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1 Chapter 14: After-Tax Investment Analysis & Corporate Real Estate (Own vs Rent) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Chapter 14: After-Tax Investment Analysis & Corporate Real Estate (Own vs Rent) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Chapter 14: After-Tax Investment Analysis & Corporate Real Estate (Own vs Rent) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

2 2 Going from the “property before-tax cash flows” (PBTCF), to the “equity after-tax cash flows” (EATCF)... 1) Property level (PBTCF): Net CF produced by property, before subtracting debt svc pmts (DS) and inc. taxes. Net CF produced by property, before subtracting debt svc pmts (DS) and inc. taxes. CFs to Govt, Debt investors (mortgagees), equity owners. CFs to Govt, Debt investors (mortgagees), equity owners. CFs due purely to underlying productive physical asset, not based on financing or income tax effects. CFs due purely to underlying productive physical asset, not based on financing or income tax effects. Relatively easy to observe empirically. Relatively easy to observe empirically. 2) Equity ownership after-tax level (EATCF): Net CF avail. to equity owner after DS & taxes. Net CF avail. to equity owner after DS & taxes. Determines value of equity only (not value to lenders). Determines value of equity only (not value to lenders). Sensitive to financing and income tax effects. Sensitive to financing and income tax effects. Usually difficult to observe empirically (differs across investors). Usually difficult to observe empirically (differs across investors). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

3 3 3 MAJOR DIFFERENCES between PBTCF & EATCF levels: Depreciation: An expense that reduces income tax cash outflows, but not itself a cash outflow at the before-tax level. (IRS income tax rules for property income based on accrual accounting, not cash flow accounting.) Capital expenditures: Not an accrual “expense” (because adds to asset value, “asset”  life > 1 yr), hence not deducted from taxable income, even though they are a cash outflow. Debt principal amortization: Like capex, a cash outflow, but not deductible from taxable income. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

4 EXHIBIT 14-1A Equity- After-Tax Cash Flows from Operations © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.4

5 EXHIBIT 14-1B Computation of CGT in Reversion Cash Flow © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.5

6 6 Another perspective: (“Cash Flow Components”…) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

7 7 Another perspective: Glossary: PBTCF = Property Before-Tax Cash Flow DS = Debt Service IE = Interest Expense PP = Principal Payback EBTCF = Equity Before-Tax Cash Flow tax = Income Tax Owed (and payable), on operating income. NOI = Net Operating Income DE = Depreciation Expense DTS = Depreciation Tax Shield ITS = Interest Tax Shield EATCF = Equity After-Tax Cash Flow Glossary: OLB = Outstanding Loan Balance CGT = Capital Gains Tax SE = Selling Expenses (to sell asset) V 0 = Original Purchase Price (for asset) V T = Current Selling Price (for asset) Glossary: AccCI = Accumulated Capital Improvement Expenditures AccDE = Accumulated Depreciation Expenses τ, τ G, τ R = Tax rates: Ordinary Income, Capital Gains, Recapture © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

8 8 Depreciation Expense: Straight-line  39 years, commercial  27.5 years, residential (apts) Land not depreciable:  (typic. 20% in Midwest, South)  (often 50% in big E. & W. Coast cities) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

9 9 Exhibit 14-2 © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

10 10NOI = $60,000, 1 st yr. - Depr.Exp. = $800,000/27.5 = $29,091, ea. yr. - Int.Exp. = $750,000*5.5% = $41,250, 1 st yr. =Net Income (BT) = = -$10, IncTax = (.35)(-10341) = - $3,619, 1 st yr. =Net Income (AT) = (-3619) = - $6,722, 1 st yr. Adjusting Accrual to Reflect Cash Flow: - Cap. Imprv. Expdtr. = - $0, 1 st yr. + Depr.Exp. = + $29,091, ea. yr. -DebtAmort = - $2,000, ea. yr (this loan). =EATCF = ( ) = $20,369, 1 st yr. + IncTax = +(-$3,619) = -$3,619, 1 st y r. =EBTCF = = $16,750, 1 st yr. Year 1 projection, Operating Cash Flow (details): © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

11 11 Sale Price = V T - SE = NOI 11 /.06 - SE = 1.01*$65,621/0.06 – 0 = $1,104,620 - Book Val = - (V 0 + AccCI - AccDE) = - ( – ) = - $809,091 =Book Gain = – = $295,531 Inclu – ( ) = 4620 Gain, Recapture Inclu – ( ) = 4620 Gain, Recapture - CGT = (.15)(4620) + (.25)(290910) = -$73,421 =Gain (AT) = – = $222,111 Adjusting Accrual to Reflect Cash Flow: + Book Val = + $809,091 -LoanBal = - ( – 10*2000) = -$730,000 =EATCF = – = $301,202 + CGT = + $73,421 =EBTCF = = $374,622 Reversion Cash Flow, Year 10 (details): © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

12 12 Another perspective: (“Cash Flow Components”…) PBTCF = NOI – CI = 60,000 – 0 = 60,000. IE = OLB*int = 750,000*.055 = 41,250. PP = amort = 2,000 (given exogenous). DS = IE + PP = 41, ,000 = 43, EBTCF = PBTCF – DS = 60,000 – 43,250 = 16,750. TaxRate*NOI =.35*60000 = 21,000. DTS =.35*800000/27.5 = 10,182. ITS = TaxRate*IE =.35*41250 = 14, EATCF = EBTCF – tax = 16,750 – (21000 – – 14,438) = 16,750 – (21000 – – 14,438) = – (21000 – 24619) = – (21000 – 24619) = – (-3619) = 20,369 = EATCF Yr 1 operating. = – (-3619) = 20,369 = EATCF Yr 1 operating. Reversion EBTCF: = SaleProceeds – OLB = 1,104,620 – 730,000 = 374,622 = EBTCF. CGT =.15*[ – 0 – ( )] +.25*(10*800000/27.5) =.15* * = = 73,421 = CGT. =.15* * = = 73,421 = CGT. Reversion EATCF = EBTCF – CGT = – = 301,202 = EATCF. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

13 13 Exhibit : Cash Flow Components: Recall our previous apt property investment… © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

