Presentation on theme: "John 14-16 The Farewell Discourse. Broad Outline of Fourth Gospel Ch. 1Introduction: Prologue and Witness of John Ch. 2-12Jesus Before the World ("Book."— Presentation transcript:
Broad Outline of Fourth Gospel Ch. 1Introduction: Prologue and Witness of John Ch. 2-12Jesus Before the World ("Book of Signs") Theme: Through signs and discourses, Jesus reveals himself as the Son of God, sent to save the world, but is rejected by the world. Ch. 2-4Images of New Salvation Ch. 5-10Growing hostility Ch. 11-12Final rejection Ch. 13-20 Jesus Before the Disciples ("Book of Passion/Glory") Theme: Having been rejected by the world, Jesus prepares the disciples for his departure to the Father. Ch. 13Last Supper Ch. 14-16Farewell Discourse Ch. 17Jesus’ “High Priestly” Prayer Ch. 18-19Passion Narrative Ch. 20Resurrection Ch. 21Appendix: Appearance in Galilee
John 14-16 The Farewell Discourse 14:1-31 Departure and Return of Jesus (Reassurance) 1.Jesus’ departure prepares a place for disciples (v. 1-4). a.Acknowledges that disciples’ hearts are “troubled” (v. 1). b.Ch. 14 emphasizes reassuring promises. c.His departure secures a “dwelling place” (monē) in the Father’s “house” (v. 2-3). 1)“Heavenly home” after death or 2)“Home” with God already in this life (cf. v. 23)? 3)Old translation “mansions” (KJV) suggested heavenly palaces. 4)Father’s “house” with many “dwelling places” may be Temple imagery (Hull) – by death/resurrection Jesus becomes true Temple. d.Jesus will “come again” to take them “to myself” (v. 3). 1)Future Parousia at end of the age. 2)Post-resurrection appearances (Culpepper). 3)Coming of the Spirit. 4)Meeting the individual believer at death.
14:1-31 The Departure and Return of Jesus – cont. 2.Jesus is the way to the Father (v. 5-7). a.“I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me” (sixth “I am” with predicate). b.Jesus is the way to God because he is the revelation of God. 3.Jesus has revealed the Father (v. 8-11). a.To see Jesus is to see God. b.His words and deeds are words and deeds of God. 4.Jesus’ departure empowers the church’s mission (v. 12-14). a.Believers will do “greater works than these.” b.Ascension and coming of Spirit empowers universal mission. c.Promise of answered prayer (which empowers mission) is conditioned on asking “in Jesus name” (i.e., consistent with his character). 5.The Father will send “another Paraclete” (v. 15-17). a.Paraclete = Advocate; Defender; Comforter; Counselor; Helper. b.Spirit takes the place of Jesus and makes him present in world. c.Other functions: teaching the truth of Christ (old and new); putting the world on trial.
14:1-31 The Departure and Return of Jesus – cont. 6.Jesus and the Father will come and dwell with those who love and obey him (v. 18-24). a.“I will not leave you orphaned; I am coming to you. In a little while the world will no longer see me, but you will see me” (v. 18-19). 1)Post-resurrection appearances, coming of Spirit, or Parousia? 2)Does Jn. sharply distinguish these? b.Those who love Jesus keep his commandments (v. 15, 21, 23-24). 1)Love is demonstrated by obedience. 2)Spirit is promised to those who love/obey Jesus. c.“We will come and make our home (monē = dwelling place; cf. v. 2) with them” (v. 23). 1)Continuing presence of Jesus and Father through in-dwelling Spirit. 2)Focus here is not on future abiding with Christ in heaven but on present abiding of Christ with believers now. 7.The Paraclete will teach you all things (v. 25-26). a.Teaches truth of Christ by reminding of what Jesus taught and helping them understand (cf. 2:17, 22; 12:16). b.Teaches truth of Christ by revealing new truth. 1)Probably alludes to revelation through prophets in Johannine church. 2)Test of prophecy is consistency with revelation in Jesus.
14:1-31 The Departure and Return of Jesus – cont. 8.Closing (v. 27-31)? a.Jesus leaves his “peace” (shalom) with the disciples. b.“Peace” = “wholeness” of salvation in kingdom of God—for which Jesus is about to die. c.Announces that “the ruler of this world is coming”—final conflict is at hand. d.“Rise, let us be on our way” seems to end the discourse.
15:1-17 Jesus the True Vine (Challenge) 1.Background a.Vine is frequent figure for Israel in OT (cf. Isa. 5, “Song of Vineyard”). b.Theme of judgment is always present. 2.“I am the true vine…I am the vine, you are the branches.” a.7 th “I am” with predicate: Jesus is the true Israel. b.Through Jesus, the Church becomes the “New Israel.” 3.The Church also stands under threat of judgment. a.Unproductive branches are removed; productive ones are pruned. b.Play on words in v. 2-3: 1)The vine is “pruned” (v. 2; kathairei = make clean or prune). 2)Disciples already made “clean” (v. 3; katharoi) by Jesus’ word. 4.Disciples “bear fruit” only through “abiding in Jesus” (v. 4-5). a.Vine/branches is image of mutual indwelling of Christ/believers. b.Debated whether “bearing fruit” means “winning converts” or “Christian living in general” (cf. Mt. 3:7-10; 7:15-20; Gal. 5:22-23). c.“Abiding in Jesus” means keeping his commandments (v. 10). 5.His one commandment is to “love one another as I have loved you” (v. 12-17). a.In FG, love command is limited to Christian community. b.Standard of Christian love is sacrificial love of Jesus.
15:18-16:4a The World Will Hate You (Warning) 1.Disciples are warned of persecution. a.Hated, persecuted, put out of synagogues, killed. b.FG written against background of such conflict. c.Disciples belong not to world but to Christ (v. 18-19). d.World will hate them as it hates Christ. 2.Paraclete will be “Advocate” in midst of persecution (v. 25-26). a.Paraclete will “bear witness” and enable disciples to “bear witness” (cf. Mk. 13:11; Mt. 10: 19-20). b.“Bear witness” = martyreō “martyr” (lit., “witness”). 3.Warning against religious zeal (16:1-4a). a.Being “put out of synagogue” (v. 2) reflects church-synagogue conflict at time of Evangelist. b.Seeking to kill as act of devotion to God (v. 2) is misguided zeal.
16:4b-15 Work of the Paraclete 1.Jesus’ departure is to disciples’ benefit, so Paraclete can come (v. 7). 2.Paraclete will “convict” the world of sin (v. 8-11). a.“Convince” – prick conscience; prepare for grace. b.“Prove wrong” – judgment occurs in rejection of Jesus. 3.Paraclete will guide believers “into all the truth” (v. 12-15). a.Spirit will teach “many things” the disciples were not yet ready for. b.Christian faith is not static/unchanging but dynamic/growing. c.Spirit provides guidance in applying truth of gospel in fresh ways for each new generation. d.FG is not content to repeat words/deeds of historical Jesus; allows Spirit of risen Lord to speak in new ways. e.Test of “new truth” is continuity with Jesus (cf. 14:26).
16:16-33 Reversal of Sorrow into Joy 1.Riddle of the “little while” (v. 16): “A little while and you will no longer see me; again a little while and you will see me.” a.First “little while” = death of Jesus (you will weep/mourn). b.Second “little while” = resurrection (your pain will turn into joy). 2.Image of a woman in labor (v. 21). a.Labor pain soon turns into joy. b.Cf. apocalyptic theme of “birth-pangs of Messiah.” 3.Prediction of scattering, persecution, and victory (v. 32-33).