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Presentation on theme: "Unit 14 - CHEMICAL REACTIONS"— Presentation transcript:

Reactants: Zn + I2 Product: Zn I2

2 Introduction Chemical reactions involve changes in matter, the making of new materials with new properties, and energy changes. Symbols represent elements, formulas describe compounds, chemical equations describe a chemical reaction: 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O Chemical reactions occur when bonds between the outermost parts of atoms are broken and new bonds are formed.


4 A chemical reaction is a process in which a substance (or substances) called reactants are changed into one or more new substances which are called products. 4 Al (s) O2 (g) ---> 2 Al2O3 (s)

5 Parts of a Reaction Equation
Chemical equations show the conversion of reactants (the molecules shown on the left of the arrow) into products (the molecules shown on the right of the arrow). A + sign separates molecules on the same side The arrow is read as “yields” Example C + O2  CO2 This reads “carbon plus oxygen react to yield carbon dioxide”

6 The charcoal used in a grill is basically carbon
The charcoal used in a grill is basically carbon. The carbon reacts with oxygen to yield carbon dioxide. The chemical equation for this reaction, C + O2  CO2 contains the same information as the English sentence but has quantitative meaning as well.

7 Chemical Equations balanced. conservation of matter,
Lavoisier, 1788 Because of the principle of the conservation of matter, an equation must be balanced. It must have the same number of atoms of the same kind on both sides.

8 A chemical reaction is written as a chemical equation using chemical formulas with symbols which represent the chemical elements and numbers written as sub-indexs, which indicate the number of atoms of each element. 4 Al (s) O2 (g) ---> 2 Al2O3 (s) The numbers in the front are called stoichiometric coefficients. The letters (s), (g) are the physical states of compounds.

9 Symbols Used in Equations: Chemical formulas
The chemical formulas are represented by letters and numbers: Na2ClO4 The letters represent the symbols of the chemical elements present (as in the Periodic Table). Na: sodium, Cl: Chloride, O:oxygen The numbers indicate the number of atoms of each element involved. 2 atoms Na, 1 atoms Cl, 4 atoms O

10 Symbols Used in Equations: Chemical elements

11 Symbols Used in Equations: Subindexs and Coefficients
Subindexs indicate the number of atoms of each element involved. The absence of subindex means that there is 1 atom. MgBr2 1 atom Mg, 2 atoms Br Coefficients represent the number of units of that substance. 2 MgBr2 2 x (1 atom Mg, 2 atoms Br)= 2 atoms Mg, 4 atoms Br

12 Symbols Used in Equations: Chemical formulas
If there is a parenthesis applies to everything inside it. Fe2 ( S O4 ) 3 Fe: iron S:sulphur, O:oxygen 2 atoms Fe 3 x 1 = 3 atoms S 3 x 4 = 12 atoms O

13 PRACTISE: Count the number of atoms in a chemical formula
KCl Na2O Be(OH)2 P2O5 Li2SO4 Ni(BrO3)2 Ca3(PO4)2 2 Co2O3 3 C5H10

14 PRACTISE: Count the number of atoms in a chemical formula
KCl Na2O Be(OH)2 P2O5 Li2SO4 Ni(BrO3)2 Ca3(PO4)2 2 Co2O3 3 C5H10 H2 : 2 atoms H KCl : 1 atom K, 1 atom Cl Na2O : 2 atoms Na, 1 atom O Be(OH)2 : 1 atom Be, 2 atoms O, 2 atoms H P2O5: 2 atoms P, 5 atoms O Li2SO4 : 2 atoms Li, 1 atom S, 4 atoms O Ni(BrO3)2 : 1 atom Ni, 2 atoms Br, 6 atoms O Ca3(PO4)2 : 3 atoms Ca, 2 atoms P, 8 atoms O 2 Co2O3 : 4 atoms Co, 6 atoms O 3 C5H10 : 15 atoms C, 30 atoms H

15 Symbols Used in Equations
Solid (s) Liquid (l) Gas (s) Aqueous solution (aq) Escaping gas () Precipitating solid ()

16 Balancing Equations When balancing a chemical reaction you may add coefficients in front of the compounds to balance the reaction, but you may not change the sub-indexs. Changing the sub-indexs changes the compound.

17 Subindexs vs. Coefficients
The sub-indexs tell you how many atoms of a particular element are in a compound. The coefficient tells you about the quantity, or number, of molecules of the compound.

18 Chemical Equations 4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) ---> 2 Al2O3(s)
This equation means 4 Al atoms + 3 O2 molecules ---produces---> 2 molecules of Al2O3

19 Steps to Balancing Equations
There are four basic steps to balancing a chemical equation. Write the correct formula for the reactants and the products. DO NOT TRY TO BALANCE IT YET! You must write the correct formulas first. And most importantly, once you write them correctly DO NOT CHANGE THE FORMULAS! Find the number of atoms for each element on the left side. Compare those against the number of the atoms of the same element on the right side. Determine where to place coefficients in front of formulas so that the left side has the same number of atoms as the right side for EACH element in order to balance the equation. Check your answer to see if: The numbers of atoms on both sides of the equation are now balanced. The coefficients are in the lowest possible whole number ratios. (reduced)

20 Some Suggestions to Help You
Take one element at a time, working left to right except for H and O. Save H for next to last, and O until last. IF everything balances except for O, and there is no way to balance O with a whole number, double all the coefficients and try again. (Because O is diatomic as an element)


22 Balancing Equations 2 2 ___ H2(g) + ___ O2(g) ---> ___ H2O(l)
What Happened to the Other Oxygen Atom????? This equation is not balanced! Two hydrogen atoms from a hydrogen molecule (H2) combines with one of the oxygen atoms from an oxygen molecule (O2) to form H2O. Then, the remaining oxygen atom combines with two more hydrogen atoms (from another H2 molecule) to make a second H2O molecule.

23 Balancing Equations 2 3 ___ Al (s) + ___ Br2(l) ---> ___ Al2Br6(s)

24 PRACTISE: Balancing Equations
____C3H8(g) _____ O2(g) → ____CO2(g) _____ H2O(g) ____B4H10(g) _____ O2(g) → ___ B2O3(g) _____ H2O(g)

25 PRACTISE: Balancing Equations
C3H8(g) + 5 O2(g) → 3 CO2(g) + 4 H2O(g) 2 B4H10(g) + 11 O2(g) → 4 B2O3(g) + 10 H2O(g)

26 Balancing Equations C4H8 + O2 → CO2 + H2O Mg + HI → Mgl2 + H2 Ca(OH)2 + HCl→ CaCl2 + H2O Na3PO4 + Fe2O3 → Na2O + FePO4

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