14 14 Here are the example property’s cash flows by component… Exhibit 14-3: RiskyRisklessNet + © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

15 15 10-yr Going-in IRR: Property (Unlvd) Equity (Levd) Before-tax6.04%7.40% After-tax4.34%6.44% AT/BT 434/604 = 72% 644/740 = 87%  Effective Tax Rate With ord inc=35%, CGT=15%, Recapt=25%. 100% – 72% = 28% 100% - 87% = 13% Projected Total Return Calculations: (Based on $1,000,000 price…) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

16 16 Does the lower effective tax rate on levered equity imply that borrowing is profitable (in the sense of NPV>0)? Recall from Chapter 13: Leverage increases expected total return, Leverage increases expected total return, But it also increases risk. But it also increases risk. Risk increases proportionately to risk premium in E[r]. Risk increases proportionately to risk premium in E[r]. Hence E[RP] / Unit of Risk remains constant. Hence E[RP] / Unit of Risk remains constant. Hence, NPV(borrowing)=0 (No “free lunch”). Hence, NPV(borrowing)=0 (No “free lunch”). This holds true after-tax as well as before-tax (at least for marginal investors – those with tax rates typical of marginal investors in the debt market). This holds true after-tax as well as before-tax (at least for marginal investors – those with tax rates typical of marginal investors in the debt market). (Do you believe in a “free lunch”?...) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

17 17 In equilibrium, the linear relationship (RP proportional to risk)  must hold after- tax for marginal investors in the relevant asset market. (See Ch.12, sect.12.1.) Lower effective tax rate on levered equity does not imply any “free lunch”... rfrfrfrf RP © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

18 Technically, the line in this graph is not a “Security Market Line” (SML), because an SML reflects the market equilibrium, and after-tax returns are based on Investment Value (IV) not Market Value (MV). There isn’t really a market as such for after-tax returns per se (directly), as these are individually based and not necessarily tradable. Although IV=MV on the margin, the same investors may not be “marginal” at different leverage ratios. 18 Using these returns from our apartment bldg example, we could have this linear relationship  Lower effective tax rate in levered return does not imply that risk premium per unit of risk is greater with leverage than without. 6.4% = r L AT 4.3% = r U AT 2% = r f AT RP © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

19 After-Tax Equity Valuation & Capital Budgeting After-Tax DCF in General: Discount Equity After-Tax Cash Flows (EATCF), Discount Equity After-Tax Cash Flows (EATCF), At Equity After-Tax Discount Rate (Levered), At Equity After-Tax Discount Rate (Levered), To arrive at PV of Equity. To arrive at PV of Equity. Add PV of Loan (cash borrower obtains), Add PV of Loan (cash borrower obtains), To arrive at Investment Value (IV) of property: To arrive at Investment Value (IV) of property: That’s the maximum price investor should pay (if they must): That’s the maximum price investor should pay (if they must): Don’t forget caution against paying more than MV (Recall sect re joint use of IV & MV): Don’t forget caution against paying more than MV (Recall sect re joint use of IV & MV):  Always consider MV, not just IV. After-Tax (AT) analysis generally applies to “Investment Value” (IV), while before-tax (BT) analysis applies to “Market Value” (MV). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

20 20 Although it makes theoretical sense, there is a major practical problem with the EATCF/EATOCC approach described above: It is very difficult to empirically observe or to accurately estimate the appropriate levered equity after-tax opportunity cost of capital, E[r], the appropriate hurdle going-in IRR. Can observe market-based unlevered (property) going-in IRR, and adjust for leverage using WACC (as in Ch.13), but Can observe market-based unlevered (property) going-in IRR, and adjust for leverage using WACC (as in Ch.13), but WACC not accurate for long-term IRRs (Recall Ch.13: WACC exact for simple ratio return only), WACC not accurate for long-term IRRs (Recall Ch.13: WACC exact for simple ratio return only), And we still must account for the effective tax rate on the marginal investor (Recall Ch.12: Discount rate OCC even for investment value is market OCC, reflecting marginal investor’s after-tax OCC). And we still must account for the effective tax rate on the marginal investor (Recall Ch.12: Discount rate OCC even for investment value is market OCC, reflecting marginal investor’s after-tax OCC). This is a function not only of tax rates, but holding period and degree of leverage (of marginal investors). This is a function not only of tax rates, but holding period and degree of leverage (of marginal investors). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

21 21 e.g., In Ch.14’s apartment building example, If we did not already (somehow) know that $1,000,000 was the market value of the property, What would be the meaning of the 6.44% equity after-tax IRR expectation that we calculated? But if we already know the property market value, then what does the 6.44% equity after-tax IRR tell us, that matters?... How can we compare it to that offered by other alternative investments unless we know they are of the same risk (or we can quantify the risk difference in a way that can be meaningfully related to the required going- in IRR risk premium)? Have we gone to a lot of trouble to calculate a number (the equity after-tax going-in IRR) that has no rigorous use in decision making?... Fasten your seatbelts… The latter part of Chapter 14 is an attempt to bring some rigor into micro-level real estate investment valuation based on fundamental economic principles. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

22 Shortcut for Marginal Investors (& for Market Value): Ignore the equity after-tax level! Work with the Property Before-Tax (PBT) level cash flows and OCC (use only PBTCF & PBTOCC, Module 2). This always works for Market Value (MV) analysis, And also works for Investment Value (IV) analysis for marginal investors (those who are typically about equally on both the buy and sell side of the relevant asset market – recall Ch.12). In the above circumstances, The PBT approach is not only simpler, It is more accurate (fewer parameters to be estimated  less chance of estimation error). PBT Shortcut… © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

23 23 Exhibit 12-1: Relation between Investment Value (IV) and Market Value (MV) in a well-functioning asset market $ = Property prices (vertical axis). Q = Volume of investment transaction per unit of time. Q 0 = Volume of transactions by investors with more favorable circumstances, hence would enter market at less favorable prices (i.e., “intra-marginal” market participants, e.g., investors with different tax circumstances than marginal investors in the market). Q* = Total volume of property transactions, including marginal investment (investors on margin are indifferent between investing and not investing in property). Note: Prices, and hence market values (MV) are determined by the IV of the marginal investors (the investors for whom NPV=0 on both an IV and MV basis). BUYER IV SELLER IV ASSET PRICE=MV DSQ$Q* Q0Q0Q0Q0 Recall Ch.12: IV=MV for marginal investors… © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

