Presentation on theme: "Early Professional Devlopments Gloucester Conference (1953) - - Father Thomas Carroll – discussed the need for trained personnel outside the VA U.S."— Presentation transcript:
Early Professional Devlopments Gloucester Conference (1953) - - Father Thomas Carroll – discussed the need for trained personnel outside the VA U.S. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation (1958) – identified education of O&M specialists as 2 nd highest priority in field of VI. National Conference on O&M (1959) identified 3 main needs: Selection of O&M personnel Length of preparation – one year graduate study Curriculum Techniques and practice of O&M Dynamics of human behavior as it relates to blindness Functions of the human body Study of the senses Cultural and psychological implications of blindness
Development of University Programs Federal grants provided funding for the first University O&M programs Boston College (1960) Western Michigan (1961) 1962 – VRA awarded 30 grants in 22 states. Paid salaries of O&M’s in the field from these two programs. 1966 – Demand for university trained O&M’s was so high, another conference was held. More grants awarded. SFA (1972) Currently 21 programs in the world (19 in USA, 1 in Canada, 1 in NZ)
The Shift to Distance Education Done, simply, because: It’s more cost-effective It puts more people in the field in a shorter amount of time Is it effective? Time has proven that the individual, not the service delivery model, is the determining factor in educational effectiveness.
Development of Agency Standards COMSTAC report – (Commission on Standards and Accreditation of Services for the Blind – 1966). Recommended: formulation of standards for agency administration and service programs An organization to administer a nationwide system of voluntary accreditation based on these standards Led to certification of O&M specialists NAC – National Accreditation Council was created Recommended to agencies seeking accreditation employ certified O&M specialists.
Code of Ethics Appendix A of Foundations, Volume 1 contains the current code of ethics
Standardization of Preparation and Certification University Program review (National/international) Functional Abilities Assessment (No longer used) Included: Corrected vision of 20/20 in each eye with no field restrictions or evidence of a progressive loss (later changed to 20/40 to reflect drivers license standards) Good physical health Ability to monitor a student up to 375 feet away (Now 6-20 feet) Assessing various travel situation that included scanning and perceiving an environmental configuration of no less than 300 degrees within 3 seconds Tracking and describing traffic in a lighted intersection during typical rush-hour traffic ACVREP (2000) Exam Certification Re-certification NOMC/NBPCB
Issues OMA’s – teaching O&M to individuals without visual impairments Visual occlusion during O&M instruction Instruction for street crossings at signalized intersections Group or individual lessons
Future Issues Licensure and state certification Third-party reimbursement (federal and state insurance plans) Medicare reimbursement