2IntroductionChemical reactions involve changes in matter, the making of new materials with new properties, and energy changes.Symbols represent elements, formulas describe compounds, chemical equations describe a chemical reaction: 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2OChemical reactions occurwhen bonds between theoutermost parts of atomsare broken and new bondsare formed.
4A chemical reaction is a process in which a substance (or substances) called reactants are changed into one or more new substances which are called products.4 Al (s) O2 (g) ---> 2 Al2O3 (s)
5Parts of a Reaction Equation Chemical equations show the conversion of reactants (the molecules shown on the left of the arrow) into products (the molecules shown on the right of the arrow).A + sign separates molecules on the same sideThe arrow is read as “yields”ExampleC + O2 CO2This reads “carbon plus oxygen react to yield carbon dioxide”
6The charcoal used in a grill is basically carbon The charcoal used in a grill is basically carbon. The carbon reacts with oxygen to yield carbon dioxide.The chemical equation for this reaction,C + O2 CO2contains the same information as the English sentence but has quantitative meaning as well.
7Chemical Equations balanced. conservation of matter, Lavoisier, 1788Because of the principle of theconservation of matter,an equation must bebalanced.It must have the same numberof atoms of the same kind onboth sides.
8A chemical reaction is written as a chemical equation using chemical formulas with symbols which represent the chemical elements and numbers written as sub-indexs, which indicate the number of atoms of each element.4 Al (s) O2 (g) ---> 2 Al2O3 (s)The numbers in the front are called stoichiometric coefficients.The letters (s), (g) are the physical states of compounds.
9Symbols Used in Equations: Chemical formulas The chemical formulas are represented by letters and numbers:Na2ClO4The letters represent the symbols of the chemical elements present (as in the Periodic Table).Na: sodium, Cl: Chloride, O:oxygenThe numbers indicate the number of atoms of each element involved.2 atoms Na, 1 atoms Cl, 4 atoms O
11Symbols Used in Equations: Subindexs and Coefficients Subindexs indicate the number of atoms of each element involved. The absence of subindex means that there is 1 atom.MgBr2 1 atom Mg, 2 atoms BrCoefficients represent the number of units of that substance.2 MgBr2 2 x (1 atom Mg, 2 atoms Br)=2 atoms Mg, 4 atoms Br
12Symbols Used in Equations: Chemical formulas If there is a parenthesis applies to everything inside it.Fe2 ( S O4 ) 3Fe: iron S:sulphur, O:oxygen2 atoms Fe3 x 1 = 3 atoms S3 x 4 = 12 atoms O
13PRACTISE: Count the number of atoms in a chemical formula KClNa2OBe(OH)2P2O5Li2SO4Ni(BrO3)2Ca3(PO4)22 Co2O33 C5H10
14PRACTISE: Count the number of atoms in a chemical formula KClNa2OBe(OH)2P2O5Li2SO4Ni(BrO3)2Ca3(PO4)22 Co2O33 C5H10H2 : 2 atoms HKCl : 1 atom K, 1 atom ClNa2O : 2 atoms Na, 1 atom OBe(OH)2 : 1 atom Be, 2 atoms O, 2 atoms HP2O5: 2 atoms P, 5 atoms OLi2SO4 : 2 atoms Li, 1 atom S, 4 atoms ONi(BrO3)2 : 1 atom Ni, 2 atoms Br, 6 atoms OCa3(PO4)2 : 3 atoms Ca, 2 atoms P, 8 atoms O2 Co2O3 : 4 atoms Co, 6 atoms O3 C5H10 : 15 atoms C, 30 atoms H
15Symbols Used in Equations Solid (s)Liquid (l)Gas (s)Aqueous solution (aq)Escaping gas ()Precipitating solid ()
16Balancing EquationsWhen balancing a chemical reaction you may add coefficients in front of the compounds to balance the reaction, but you may not change the sub-indexs.Changing the sub-indexs changes the compound.
17Subindexs vs. Coefficients The sub-indexs tell you how many atoms of a particular element are in a compound. The coefficient tells you about the quantity, or number, of molecules of the compound.
18Chemical Equations 4 Al(s) + 3 O2(g) ---> 2 Al2O3(s) This equation means4 Al atoms + 3 O2 molecules ---produces--->2 molecules of Al2O3
19Steps to Balancing Equations There are four basic steps to balancing a chemical equation.Write the correct formula for the reactants and the products. DO NOT TRY TO BALANCE IT YET! You must write the correct formulas first. And most importantly, once you write them correctly DO NOT CHANGE THE FORMULAS!Find the number of atoms for each element on the left side. Compare those against the number of the atoms of the same element on the right side.Determine where to place coefficients in front of formulas so that the left side has the same number of atoms as the right side for EACH element in order to balance the equation.Check your answer to see if:The numbers of atoms on both sides of the equation are now balanced.The coefficients are in the lowest possible whole number ratios. (reduced)
20Some Suggestions to Help You Take one element at a time, working left to right except for H and O. Save H for next to last, and O until last.IF everything balances except for O, and there is no way to balance O with a whole number, double all the coefficients and try again. (Because O is diatomic as an element)
22Balancing Equations 2 2 ___ H2(g) + ___ O2(g) ---> ___ H2O(l) What Happened to the Other Oxygen Atom?????This equation is not balanced!Two hydrogen atoms from a hydrogen molecule (H2) combines with one of the oxygen atoms from an oxygen molecule (O2) to form H2O. Then, the remaining oxygen atom combines with two more hydrogen atoms (from another H2 molecule) to make a second H2O molecule.
23Balancing Equations23___ Al (s) + ___ Br2(l) ---> ___ Al2Br6(s)