24 24Transition… Suppose you want to analyze investment value (IV) and you’re not marginal (e.g., PF or C-corp) or you don’t know whether you are or not, or you want to develop a deeper understanding of what is driving your IV… Suppose you want to understand where the PBT shortcut comes from, why/how/when it is valid… More generally, how can you get around the aforementioned problem of empirical difficulty quantifying the correct levered equity after-tax OCC (EATOCC, the correct “hurdle” for the investment, where the Angus Cartwright “12%” came from, or should have come from)?... The simplest and theoretically most correct (and therefore most elegant) solution to this problem is to break the problem into two parts and analyze the property and the debt separately, and then put them back together: Value Additivity or APV. This also allows deeper analytical understanding of prop.mkt. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

25 25 Suppose a certain investor in bond mkt (call her Mary) faces effective income tax rate of 25% on her bond returns. And faces an after-tax OCC (from the capital mkt) of 3%. What will be the IV to this investor of a $100 (par) 4% perpetual bond (pays $4/yr forever)? Answer: Discount Mary’s after-tax cash flows, at the mkt-based after- tax OCC... Let’s now delve into more depth in the valuation of the debt component of the deal… After-Tax Valuation of Debt Financing First consider the debt part… After-tax valuation of debt: © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

26 26 Suppose Mary typifies the marginal investor in the bond mkt. What will be the MV of this bond? Answer: MV = IV (marginal investor) = IV M = $100. What will be the observed “mkt yield” in the bond mkt? Answer: Observable mkt returns are pre-tax, so: Mkt yield = going-in observed mkt price: = IRR(-100, 4, 4, 4,...) = 4%. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

27 27 MV = $100 = $4/0.04 = $3/0.03 = IV M D S Q L Q* Market for Taxed Debt Assets: Mkt Int.Rate = 4% Here is a picture of what we have just discovered about the bond market... L = PV of a Loan (Debt Asset). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

28 28 Note: We started out with the assumption that Mary was the marginal investor (her after-tax 3% OCC was mkt OCC). Suppose we didn’t know that she was the marginal investor. Or suppose that we didn’t know that the marginal investor faced an effective tax rate of 25%. How could we derive (from empirically observable data) that the market’s after-tax OCC is 3%? Answer: If there is a simultaneous market for tax-exempt bonds, and investors can trade between the two markets, then we can directly observe market after-tax OCCs as yields on tax- exempt (municipal) bonds. Find muni bonds of similar risk (duration & default) to the mortgage we’re evaluating. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

29 29 A shortcut is to derive effective margl tax rate of margl investor in bond mkt, and assume this tax rate applies to all investors in debt or debt-like assets… i.e., Compare yields across the two types of bond mkts (taxed & tax-exempt), back out what must be the effective tax rate of the marginal investor. In the previously described situation (4% yield in bond mkt, marginal investors face 25% tax rate), what will be the observed mkt yield in the municipal (tax-exempt) bond mkt? Answer: 3%, because 3% = (1-.25)4% = after-tax yield for marginal investors in bond mkt. Otherwise, what?... © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

30 30 If muni yield were > 3%, marginal investors in taxed (corp) bond mkt would sell corp bonds and buy munis, driving up muni price (driving down muni yield) until the 3/4 relationship in yields existed. If muni yield were < 3%, marginal investors in muni bond mkt would sell munis and buy corps, driving down muni price (driving up muni yield) until the 3/4 relationship in yields existed. Thus, ratio: muni yld / taxable bond yld = 1 – effective tax rate on margl investor in bond mkt.  Margl tax rate = 1 – muniYld/corpYld (For otherwise similar muni & corp bonds - LT like mortgs) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

31 31 Suppose Abner is a tax-advantaged investor compared to the marginal investor (Mary). Abner faces only 20% tax on bond returns. What is the IV of the 4% perpetual bond to Abner? Answer: Discount Abner’s after-tax cash flows, at the mkt-based after-tax OCC... Thus: IV A = $107 > $100 = MV = IV M. Which makes sense, to reflect Abner’s tax advantage compared to the market’s marginal investor who determines the price in the mkt. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

32 32 Suppose Clarence is a tax-disadvantaged investor compared to the marginal investor (Mary). Clarence faces 30% tax on bond returns. What is the IV of the 4% perpetual bond to Clarence? Answer: Discount Clarence’s after-tax cash flows, at the mkt-based after-tax OCC... Thus: IV C = $93 < $100 = MV = IV M. Which makes sense, to reflect Clarence’s tax disadvantage compared to the market’s marginal investor who determines the price in the mkt. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

33 33 IV A = $107 = $3.20/0.03 MV = $100 = $4/0.04 = $3/0.03 = IV M DSQLQ* Q0Q0Q0Q0 IV C = $93 = $2.80/0.03 Abner & Clarence are intra-marginal market participants in the bond mkt. Abner is an intra-marginal buyer. Clarence is an intra-marginal seller. Exhibit 14-5: Market for Taxed Debt Assets: Mkt Int.Rate = 4% © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

34 34 IV A = $107 = $3.20/0.03 MV = $100 = $4/0.04 = $3/0.03 = IV M DSQLQ* Q0Q0Q0Q0 IV C = $93 = $2.80/0.03 Market for Taxed Debt Assets: Mkt Int.Rate = 4% Trading occurs at the mkt price of $100 (4% yield). NPV(for Abner buying, based on his IV) = $107 - $100 = +$7. NPV(for Clarence selling, based on his IV) = $100 - $93 = +$7. Exhibit 14-7: © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

