Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Techniques and Applications

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Techniques and Applications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Techniques and Applications
Technical Illustration Techniques and Applications PowerPoint by Anthony J. Panozzo Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois

2 Publication Design and Production
Chapter 14 Publication Design and Production

3 Learning Objectives Outline the production steps involved in creating a printed product. Use design principles and elements to produce effective page designs. Explain manual and electronic layout techniques. Identify common hard copy output devices and explain how their uses vary.

4 Introduction It is important for technical illustrators to have an understanding of the production and printing process. Electronic page layout may be a part of the illustrator’s duties. Interaction with others involved in printing requires the ability to communicate effectively. The type of illustration produced often depends on the printing format available.

5 Production Steps Exact steps tend to vary.
The process applies to a variety of printed products. Manuals and catalogs Newspapers Brochures Books Newsletters A general process can normally be used.

6 Production Steps Image design Image generation and assembly
Image carrier preparation Image transfer (printing) Product finishing

7 Image Design Quality is critical for success of the product.
Identify the purpose and audience first. Sketching begins with thumbnail sketches. At least four are made. A grid sheet or computer is used. Sketches are made full size with a computer. For manual sketches, fold a sheet representing the final size in half for both length and width to establish four smaller drawing areas.

8 Thumbnail Sketches

9 Image Design A rough layout is created from thumbnails.
The full size of the final product is shown. The effectiveness of the design is determined. A comprehensive layout is created from the rough layout. Color, images, and text are shown together. The design can be shown to the customer for approval.

10 Comprehensive Layout (Pioneer Graphics)

11 Image Generation and Assembly
Text and images are arranged according to the design. Also referred to as the layout stage. Manual or electronic methods are used. An original of the product results.

12 Image Generation and Assembly
(Xyvision, Inc.)

13 Image Carrier Preparation
Used for products requiring multiple printed copies. The printing device uses the image carrier to print. A plate is used in offset lithographic printing.

14 Lithographic Plate (A.B. Dick)

15 Image Transfer Represents the actual printing process.
A printing plate is mounted on a press in offset lithography. Ink transfers from the image area to the paper.

16 Offset Lithographic Press
(AM International, Inc.)

17 Product Finishing Steps are applied to arrange printed sheets into the final product. There are common operations. Paper cutting and trimming Folding Binding Cover packaging Adding inserts

18 Principles and Elements of Design
Reader attention should be drawn while adhering to the rules of a specific design. Exact approaches to design vary among different publications. Book design differs from newspaper design. Publications of one type have different characteristics but a common appearance. Newspapers have headlines and columns of text.

19 Principles and Elements of Design
General principles are followed to create a successful product. Many different types of publications are composed of similar elements. The intention is to attract an audience and communicate a message.

20 Design Principles A pleasing design should result.
Rules may vary depending on the desired outcome. Standard guidelines should be followed. Proportion Balance Emphasis Contrast Rhythm Unity

21 Proportion The design should be sized correctly in relation to the sheet size. Determine sizing when creating thumbnails. A square sheet size requires an overall 1:1 design ratio. An 8 1/2  11 sheet size requires an overall 8.5:11 design ratio. The golden section ratio may be useful. 1:1.618

22 Proportion Different elements in a design should be sized correctly in relation to each other. Heads should be larger than body copy. Elements within an illustration on the page should have an appropriate size ratio.

23 Balance Elements of the design should project a sense of equilibrium.
Balance may be formal or informal. Formal balance refers to a symmetrical design. Informal balance refers to an asymmetrical design. Horizontal and vertical balance are equally important. Placing a design above the mathematical center of the sheet (the optical center) is common.

24 Formal Balance Used when a more conservative design is the goal.
Commonly used in invitations and announcements.

25 Informal Balance Used when a more modern appearance is the goal.
Commonly used for designs related to new products.

26 Vertical Balance

27 Emphasis and Contrast One element tends to be dominant in the design.
Large newspaper headline Varying degrees of emphasis are applied to different elements. May be achieved with size, color, or shape. Contrast distinguishes the various elements and is commonly used to generate interest.

28 Emphasis and Contrast The highlighted clouds have the greatest emphasis. The viewer is directed to the center of the image. (WAM!NET, Inc.)

29 Rhythm Elements are repeated to suggest movement.
Ripples on water The effect is similar to repeated patterns in music.

30 Rhythm The repetition of the same object (the airplane) has a rhythmic effect. The flight pattern is simulated. (Macromedia FreeHand)

31 Unity A design must appear unified to be successful.
Elements should be in harmony so a pleasing whole exists. Contrast may be used but should not detract from the overall presentation.

32 Design Elements An image consists of several basic components.
Color Lines Shapes Texture Elements are combined to form entire objects and visual effects. Lines and dots may be used for shading.

