Presentation on theme: "Evolution of Language: Michael Corballis – from hand to mouth"— Presentation transcript:
1Evolution of Language: Michael Corballis – from hand to mouth Infamous incident: 1866 The Linguistic Society of Paris banned all discussion of the evolution of language.Logic: Language was believed to be uniquely human, no evidence of it could therefore be deduced from animal studies nor the fossil record so all “theories” of language evolution were mere speculation, not science.Contention remains even todayBickerton and Chomsky – language is evolutionarily “discontinuous.”Pinker and Bloom – language as gradual product of evolution
2Evolution of LanguageRecent findings have largely vindicated an evolutionary approachVervet monkey alarm calls – animal signals as referential (symbolic?)Kanzi studies
3Evolution of LanguageFaculties of Language (Hauser, Fitch & Chomsky, 2002).Broad sense: communicative capacities shared with animals (reference, simple syntax, etc.)Narrow sense: recursionRecursion: The ability to “embed” concepts as routines within each other.“This is the cat that worried the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built.”
4Washoe Koko Nim Chimpsky Ape Language StudiesWashoe Koko Nim ChimpskyFouts/Gardners Francine Patterson Herb Terrace
5Kanzi: The talking Bonobo Sue Savage-Rumbaugh Lexigram symbol languageSimple syntaxSpontaneous acquisitionReferential/symbolic understanding90% utterances: requests/commands
6Ape language studies Lesson: At best this is Protolanguage. Protolanguage: language without complex syntax, recursion, past/future tense (“grammar”)Is protolanguage a precursor to “real” language or indicative of a general problem solving ability? – combining symbols to get a reward similar to Sultan combining crates to get food.
7Proto to “real” language? Evidence of protolanguage to “real” language evolutionPidgin to creole studiesEvidence from ontogeny
8Brain EvolutionMajor increase in brain size around 2mybp with emergence of HomoCorresponds roughly to deactivation of MYH16 gene which controls jaw muscle growth (2.4mybp)Corresponds to evidence of mutation in brain regulator gene CMAH, releasing a constraint on brain size (2.1 mybp).Direct selection pressure for these may have been living in more open territory requiring increased group sizes and cooperation.
9Hominin EvolutionAustralopiths: mybp bipedal apes, no evidence of requisite cognitive abilities for languageFirst stone tools – Oldowan Industry 2.5mybp; increased motor control but not cognitionAcheulean Industry and emergence of Homo erectus ( mybp); more human than ape Composite tools and syntax
10Life History Life history as critical to language evolution Slower post-natal growth period may allow developmental time for language acquisition.Later Homo species (antecessor; heidelbergensis, kybp) marks a transition to a more “human-like” pattern of prolonged post-natal development and increased altriciality in infancy.Elfman’s computer simulation studies: “growth” factor required with degraded “global” inputs for machine to learn grammatical systems.
11Language from GestureSpeech should not be consider totality of language; facial expressions, bodily gestures play important semantic role in linguistic communicationSign language shows all important defining features of languagePrimates have far greater voluntary control over limb movements than vocalizations.
12Speech as gestural system, not acoustic one Speech as gestureSpeech as gestural system, not acoustic oneCoarticulation problem: Phonemes exist in the mind, not in acoustic signal.Articulatory phonology: Speech as fundamentally a set of articulatory gestures from mouth, tongue, face, and body.
13Mirror Neurons: connecting perception and production Role of mirror neurons: neurons in premotor cortex that respond not just to action but to watching an action. Neural link between perception and production of action. Mirror neurons located in area F5 of monkey brain which appears to be analogous to Broca’s area in human brain – close connection between perception/control of motor movements and evolution of speech.
14From Grooming to Gossip: Origins of vocal language As hominin group sizes increased, talking replaced grooming as “social glue”
15Fossil Evidence: Late emergence of articulate speech Evolution of hypoglossal canal: pathway for the hypoglossal nerve (from medulla through hgc to tongue) which is critical for control of tongue. Early hominins had hgc in great ape range, not until Neandertals and Homo sapiens is hgc in modern range.
16Erectus vertebrae from Asia (l) and Africa Fossil evidenceThoracic spinal pathway: important for control of breathing. Again, not in range until Neandertals.Erectus vertebrae from Asia (l) and Africa
17FOXP2: Gene for articulation? Role of the FOXP2 gene: may be important for speech articulation. Important mutation in FOXP2 appears to have arisen sometime between 100,000 – 10,000 ybp. Possibility that “click” languages found in some Africa traditional societies and (extinct) aboriginal Australian represent a way of adding sound to facial gesture prior to FOXP2 mutation.
18Fossil evidenceShortening of the sphenoid: central bone of cranial base from which face grows. Flattened face may play important role in speech articulation by improving symmetry of vocal tract. Not present in Neandertals, only unique to Homo sapiens branch.
19Fossil evidenceNeocranial globularity: unique to Homo sapiens; roundness of skull that allows for relative increases in frontal/temporal region of brain (Broca; Wernike areas).
20Some language but how much? Neanderthal languageSome language but how much?
21Summary Advantages of speech over gesture-based language: Frees hands for tool use and manufactureMay allow for greater working memory capacity and therefore more complex expressionsLess attentionally demandingEvolutionary scenario:2mybp: emergence of simple grammar, associated with bigger brains (protolanguage),000 move from proto to real language with FOXP2 mutation, extended infant/childhood maturation periodPossibly not complete until arrival of H. sapiens