35 35 NPV IV of borrowing to finance real estate investment mkt interest rate, no subsidy): Even though the ITS have substantial value to all three investors, Borrowing is zero NPV for the marginal investor in bond mkt (Mary). Borrowing is negative NPV for the tax-advantaged investor (Abner). Borrowing is only positive NPV for the tax-disadvantaged investor (relative to the marginal investor in the bond mkt), And even for him (Clarence) the NPV of borrowing is much smaller than the PV of his ITS ($7 vs $40). (Note: All this is NPV based on IV. NPV based on MV is zero by defn in non-subsidized loan.) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

36 36 Why might each of these investors (Clarence, Mary, Abner) borrow to finance their real estate investment?... Clarence (alone) can justify the loan purely for the positive NPV in its tax shelter (with the caveat that it is not a large positive NPV). Clarence (alone) can justify the loan purely for the positive NPV in its tax shelter (with the caveat that it is not a large positive NPV). Clarence and Mary can justify the loan if they want leverage (to magnify risk & return in their R.E. investment, move out on the SML to reach a “target return” for example – Ch 13 stuff), but Abner can’t use this justification due to his NPV<0 (he should look for other ways to increase risk & return if he really wants to, such as buy diversified risky underlying assets without leverage). Clarence and Mary can justify the loan if they want leverage (to magnify risk & return in their R.E. investment, move out on the SML to reach a “target return” for example – Ch 13 stuff), but Abner can’t use this justification due to his NPV<0 (he should look for other ways to increase risk & return if he really wants to, such as buy diversified risky underlying assets without leverage). All three investors can justify the loan if they are capital constrained and the R.E. investment has a sufficient positive NPV. (For Clarence, the R.E. NPV can even be a bit negative.) For Abner, the positive R.E. NPV may result from his tax advantage (if he is also tax advantaged relative to the marginal investor in the R.E. asset mkt, not just relative to the marginal investor in the bond mkt). All three investors can justify the loan if they are capital constrained and the R.E. investment has a sufficient positive NPV. (For Clarence, the R.E. NPV can even be a bit negative.) For Abner, the positive R.E. NPV may result from his tax advantage (if he is also tax advantaged relative to the marginal investor in the R.E. asset mkt, not just relative to the marginal investor in the bond mkt). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

37 37 Value of the ITS: The amount of the ITS each year equals the income tax savings that year: the investor’s tax rate times the interest expense. The PV is found by discounting at the OCC… The ITS are worth more to the more heavily-taxed investor (Clarence), and for everyone they are worth a large fraction of the loan amount ($100). But what is the NPV of the borrowing transaction, to Mary, Abner, & Clarence?... © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

38 38 ITS valuation must be combined with rest of loan (liability apart from shield) to get NPV(financing): © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

39 39 Alternative approach (intuitive but wrong…): Use each investor’s “personalized” OCC (reflecting their own tax rate) as the discount rate in the denominators … Gives loan valuation IV identical by construction to loan valuation MV. (Negates concept of “IV” distinct from “MV”). Results by definition in NPV(financing) = 0 always. (Doesn’t make sense for tax-advantaged or tax-disadvantaged intra- marginal investors’ IV-based NPVs. Recall IV methodology “theory” proposed in Ch.12 (sect p.266): get discount rate from capital mkt. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

40 40 Alternative approach (employed by neophytes…): Include consideration of the ITS in the numerators, but discount at the loan interest rate… Obviously wrong: Inconsistent to apply before-tax discount rate (OCC) to after-tax cash flows. Gives impression ITS are far more valuable than they actually are. (Hence  debt more useful than it really is.) Gives misleading impression ITS are valuable for low-tax investors. Ignores what happens on the other side of the debt market. Makes it look like it’s always pos.NPV to borrow! All too common mistake in the real world! © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

41 41 You cannot ignore what happens on other side of the debt market. You cannot ignore what happens on other side of the debt market. Taxes saved by borrower may be paid by lender. Taxes saved by borrower may be paid by lender. Value cannot be created from nothing: If no net value remains in private sector, then asset valuations in the private sector cannot reflect such non-existent value. Value cannot be created from nothing: If no net value remains in private sector, then asset valuations in the private sector cannot reflect such non-existent value. Positive net values in property mkt would have to be offset by negative net values in debt market. Positive net values in property mkt would have to be offset by negative net values in debt market. But that would not be consistent with equilibrium across the two markets (property & debt). But that would not be consistent with equilibrium across the two markets (property & debt). Prices would be bid up in the property market, and bid down in the bond market, until zero net value (on margin) in both markets. Prices would be bid up in the property market, and bid down in the bond market, until zero net value (on margin) in both markets. Thus, effectively, lender “passes through” the taxes (of the marginal investor in the debt mkt) to the borrower. Thus, effectively, lender “passes through” the taxes (of the marginal investor in the debt mkt) to the borrower. Only the net remains in the private sector. E.g., if Clarence borrows (effectively, indirectly) from lenders like Mary, hence Clarence saves $1.20 in taxes each year, but Mary pays $1.00 in taxes each year, as a result of the loan: (1.20–1.00)/.03 = +$7 = NPV borrowing (for Clarence). Only the net remains in the private sector. E.g., if Clarence borrows (effectively, indirectly) from lenders like Mary, hence Clarence saves $1.20 in taxes each year, but Mary pays $1.00 in taxes each year, as a result of the loan: (1.20–1.00)/.03 = +$7 = NPV borrowing (for Clarence). Problems with the “neophyte’s mistake”… © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

42 42 Now suppose the seller of the real estate offers $100 below- market financing (subsidized loan), an interest rate of 3% instead of the mkt rate of 4%, on the same (perpetual) loan. What would be the MV of this loan (if the seller sold it in the 2ndary mkt)? Or (more fundamentally), discount the loan’s after-tax cash flows to the marginal investor in the bond mkt (Mary), at the mkt-based after-tax OCC... Answer: Discount the loan’s before-tax cash flows at the market interest rate... Valuing subsidized loans: © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

43 43 What is the IV based NPV of the subsidized loan offer to each of our investors?... How much more should each of the investors be willing to pay for the property (more than they think it is otherwise worth), as a result of the subsidized loan offer from the seller?... Mary  $25 more. Abner  $20 more. Clarence  $30 more. (Note: These IV-based NPV effects of loan rate subsidies are reduced the shorter the loan term.) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