33 Design Elements Each object has a different color and texture.
The basic shapes are spherical, conical, rectangular, and triangular.

34 Design Elements Standard terms are used to describe the common components of printed pages. Headers and footers Headlines and subheads Body copy Kickers, pull quotes, and sidebars Illustrations White space Graphic elements Cover page elements

35 Headers and Footers Used at the top and bottom of the page.
A header appears at the top. A footer appears at the bottom. Often used to indicate the page number. A running head is usually included. Used to indicate the chapter or section.

36 Headlines and Subheads
Commonly referred to as heads. Headlines provide major headings for text sections. Subheads break the material into smaller sections. Each head has a descriptor (Level 1, 2, etc.). A different typeface and point size may be used for each head (specifications are the same throughout the document).

37 Body Copy Used for the general text of the document.
Normally arranged in columns. Number of columns and widths may vary. A specific typeface and point size is used. Text is commonly 12-point serif. Several other settings are common. Line spacing (leading) Paragraph formatting (indents) Type alignment

38 Body Copy Type with left alignment is ragged right.
Type with evenly aligned left and right margins is justified. Space is added between words for uniform line lengths (words are hyphenated as needed). Used for a more formal appearance. Ragged right type may be easier to read. Conventions dictate type alignment used. A jump line is used when a newspaper or magazine story continues to another page.

39 Kickers, Pull Quotes, and Sidebars
Used to improve the design and generate interest. A kicker accompanies a headline. Used to summarize or clarify the message. A pull quote emphasizes a direct quote. A sidebar is a separate writing from the main text.

40 Pull Quote (Trek Bicycle Corp.)

41 Illustrations Normally placed near a reference in the text.
May be sized for one-column widths or extend over several columns. A boxed border or drop shadow may be used. Captions provide a summary of the content and may list the source of the image. A runaround surrounds the image with text.

42 Runaround Design (Fender Musical Instruments Corp.)

43 White Space Represents blank areas of a page.
Used to set off images and text. The correct amount should be visible so the design does not appear crowded. Enhances the presentation when used effectively.

44 Graphic Elements Ruled lines and borders are common.
Used thick or thin to set off portions of the design. A border may outline the entire page or a sidebar. Tinted backgrounds can be used with text. Reverse type may be applied.

45 Cover Page Elements Designed to represent the overall product and attract reader interest. Type and images are arranged for impact. The design should be unique but orderly. A nameplate is used for periodicals. Also called a flag. Includes the publication name, date, and cost. Designed for repeated use. A logo may be used for a company publication.

46 Preparing Images There are two primary types of images used in publications. Line images Continuous tone images Preparation methods include scaling, cropping, and electronic conversion.

47 Line Images Made up of uniform color.
Classification includes most technical drawings. Ink is used to define sharp, dark lines. Pencil is not dark enough or suitable for most reproduction work.

48 Continuous Tone Images
Made up of a series of tones. There are many types. Photographs Paintings Airbrushed illustrations Different shades of gray make up a black-and-white photo. Modification for printing is necessary because each tone requires its own pattern.

49 Continuous Tone Images
An original is scanned and converted into a halftone for printing. Dot patterns simulate the different tones. When printed, the dots blend and are barely visible. Dots are more closely spaced in darker areas. Dots are further apart in lighter areas.

50 Continuous Tone Image Dot Pattern

51 Scaling and Cropping Scaling reduces or enlarges an image proportionately. Most software programs provide scaling tools or commands. Photographic scaling occurs in manual layout. A proportion wheel is used to determine the percentage of reduction or enlargement.

52 Scaling and Cropping Cropping removes portions of an image from the edges. Unneeded material is “cut away” or cropped. The image may need to fit a smaller space. Cropping changes the height-to-width ratio of the image. Images are cropped before they are scaled. Electronic page composition programs provide cropping tools.

53 Scaling an Image Images are commonly reduced in size for printing.
A proportion wheel may be used to determine the scaling percentage in manual layout. (Jack Klasey)

54 Cropping an Image Images are commonly cropped to show greater detail.
Software tools in page composition programs are used to highlight the area to be kept. (Ford)

55 Image Conversion Required for manually created images in electronic layout. Scanners are most commonly used. Light is passed over the image and the amount reflected is determined. Colors and shades are converted to digital form. There are several types. Hand-held Flatbed Drum (used for highest quality) Film

56 Flatbed Scanner (Fuji Photo Film USA, Inc.)

57 Welcome to the Print Shop
A printed product begins with the page layout in electronic publishing. Images are created, converted, and laid out with the text. The document is printed and proofread in-house for corrections. For larger print jobs, electronic files are submitted to the printer for offset printing. Plates are made for high-quality printing on an offset lithographic press.

