Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Problems in the Media This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Problems in the Media This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Problems in the Media This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Chapter outline Media concentration Convergence Global Issues Media Industries Violence Racial and Ethnic Stereotyping Gender Stereotyping Media Effects Symbolic Interactionist Functionalist Conflict Sociological Perspectives

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Media Industries Media industries are media businesses that influence people and cultures worldwide Media industries own interests in a variety of areas Radio and television production and broadcasting Motion pictures, movie theaters, and music companies Newspaper, periodical, and book publishing Internet services and content providers Average person in U.S. spends more than ½ of their waking hours in a media-related activity.

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010

5 Technology and the media Media became more influential as technology changed. Newspapers were traditional form of media but gave way to: Radio as the media phenomenon of the 1920s Television as the phenomenon of the 1950s Computers, fiber optic cable, and broadcast satellites continue to change media today

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Media Ownership and Control Since the 1960s media ownership has become more concentrated. Today a few mega corporations own most media businesses. Some companies own more than one form of media. Media concentration: tendency of media industries to cluster together in groups with the goal of enhancing profitability.

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Media Concentration Profit is the driving force in media concentration and has lead to the following changes: Concentration of ownership within one industry. One company owns multiple newspapers Cross-media ownership Companies own more than one kind of media Conglomerate ownership: Corporation owns companies that operate in different business sector. Vertical Integration: Company making the media also distributes it

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010

9 Problems with Convergence Supporters say: Convergence is profitable for investors and media executives Critics believe: Limits news and entertainment by reducing message pluralism Decline of journalism as a public service profession Constant pressure for journalistic endeavors to be profitable Decrease in quantity and quality of international news available in the U.S. Quashing of public debate about power of media industries Increase of D.C. lobbyists representing interests of media giants

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Global Media Concentration A few media giants control most of the world’s information. Time Warner, Sony, Viacom, Disney, NBC Universal, and News Corporation People in other nations criticize how media conglomerates depict nations around the globe. Such images (often negative) influence the politics and cultures of other nations. Fear of replacing others values with U.S. beliefs

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Violence in the Media Most scholars do not believe media causes aggressive behavior A number of scholars assert that gratuitous violence is used to sell media-related commodities Violent television shows make up 60% of all television programming Some studies show a relationship between short-term aggressive behavior and media depictions of violence Other studies suggest media may prevent violence by providing people with an emotional outlet (cathartic effect hypothesis)

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Violence Against Women Advertising often uses semi-pornographic images to sell products Bondage, sadomasochism, and the sexual exploitation of children (Kilbourne 1999) Contributes to the view of women as sex objects Leads to gender inequality Sex is used to sell products

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Racial and Ethnic Stereotyping Stereotype: Over-generalization about the characteristics of a group Media perpetuates racial stereotypes by: Casting some groups as having superior traits Exaggerating people’s physical appearance Suggesting all people in a category look alike Creating racial or ethnic characters who have undesirable attributes Linking subordinate racial or ethnic groups to illegal actions

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Racial and Ethnic Stereotyping, cont. Why does it persist in the media? Offensive material brings more media coverage and can turn an average show into an overnight success. Used for comic effect Having characters with divergent attributes makes it easier to create controversy.

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Gender Stereotyping in the Media Studies have found several gender stereotypes in the media Introducing gender-specific age bias in casting Older men and younger women are often shown together Perpetuating traditional roles for women Women as thin, only beautiful, and sexually passive Impulsive conduct of professional women Shown constantly shopping, drinking/smoking, bizarre behavior Women abusing power Women overwhelmed by their work

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sociological Perspectives on Media Interactionist: Theory of limited effects Media have a minimal effect on people’s attitudes and perceptions Use and gratification theory People are active participants and decide what they will watch, listen to, read, or surf on the Internet Social learning theory People are likely to act out behavior from media sources Audience relations approach People interpret what they see and hear through cultural filters

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sociological Perspectives on Media, cont. Functionalist: Media fulfill several important functions in society Providing news and information Facilitating public discourse on social issues and policies Passing on cultural traditions and historical perspective Entertaining people Confer status on individuals and organizations Media is dysfunctional when they contribute to reduction in social instability or weaken institutions

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sociological Perspectives on Media, cont. Conflict: Members of the capitalist class own and control the media. They use the media to validate existing class relations Hegemony theory sees media as form of social control used by ruling classes to create “false consciousness” in the working classes Media tells people what to think before people have had a chance to think about an issue themselves


Download ppt "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Problems in the Media This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google