44 44 Preceding used perpetuity example. Suppose finite loan (extreme case 1-period). Compare for subsidized loan NPV(IV after-tax for margl investor: 25% tax rate) vs NPV(MV before-tax)… Perpetuity: MV) = Perpetuity: IV M ) = It’s the same (as you would expect, for margl investor). 1-period: MV) = 1-period: IV M ) = It’s different! IV M ) ≈ (1 – MV): $0.73 ≈ (1 – 0.25)$0.96. Recall Ch.12 (sect.12.1) rules about what to do when NPV differs from MV and IV perspectives: Use common sense! (e.g., don’t pay more than +$0.73 unless could quickly sell for close to $0.96.) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

45 45 Summarizing NPV(loan) from borrower’s perspective: Unsubsidized (mkt rate) loans: Unsubsidized (mkt rate) loans: NPV(loan) = 0 from MV (before-tax) perspective. NPV(loan) = 0 from MV (before-tax) perspective. NPV(loan) > 0 (but much less than PV(ITS)) for high tax-bracket taxable investors from IV perspective. NPV(loan) > 0 (but much less than PV(ITS)) for high tax-bracket taxable investors from IV perspective. NPV(loan) < 0 for low tax-bracket taxable investors from IV perspective. NPV(loan) < 0 for low tax-bracket taxable investors from IV perspective. Subsidized (below mkt rate) loans:Subsidized (below mkt rate) loans: NPV(loan) > 0 from MV perspective (by definition). NPV(loan) > 0 from MV perspective (by definition). NPV(loan) > 0 from IV perspective for high or average tax bracket investors, but NPV(loan) > 0 from IV perspective for high or average tax bracket investors, but NPV(loan) IV (after-tax) ≤ NPV(loan) MV (before-tax): NPV(loan) IV (after-tax) ≤ NPV(loan) MV (before-tax): For margl investr NPV(loan) IV (after-tax) converges to (1-T)NPV(loan) MV (before-tax) as loan-term approaches zero (where T is borrower’s tax rate); For margl investr NPV(loan) IV (after-tax) converges to (1-T)NPV(loan) MV (before-tax) as loan-term approaches zero (where T is borrower’s tax rate); For margl investr NPV(loan) IV (after-tax) converges to exactly equal NPV(loan) MV (before-tax) as loan-term approaches infinity (perpetual debt). For margl investr NPV(loan) IV (after-tax) converges to exactly equal NPV(loan) MV (before-tax) as loan-term approaches infinity (perpetual debt). Recall Ch 12 discussion about what to do when IV ≠ MV: Satisfy NPV≥0 both ways (conserv) or either way (liberal). Recall Ch 12 discussion about what to do when IV ≠ MV: Satisfy NPV≥0 both ways (conserv) or either way (liberal). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

46 Value Additivity & the APV Decision Rule The PBT approach is an example of use of the principle of “Value Additivity”: Value Additivity  “The value of the whole equals the sum of the values of the parts, i.e., the sum of the values of all the marketable (private sector) claims on the asset.” Therefore: E = V – D “D” is usually straightforward to compute (unless loan is subsidized, MV of loan equals loan amount). So, use PBT to compute MV of “V”, then subtract MV of “D” to arrive at MV of “E”, rather than trying to estimate “E” directly. Now synthesize debt valuation with property valuation: APV (valuation by components)… © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

47 47 “Adjusted Present Value” (APV) Decision Rule… Like NPV, only accounts for financing… APV(equity) = NPV(property) + NPV(financing) Based on the Value Additivity Principle: Prop.Val = Equity Val + Dbt Val V = E + D Where:V = Value of the property, E = Value of the equity, D = Value of the debt. Define:P = Price paid for the property, L = Amount of the loan… V-P= E+D – P = E+D – ((P-L)+L) = E-(P-L) + D-L = E-(P-L) – (L-D) Thus:E-(P-L)= (V-P)+ (L-D) Or:APV(Equity) = NPV(Prop)+ NPV(Fin) Note: Arbitrage basis of Value Additivity applies to MV, but the common sense of Value Additivity can be applied to IV as well. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

48 48 “Adjusted Present Value” (APV)… APV Investment Decision Rule: Analogous to that of NPV… 1)Maximize APV over mutually exclusive alternatives; 2)Never do a deal with APV < 0. (APV = 0 is OK.) (APV = 0 is normal from a MV perspective.) (APV = 0 from IV pespective by definition for marginal investors) © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

49 49 MV = IV M D S Q Asset Value Q* Asset Market: Competition in the property asset market drives APV to zero for marginal investors in that market… Q = quantity of assets trading APV = 0 We can use this condition for analytical purposes… © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

50 50 APV(equity) = NPV(property) + NPV(financing) NPV(property) = NPV of unlevered (all equity) investment in the property (as if no debt). For MV based NPV, this can (should) be computed using the PBT approach. NPV(financing) = NPV of loan transaction (for the borrower). Debt market is relatively efficient & competitive (debt products are relatively homogeneous, often securitized in 2ndary mkt, relatively transparent and straightforward to evaluate). Hence, in the absence of subsidized (below market interest rate) financing: NPV(financing) = 0, normally (on an MV basis). Recall: NPV MV (buyer) = -NPV MV (seller). So, for the loan transaction: NPV MV (borrower) = -NPV MV (lender) In this (normal) situation (from an MV perspective): APV(equity) = NPV(property). i.e., Evaluate the deal without the loan. (Use the PBT shortcut). [ Thus, PBT shortcut comes from APV, which is based on Value Additivity. Works for MV & for IV for margl investr in property mkt.] © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