58 Welcome to the Print Shop
The printer outputs the electronic files for final approval. Changes are made if necessary. Printing plates are made from the files. Four plates are required in four-color (CMYK) printing. Plates carrying the images to be printed are mounted on an offset press. Printing occurs by the action of cylinders.

59 Welcome to the Print Shop
Offset lithography printing is also called planographic printing. The plate surface carrying the image is smooth. Ink is applied to the image area and dampening solution is applied to the nonimage area. Water in the nonimage area repels the ink. The mounted plate on one press cylinder transfers the image to a blanket cylinder. The image is again transferred (offset) from the blanket cylinder to the paper.

60 Welcome to the Print Shop
Offset printing commonly produces printed signatures. An entire section of pages is printed on one sheet. The sheet is folded and cut to make smaller pages. Finishing operations complete the process. Folding Cutting Binding

61 Welcome to the Print Shop
Binding methods vary and are selected based on the product. Several methods are common. Adhesive binding Mechanical binding Fasteners are used Sewn binding (most durable)

62 Hard Copy Output Devices
There are two primary types. Vector Raster The type used depends on the printing quality required. Each type has advantages and disadvantages.

63 Vector Output Devices Images are printed as a series of lines.
Very short lines are used for arcs and circles. The pen plotter is the most common type. Individual pens are used to print colors. Used for high-quality CAD line art when time is not a factor.

64 Vector Output Devices Pen plotters are classified as single-pen or multiple-pen. Single-pen plotters require pens to be changed manually. Multiple-pen plotters use a carriage to change pens. There are other pen plotter classifications. Flatbed Drum Microgrip

65 Pen Plotter Options Each pen may be assigned a separate color and line width. (Graphtec)

66 Controlling Vector Output
Guidelines relate to three areas. Line quality Color Lettering Time should be taken into account when considering the use of a vector device. Quality produced results in slower printing.

67 Controlling Vector Output
Use the correct pen type with the media selected to ensure line quality. Use liquid ink pens with drafting film. The pen speed may alter results. Colors may be light with excessive output speed. Darker colors may occur with slower output speeds.

68 Controlling Vector Output
Plot each color separately if necessary. Stop the plotter between colors to prevent bleeding. Use the correct pen width for each typeface. Use fine-point pens for higher-quality lettering.

69 Raster Output Devices Images are printed as a series of dots (pixels).
Pixels are arranged in rows. The number of pixels determines resolution. Resolution is commonly specified in dots per inch (dpi). Printing is normally faster in comparison to vector output.

70 Raster Output Devices There are several common types.
Electrostatic Thermal Laser Inkjet Raster-based printing is used by both printers and plotters. Plotters are used for large-format printing. Printers are used for smaller sheet sizes.

71 Electrostatic Plotters
Raster-based devices are similar to paper copiers. The image area of the paper receives a negative electrical charge. Positively charged toner is attracted to the image area. Toner is dried by heat. Color and single-color devices are used.

72 Thermal Plotters Heat is used to print the image.
The image is formed on chemically coated paper. Thermal transfer printing produces better plotting quality than direct thermal printing. A ribbon heated by a printhead transfers the image.

73 Laser Printers An electrostatic process is used.
A positive electrical charge is applied to a light-sensitive belt or drum. A laser scans the image onto the drum to create a negatively charged image area. Positively charged toner is attracted to the image area. Toner is transferred to the paper and heat-dried. Resolution ranges from 300 dpi to 1200 dpi. Used for fast printing.

74 Laser Printer (Hewlett-Packard Co.)

75 Inkjet Printers Ink is sprayed by nozzles or jets onto paper.
Printing is quick and inexpensive. Commonly used for color printing. Inkjet plotters are similar. Used for larger sheet sizes.

76 Inkjet Printer (Epson America, Inc.)

77 Inkjet Plotter (Roland DGA)

78 Controlling Raster Output
Line quality is important because images are made up of dots. The best fit of dots is used for line segments. Jagged lines may result. “Jaggies” are reduced as resolution increases. Change line thicknesses on the image when needed to compensate for printing variations.

79 Controlling Raster Output
Printing should be set at the same resolution as that of the original bitmap image. The dot pattern is approximated in the final printing. Ensure that printed fonts match what appears on screen. Use font utility software. Use a page description language (PostScript).

80 Questions List the five common production steps involved in creating a printed product. Image design, image generation and assembly, image carrier preparation, image transfer (printing), and product finishing. When is a comprehensive layout created during the course of developing a design? The comprehensive layout is created from the rough layout after the effectiveness of the design is determined.

