Presentation on theme: "History and Progression of the Profession of Orientation & Mobility"— Presentation transcript:
1History and Progression of the Profession of Orientation & Mobility Chapter 14History and Progression of the Profession of Orientation & Mobility
2Early Professional Devlopments Gloucester Conference (1953) - - Father Thomas Carroll – discussed the need for trained personnel outside the VAU.S. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation (1958) – identified education of O&M specialists as 2nd highest priority in field of VI.National Conference on O&M (1959)identified 3 main needs:Selection of O&M personnelLength of preparation – one year graduate studyCurriculumTechniques and practice of O&MDynamics of human behavior as it relates to blindnessFunctions of the human bodyStudy of the sensesCultural and psychological implications of blindness
3Development of University Programs Federal grants provided funding for the first University O&M programsBoston College (1960)Western Michigan (1961)1962 – VRA awarded 30 grants in 22 states. Paid salaries of O&M’s in the field from these two programs.1966 – Demand for university trained O&M’s was so high, another conference was held. More grants awarded.SFA (1972)Currently 21 programs in the world (19 in USA, 1 in Canada, 1 in NZ)
4The Shift to Distance Education Done, simply, because:It’s more cost-effectiveIt puts more people in the field in a shorter amount of timeIs it effective?Time has proven that the individual, not the service delivery model, is the determining factor in educational effectiveness.
6Development of Agency Standards COMSTAC report – (Commission on Standards and Accreditation of Services for the Blind – 1966).Recommended:formulation of standards for agency administration and service programsAn organization to administer a nationwide system of voluntary accreditation based on these standardsLed to certification of O&M specialistsNAC – National Accreditation Council was createdRecommended to agencies seeking accreditation employ certified O&M specialists.
7Code of EthicsAppendix A of Foundations, Volume 1 contains the current code of ethics
8Standardization of Preparation and Certification University Program review (National/international)Functional Abilities Assessment (No longer used)Included:Corrected vision of 20/20 in each eye with no field restrictions or evidence of a progressive loss (later changed to 20/40 to reflect drivers license standards)Good physical healthAbility to monitor a student up to 375 feet away (Now 6-20 feet)Assessing various travel situation that included scanning and perceiving an environmental configuration of no less than 300 degrees within 3 secondsTracking and describing traffic in a lighted intersection during typical rush-hour trafficACVREP (2000)ExamCertificationRe-certificationNOMC/NBPCB
9Issues OMA’s – teaching O&M to individuals without visual impairments Visual occlusion during O&M instructionInstruction for street crossings at signalized intersectionsGroup or individual lessons
10Future Issues Licensure and state certification Third-party reimbursement (federal and state insurance plans)Medicare reimbursement