51 51 APV procedure can be expanded to any number of additive components of a complex deal structure. e.g., APV(equity) = NPV(property) + NPV(preferred) + NPV(debt) + NPV(tax credits) Try to use fundamental economic principles to help evaluate the deal: Market equilibrium (competition), Market equilibrium (competition), Rational behavior (Max NPV). Rational behavior (Max NPV). For example… If the deal structure is typical (e.g., of a “class”), and sufficiently common that there is a functioning market for these types of deals, then market equilibrium will tend to make it reasonable to expect: APV(equity)=0. (You can use this as a working assumption to help ascertain the MV of the individual deal components and positions.) If the deal structure is typical (e.g., of a “class”), and sufficiently common that there is a functioning market for these types of deals, then market equilibrium will tend to make it reasonable to expect: APV(equity)=0. (You can use this as a working assumption to help ascertain the MV of the individual deal components and positions.) Even if the overall deal structure is unique (such that there is not a market for the equity as structured), many (or even all) of the individual components and positions may be typical enough that there is a market for them. It should then be assumed that rational behavior on the part of all the parties to the deal would tend to drive NPV toward zero for each component of the deal. If all the components of the APV are zero, then so is the APV. Even if the overall deal structure is unique (such that there is not a market for the equity as structured), many (or even all) of the individual components and positions may be typical enough that there is a market for them. It should then be assumed that rational behavior on the part of all the parties to the deal would tend to drive NPV toward zero for each component of the deal. If all the components of the APV are zero, then so is the APV. Even in the absence of a well functioning market, Investment Value based APV analysis is relevant as a normative valuation. Even in the absence of a well functioning market, Investment Value based APV analysis is relevant as a normative valuation. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

52 Recall apartment numerical example: Suppose $1,000,000 = MV of property, & 25% is tax rate of marginal investor in debt mkt,  ATOCC dbt = (1-.25)*5.5% = 4.13% Suppose the modeled investor (tax rates = 35%, 15%, 25%) is typical of marginal investors in mkt for this type of property, & modeled leverage & holding period (75% LTV, 10-yr hold) is typical of marginal investors in mkt for this type of property.  IV- based APV = 0 for whole deal (inclu debt). Then we know margl invstr in prop mkt is intra-marginal in debt mkt on the sell (borrow) side: Debt part is pos-NPV, thus: APV = 0 (mkt equilibr)  Property (unlevrd) is neg-NPV Example Application of APV to a Marginal Investor 52 © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

53 Suppose $1,000,000 = MV of property, & 25% is tax rate of marginal investor in debt mkt,  ATOCC dbt = (1-.25)*5.5% = 4.13% Suppose the modeled investor (tax rates = 35%, 15%, 25%) is typical of marginal investors in mkt for this type of property, & modeled leverage & holding period (75% LTV, 10-yr hold) is typical of marginal investors in mkt for this type of property.  IV- based APV = 0 for whole deal (inclu debt). Then we know margl invstr in prop mkt is intra-marginal in debt mkt on the sell (borrow) side: Debt part is pos-NPV, thus: APV = 0 (mkt equilibr)  Property (unlevrd) is neg-NPV. IV(loan 4.13% = -$717,119 Exhibit 14-6: 0 = APV = NPV(prop) + NPV(loan) = (X - $1,000,000 ) + ($750,000 - $717,119);  X = $967,119 = IV(prop);  AT(unlevrd)OCC = 4.76%; Therfore: NPV(prop) = $967,119 - $1,000,000 = -$32,881; NPV(loan) = $750,000 - $717,119 = +$32, © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

54 IV(loan 4.13% = -$717,119 0 = APV = NPV(prop) + NPV(loan) = (X - $1,000,000 ) + ($750,000 - $717,119);  X = $967,119 = IV(prop);  AT(unlevrd)OCC = 4.76% Start with the known after-tax OCC of debt observable from muni bond market. (Here, 4.13%, based on 25% margl tax.) Then back out the value of the property without debt using the APV = 0 equilibrium condition for marginal investor. Exhibit 14-6: 54© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

55 55 Here’s another way to use Value Additivity to dissect the apartment deal… Consider the investment by a typical (taxed) marginal investor again (for whom IV M = MV, not now the intra-marginal P.F. for whom IV A > MV). Break the cash flows into components by risk class… DTS & loan ATCF are relatively low risk (legally fixed): OCC = 4.13%. PBTCF & tax w/out shields are relatively high risk: OCC = 4.76%. Exhibit 14-7: © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

56 56 _ = DTS - loan ATCF = Tot.Fixed DTS - loan ATCF = Tot.Fixed PBTCF - Tax w/out Shlds = Tot.Risky PBTCF - Tax w/out Shlds = Tot.Risky _ = += Fixed + Risky = EATCF Fixed + Risky = EATCF  PV(risky) = $250,000 – (-$683,592) = $933,592 ≈ $933,257  IRR(risky for PV $933,257) = 4.75% = Risky OCC = Risky OCC Risky Val: $933,257 + Fixed Val: -683,592 = Eq. Val: $249, % = - $683, % = - $683, % = $933, % = $933, % = $250, % = $250,000 © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

57 57 $967,119 val w/out Dbt = $933,257 Risky + $33,527 Fixed in IVM tax shields to margl investor. This is consistent with PV of depreciation tax shields: 4.13%) = $33,527: © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

58 58 Summarizing the Equity After-tax IV Valuation Procedure: 1.Estimate MV of subject property using PBT analysis: a.Estimate market PBT level by empirical obs of relevant property market (e.g., prevailing cap rates, typical realistic growth expectations, etc., as we studied in Mods1&2 esp Chs 5 & 11) b.Apply estd OCC to realistic forecast of subj property’s PBTCF. (Stop here if all you need is estimate of mkt value of property, or if your subj invstr is margl: IV=MV.) 2.Create a “model” of a “typical marginal investor” in subject property market : a.Estimate typical leverage and debt terms for “least advantaged” type of buyer that is widely buying this type of real estate. (In U.S. typically a taxed investor in a high tax bracket but subject to only one layer of taxation.) b. Compute margl investor’s NPV(debt) by discounting margl investor’s after-tax debt debt mkt’s after-tax OCC of debt (observe muni/corp yld spread, typically has implied approx 25% tax in dbt mkt). 3.Assume marginal investor buys property at estd MV from Step 1 and obtains APV=0 (by defn of “margl investor”). Hence, compute margl investor’s IV of property-without-debt as MV minus NPV(debt) for margl investor from Step 2b. 4.Model the market’s after-tax OCC for the property (unlevered) as the IRR this marginal investor achieves on her the IV price from Step 3 (with PATCFs computed as the PBTCFs from Step 1 minus taxes as if no debt). Use this unlevered PATCF IRR rather than levered EATCF IRR because you may employ different leverage than marginal investor. 5.Apply market after-tax OCC from Step 4 to your (subject investor’s) PATCFs for subject property, to derive your IV for the property-without-debt. (This IV may differ from the marginal investor’s.) 6.Compute your NPV(debt) based on your after-tax debt CFs and debt mkt after-tax OCC. (This may differ from that employed in Step 2b if your debt has different risk, but use same muni/corp spread procedure to derive marginal tax rate in debt market that you apply to the market interest rate on your loan to convert it to after-tax mkt OCC.) 7.Add your NPV(debt) from Step 6 to your property IV-without-debt from Step 5 to arrive at your total IV that you could pay for the deal (for IV-based NPV ≥ 0). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

