Presentation on theme: "History and Progression of the Profession of Orientation & Mobility"— Presentation transcript:
1 History and Progression of the Profession of Orientation & Mobility Chapter 14History and Progression of the Profession of Orientation & Mobility
2 Early Professional Devlopments Gloucester Conference (1953) - - Father Thomas Carroll – discussed the need for trained personnel outside the VAU.S. Office of Vocational Rehabilitation (1958) – identified education of O&M specialists as 2nd highest priority in field of VI.National Conference on O&M (1959)identified 3 main needs:Selection of O&M personnelLength of preparation – one year graduate studyCurriculumTechniques and practice of O&MDynamics of human behavior as it relates to blindnessFunctions of the human bodyStudy of the sensesCultural and psychological implications of blindness
3 Development of University Programs Federal grants provided funding for the first University O&M programsBoston College (1960)Western Michigan (1961)1962 – VRA awarded 30 grants in 22 states. Paid salaries of O&M’s in the field from these two programs.1966 – Demand for university trained O&M’s was so high, another conference was held. More grants awarded.SFA (1972)Currently 21 programs in the world (19 in USA, 1 in Canada, 1 in NZ)
4 The Shift to Distance Education Done, simply, because:It’s more cost-effectiveIt puts more people in the field in a shorter amount of timeIs it effective?Time has proven that the individual, not the service delivery model, is the determining factor in educational effectiveness.
5 Professional Associations AAWB :Division IX (O&M interest group) 1964AAIB :AEVH :AER : 1984 –
6 Development of Agency Standards COMSTAC report – (Commission on Standards and Accreditation of Services for the Blind – 1966).Recommended:formulation of standards for agency administration and service programsAn organization to administer a nationwide system of voluntary accreditation based on these standardsLed to certification of O&M specialistsNAC – National Accreditation Council was createdRecommended to agencies seeking accreditation employ certified O&M specialists.
7 Code of EthicsAppendix A of Foundations, Volume 1 contains the current code of ethics
8 Standardization of Preparation and Certification University Program review (National/international)Functional Abilities Assessment (No longer used)Included:Corrected vision of 20/20 in each eye with no field restrictions or evidence of a progressive loss (later changed to 20/40 to reflect drivers license standards)Good physical healthAbility to monitor a student up to 375 feet away (Now 6-20 feet)Assessing various travel situation that included scanning and perceiving an environmental configuration of no less than 300 degrees within 3 secondsTracking and describing traffic in a lighted intersection during typical rush-hour trafficACVREP (2000)ExamCertificationRe-certificationNOMC/NBPCB
9 Issues OMA’s – teaching O&M to individuals without visual impairments Visual occlusion during O&M instructionInstruction for street crossings at signalized intersectionsGroup or individual lessons
10 Future Issues Licensure and state certification Third-party reimbursement (federal and state insurance plans)Medicare reimbursement