81 Questions What type of image carrier is used in offset lithographic printing? A plate. What type of balance refers to a design with a symmetrical appearance? Formal balance. What design principle is applied when elements are repeated to mimic movement? Rhythm.

82 Questions What design elements are used at the top and bottom of a page to indicate a page number? Headers and footers. What types of heads break material within a large section into smaller sections? Subheads. What is a kicker? A line of text used to summarize or clarify the message of a headline.

83 Questions Most technical drawings can be classified as what type of image? A line image. What is the difference between scaling and cropping? Scaling reduces or enlarges an image proportionately. Cropping removes portions of an image away from the edges to eliminate unneeded material or orient an image for a smaller space.

84 Questions What computer devices are most commonly used to convert manually created images to electronic form? Scanners. How does image transfer occur in offset lithographic printing? By the action of cylinders on a press. After the mounted plate with ink transfers the image to a blanket cylinder, the image is again offset from the blanket cylinder to the paper.

85 Questions What are the two primary types of hard copy output devices?
Vector and raster. What type of output device uses individual pens to print colors in CAD drawings? A pen plotter. What type of printer forms images as series of dots by using nozzles or jets to spray ink? An inkjet printer.

86 Glossary Balance Body copy Border Captions
The sense of visual equilibrium in appearance. Body copy The text of a publication. Border A ruled line placed around an illustration or text. Captions Lines of text that summarize an illustration.

87 Glossary Comprehensive layout Contrast
A full-scale illustration with all colors, textures, text, and other features needed to develop an illustration as a production-ready piece. Contrast A design principle that is achieved when elements are varied to draw attention or provide meaning.

88 Glossary Cover page Cropping Drop shadow
The front page of a publication, designed to communicate what is inside and attract reader attention. Cropping The removal of material from one or more edges of an image to delete unneeded material. Drop shadow A second outline placed slightly off to the side of an illustration to create a shadow appearance.

89 Glossary Emphasis Footer Formal balance
A design principle that is used to make one part of a design stand out, or draw the most interest. Footer A design element appearing at the bottom of a page, used to identify the page number or information about the material being read. Formal balance Balance that occurs in symmetrical illustrations (one side is a mirror image of the other side).

90 Glossary Halftone Header
An image converted to a series of dots for printing purposes. Header A design element appearing at the top of a page, used to identify the page number or information about the material being read.

91 Glossary Headlines Image carrier
Headings on a page used to provide a general idea of what is being presented until the next major heading. Commonly referred to as heads. Image carrier A printing plate or intermediate used to print multiple copies of an image on a press or other printing device.

92 Glossary Informal balance Jump line
Balance that occurs when the opposing sides of an image are not identical but contain approximately the same number of lines or mass, or a balance of colors or textures. Jump line A line of text used to tell the reader where a newspaper or magazine story continues.

93 Glossary Kicker Layout stage Logo
A short phrase normally placed near a headline, used to summarize the text or provide clarification of the headline. Layout stage A phase of production in which image generation and assembly take place. Logo An identifying symbol for a company or business.

94 Glossary Nameplate Proportion
A graphic used on the front page of a publication to identify information such as the name of the publication, the date, and the cost. Also known as a flag. Proportion The size relationship of one part of an object to the size of the entire object.

95 Glossary Proportion wheel Pull quote Raster output devices
A device used to determine enlargements and reductions of an illustration. Pull quote A quote from a body of text that is set apart to promote interest in the design. Raster output devices Computer hardware devices that produce drawing and text images as series of dots.

96 Glossary Reverse type Rhythm Rough layout
White type set against a colored background. Rhythm A design principle that is used to create a sense of movement or repetition. Rough layout A shaded sketch approximating the full size of the finished product with objects sketched in proportion and blocked areas representing text.

97 Glossary Ruled lines Runaround Running head
Thick or thin lines used to separate parts of a page in a design. Runaround An arrangement for text so it follows the outline of an irregularly shaped illustration. Running head An identifier used to inform the reader of the chapter or section currently being read.

98 Glossary Scaling Scanners Sidebar
Reducing or enlarging an illustration proportionately for layout purposes. Scanners Imaging devices used to convert printed images to electronic form. Sidebar A small article placed on the side of a page that relates to the main article.

99 Glossary Subheads Texture Thumbnail sketches
Headings used to organize the material under a headline into a smaller section. Texture In a design, an optical simulation of a physical surface texture. Thumbnail sketches Rough draft sketches drawn to record a visual thought or design concept.

100 Glossary Unity Vector output devices White space
A design principle achieved when many different elements are combined into an organized layout, creating a pleasing whole. Vector output devices Computer devices that produce drawing and text images as series of straight lines. White space The blank areas of a page set off from images and text.

Download ppt "Techniques and Applications"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google