59 59 Why go to all this trouble?... 1.Wealth Maximization makes sense as an investment objective… 2.Opportunity Cost is fundamentally important and makes sense for quantifying the wealth impact of investment decisions. 3.Markets determine opportunity costs. The previously described methodology is simply a way to apply these principles in a reasonably practical manner. IV A = $107 = $3.20/0.03 MV = $100 = $4/0.04 = $3/0.03 = IV M DSQLQ* Q0Q0Q0Q0 IV C = $93 = $2.80/0.03 Market for Taxed Debt Assets: Mkt Int.Rate = 4% © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

60 Capital Account (balance sheet) “T-chart”: Assets Liabs & Equity Exhibit 14A-1: Regular fee simple property purchase, no debt… Liabilities: none none Owner’s Equity: P P Structure: S Land: L PP Revs – Oper Expns NOI – Depreciation (of P-L) Net Income Purchase Price: P P Income Statement (accrual): 60 © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

61 Capital Account (balance sheet) “T-chart”: Assets Liabs & Equity Exhibit 14A-2: Regular fee simple property purchase, with mortgage… Liabilities: M = Mortgage Amt M = Mortgage Amt Owner’s Equity: P – M P – M Structure: S Land: L PP Revs – Oper Expns NOI – Depreciation (of P-L) – Interest (on M) Net Income Purchase Price: P P Income Statement (accrual): 61 © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

62 Capital Account (balance sheet) “T-chart”: Assets Liabs & Equity Exhibit 14A-3: Property purchase, with mortgage & ground lease… Liabilities: M* = Mortgage Amt M* = Mortgage Amt GL = PV(GrndLse Rent) GL = PV(GrndLse Rent) Owner’s Equity: P* – RV – M* – GL P* – RV – M* – GL P* – RV Revs – Oper Expns NOI – Depreciation ( of P*-RV-GL ) – GrndLse Rent – Interest (on M*) Net Income Purchase Price (Leasehold): P* – RV – GL P* – RV – GL GL = PV(GrndLse Rent) GL = PV(GrndLse Rent) RV=ResidVal Income Statement (accrual): P* may be less than P due to loss of optionality or lessor/lessee conflict of interest M* may be less than M due to P*-RV


63 63 Consider again the tax-exempt P.F.’s investment in our $1,000,000 apt property… Working directly with the EATCF, recall that we computed: NPV(IV A ) = [PV(EATCF 6.44%)+Loan] - $1,000,000 = $1,020,548 - $1,000,000 = + $20, % = $270,548. Exhibit 14B-1: Appendix 14B: Example Application of APV to an Intra- Marginal Investor © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

64 64 Now let’s apply the APV approach to dissect the deal… APV(equity) = NPV(property) + NPV(financing) From an IV perspective, the NPV(property) for the P.F. is: NPV = IV(property) – Prop.Price = PV(patcf 4.76%) - $1,000,000 = 4.76%) - $1,000,000 = $1,104,714 - $1,000,000 = +$104,714. = mkt unlevd AT OCC, from marginal investor’s AT IRR without leverage MV = $1,000,000). Because P.F. tax-exempt: PATCF = PBTCF. From an IV perspective, the NPV(financing) for the P.F. is: NPV = Loan Amt - IV(loan) = $750,000 - PV(loan atcf muni yld%) = $750,000 - PV(loan 4.13%) = $750,000 - $832,202 = -$82,202. Suppose muni yld = 4.13% = (1 -.25)5.5%. APV(equity) = +104,714 - $82,202 = +$22,512 ≈ 20,548*. *In principle this equation should be exactly equal, otherwise there is some sort of “arbitrage” opportunity between the markets. But in reality valuations are not that precise. © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

65 % = 4.13% = $832, % = $270,548. Value Additivity: E = V - D IV(equity) = $1,104,714 - $832,202 = $272,512 ≈ $270,548*. *In principle this equation should be exactly equal, otherwise there is some sort of “arbitrage” opportunity between the markets. But in reality valuations are not that precise. Tax-exempt investor (e.g., pension fund) “Value Additivity” valuation of apartment investment by components... Exhibit 14-10: © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

66 66 APV(equity) = +104,714 - $82,202 = +$22,512. From property investmentFrom loan P.F. has: Positive NPV (+104,714) in property investment as intra-marginal buyer, Negative NPV (-82,202) in loan borrowing transaction as its tax-exempt status makes it an intra-marginal lender (not borrower). Net is still slightly positive (APV). Would be better off not using debt to finance the investment (unless capital constrained). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

67 67 Pension Fund: IV A = $1,104,714 = PV(patcf 4.76%) MV = $1,000,000 = 6.04%) = PV(patcf 4.76%)+loan amt – 4.13%) = IV M D S Q Quantity of Trading P Q*Q0Q0 Market for Apt Properties: Mkt going-in IRR = 6.04% Representing this as in Ch.12 market model, we have for the property market... Pension fund is an intra-marginal buyer. Marginal investor (M) is marginal in property market (faces 35% tax rate). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

68 68 MV = $750,000 = 5.5%) = PV(loanatcf 4.13%) = IV M D S Q Quantity of Trading P Q*Q0Q0 Market for Mortgages: Mkt Interest Rate = 5.5% Representing this as in Ch.12 market model, we have for the mortgage market... Pension fund is an intra-marginal buyer (lender, not borrower). Pension Fund: IV A = $832,202 = PV(loanatcf 4.13%) Marginal investor (M) is marginal in debt market (faces 25% tax rate). © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

