat’ process to force the caterpillars to eat Frass (poop) will change colour!

38 38 Pests Birds – generally do not predate Monarchs – caterpillars are poisonous to them – some birds are exception and build up tolerance to poison

39 39 Pests Wasps: –Tachinid larva burrows into a Monarch larva (caterpillar), eats tissues and fluid from Monarch –Brachonid wasp, female lays one egg inside Monarch larva. From that egg, as many as 32 genetically- identical adults develop Photograph: Morris, Clearwater, Florida, USA

40 40 Pests Do not try and kill pests -- Some wasps are beneficial, introduced to control other pests such as aphids

41 41 Protection from Wasps 1.Vase full of water on a tray 2.Spread a thin layer of water on the tray to act as a moat 3.Put a branch of Swan Plant in the vase 4.Remove small caterpillars very gently from their host plant using a ‘pocket’ 5.Add caterpillars by pegging pocket to Swan Plant 6.Add more food daily to the vase 7.Under the tray you will want to put layers of newspaper to catch all the frass or poop

42 42 Protection from Wasps

43 43 New Zealand NZ has only 23 species of butterfly –11 endemic –12 non-endemic

44 44 New Zealand first recorded in NZ 1800s believed to have blown here on a storm no harmful effects on NZ ecosystem

45 45 New Zealand s Monarch Butterflies tagged 6500 butterflies tagged 1011 recovered Only 28 butterflies flew more than 20km Photo by Ed Wesley, NE Pennsylvania Photo courtesy Linda & Jeff Ives

46 46 New Zealand no pattern of migration parks and gardens – thousands of butterflies in one tree following taken near Russell, Bay of Islands

47 47

48 48 North America Native –East of the Rockies: Reserves in Mexico –Autumn: migrate up to 3000km south to Mexico for the North American Winter That’s one and a half times the length of New Zealand! –Spring: migrate back to where their great great grandparents come from – 5th generations!

49 49 North America Native to America –West of the Rockies: overwinter in California – e.g. Monterey Peninsula –Spring: migrate back north – some say to where their forebears lived.

50 50 North America 80% of the Eastern Population of migrating Monarchs enters Mexico by crossing the Rio Grande in Southwest Texas. For six weeks each Fall (Autumn) many thousands of monarchs cluster and nectar nightly on the scrubby, dry vegetation. Thousands of square miles of scrub brush provide shelter and sustenance for the many millions of Monarchs. This pair of tagged Monarchs will nectar on the Lantana, warming themselves in the direct sunlight before resuming their southward trek. Photo courtesy Rio Bravo Nature Center Foundation, Inc. Eagle Pass, Texas

51 51 For further information (USA) Thanks to Morris (Clearwater, Florida, USA) and Nadine Bovis (Titirangi) for many of the photographs

52 Monarch Butterflies for further information, plants, presentations to schools and clubs etc contact the ‘Butterfly Lady’, Jacqui Knight, Russell, Bay of Islands, NZ T h a t ’ s a l l f o l k s !


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