69 APPENDIX 14C: CORPORATE REAL ESTATE: THE OWN VERSUS RENT DECISION FROM A FINANCIAL ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE The threshold question: The Lease vs Own Decision Is a major corporate finance & investments issue. 69© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

70 Corporate Real Estate: Lease vs Own Decisions (Based on Chs. 14 & 15 of Geltner-Miller.) 70© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

71 First Rule: Don’t confuse corporate capital budgeting or capital structure decisions with the space finance decision... 71© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

72 Example (from Brueggeman-Fisher, 10 th Ed.)... New Branch Office: Office startup cost $1,300,000 Office startup cost $1,300,000 Building would cost $1,800,000 Building would cost $1,800,000 Expected value after 15 yrs: $3M Expected value after 15 yrs: $3M 72© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

73 Cash flows if Lease : IRR = 12.50% after tax 73© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

74 Cash flows if Buy: IRR = 12.95% after tax 74© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

75 Lease: 12.50% Buy: 12.95% Should the corp buy?... Answer: You don’t know. Analysis has mixed capital budgeting decision with project finance decision. Analysis has mixed capital budgeting decision with project finance decision. 75© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

76 Buy/Lease decision depends only on the INCREMENTAL cash flows (own - lease)... IRR = 13.79% after tax 76© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

77 Answer: You still don’t know: Is 13.79% a good expected return, considering the risk of buying?... Is 13.79% a good expected return, considering the risk of buying?... Will buying add to or subtract from the corporate shareholders’ value in the stock market?... Will buying add to or subtract from the corporate shareholders’ value in the stock market?... Buy instead of Lease: IRR = 13.79% Should the corp buy?... 77© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

78 (Don’t just apply the corporate WACC.) Second Rule: Opportunity cost of capital for “debtlike” (i.e., contractually fixed) cash flows is: Corporate Borrowing Rate 78© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

79 Don’t just apply the corporate WACC. Don’t just apply the corporate WACC. (Real estate assets may not have the same risk/return characteristics as the corporation’s other assets.) Third Rule: Opportunity cost of capital for real estate cash flows is found in property market: Back out from Prop.Price & CFs 79© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

80 ==> WACC is not hurdle... Suggests NPV (instead of IRR) approach to lease/buy decision... Note: These evaluation principles are consistent with mainstream corporate finance principles as elaborated in texts such as Brealey & Myers (e.g., see B-M 5 th Ed. Chs.18 & 19). 80© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

81 1) Discount “debtlike” Corp Borrowing Rate: - Lease CFs - Depreciation tax shields - Loan CFs 2) Discount real estate resale proceeds at property mkt “reversion” rate. 3) Work with after-tax CFs & after-tax discount rates. 81© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

82 Low-tax institutions buy. High-tax institutions lease. Sale/leasebacks often make sense for profitable taxed corporations. (See spreadsheet example) Typical Result: (based on investment value, including consideration of all levels of taxation) 82© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

83 INTRA-MARGL.BUYER IV INTRA-MARGL.SELLER IV ASSET PRICE = MV D S Q P Recall Exhibit 12-1 (Ch.12): Relation between Investment Value (IV) and Market Value (MV) in a well-functioning asset market P = Asset prices (vertical axis). Q = Volume of investment transaction per unit of time. Q 0 = Volume of transactions by investors with more favorable circumstances, hence would enter market at less favorable prices (i.e., “intra-marginal” market participants). Q* = Total volume of asset transactions, including marginal investment (investors on margin are indifferent between investing and not investing in assets: NPV=0). Q0Q0 Q* 83© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

84 Recall Exhibit 14-5: Relation between Investment Value (IV) and Market Value (MV) in the asset market, for tax-advantaged (e.g. tax-exempt pension fund) and tax-disadvantage (e.g., double-taxed C-Corp) investors... Asset provides 4% mkt return ($4.00/yr for $100 investmt). 4% is mkt return because marginal investors have 3% after-tax required return and they are subject to effective tax rate of 25% (  3% = mkt after-tax OCC). Corporate income tax rate of 30% reduces pre-tax earnings of $4.00 to $2.80. Mkt after-tax OCC of 3% applied to $2.80/yr  Asset PV = $93 for Corp shareholders,  NPV of sale-leaseback = $100 - $93 = +$7. IV A = $107 = $3.20/0.03 MV = $100 = $4/0.04 = $3/0.03 = IV M D S Q L Q*Q0Q0 IV C = $93 = $2.80/0.03 Market for Taxed Debt Assets: Mkt Int.Rate = 4% Same principle applies with lease vs own… 84© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

85 Typical Result: (based on investment value, including consideration of all levels of taxation) Low-tax institutions buy. High-tax institutions lease. Sale/leasebacks often make sense for profitable taxed corporations. However... 85© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

86 Other considerations... 1) Small space requirements => Lease. 86© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

87 Other considerations... 1) Small space requirements => Lease. 2) Short time need for space => Lease. 87© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

88 Other considerations... 1) Small space requirements => Lease. 2) Short time need for space => Lease. 3) R.E. info disadvantage => Lease. 88© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

89 Other considerations... 1) Small space requirements => Lease. 2) Short time need for space => Lease. 3) R.E. info disadvantage => Lease. 4) Special purpose bldgs, need for control: => Own. 89© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

90 Other considerations... 1) Small space requirements => Lease. 2) Short time need for space => Lease. 3) R.E. info disadvantage => Lease. 4) Special purpose bldgs, need for control: => Own. 5) Info advantage, positive spillovers (e.g., Disney): => Own, RE profit ctr. 90© 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.

91 Other considerations... 2) Short time need for space => Lease. 3) R.E. info disadvantage => Lease. 4) Special purpose bldgs, need for control: => Own. 5) Info advantage, positive spillovers (e.g., Disney): => Own, RE profit ctr. 6) UPREIT structure allows corp to defer cap gains in sale/leaseback © 2014 OnCourse Learning. All Rights Reserved.91


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