Presentation on theme: "Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Virtual University Human-Computer InteractionLecture 14 Interaction Frameworks and StylesImran HussainUniversity of Management and Technology (UMT)1
2 In the Last Lecture The Computer Text Entry Devices Keyboard, different typesHandwriting & Speech RecognitionPositioning, Pointing and DrawingMouse and TouchpadTouch-sensitive ScreensDisplay DevicesBitmap screens (CRT & LCD)Digital paper.Paper: Printing Scanning2
3 In Today’s Lecture Interaction Ergonomics Common Interaction Styles Models of InteractionnErgonomicsphysical aspects of interfacesindustrial interfacesCommon Interaction Stylescommand line interfacemenusnatural languagequestion/answer and query dialogueform-fills and spreadsheetsWIMP Interface1
5 Models of Interaction terms of interaction Norman model interaction framework
6 Some Terms of Interaction domain – the area of work under studye.g. graphic designgoal – what you want to achievee.g. create a solid red triangletask – how you go about doing it – ultimately in terms of operations or actionse.g. … select fill tool, click over triangleNote …traditional interaction …use of terms differs a lot especially task/goal !!!
7 Donald Norman’s Model system evaluation execution goal Norman’s model concentrates on user’s view of the interfacesystemevaluationexecutiongoal
8 Interpreting the perception 7 Stages of ActionGoalsIntention to actsequence of actionsexecution ofThe action sequenceTHE WORLDEvaluation of theInterpretationsInterpreting the perceptionPerceiving the stateof the world
9 Using Norman’s Model Some systems are harder to use than others Gulf of Executionuser’s formulation of actions ≠ actions allowed by the systemGulf of Evaluationuser’s expectation of changed system state ≠ actual presentation of this state
10 Abowd and Beale Framework extension of Norman…their interaction framework has 4 partsuserinputsystemoutputeach has its own unique language interaction translation between languagesproblems in interaction = problems in translationScoreUtaskOoutputIinput
11 Using Abowd & Beale’s Model coreUtaskOoutputIinputUsing Abowd & Beale’s Modeluser intentions translated into actions at the interface translated into alterations of system state reflected in the output display interpreted by the usergeneral framework for understanding interactionnot restricted to electronic computer systemsidentifies all major components involved in interactionallows comparative assessment of systemsan abstraction
13 Ergonomicsphysical aspects of interfacesindustrial interfaces
14 Ergonomics Study of the physical characteristics of interaction Also known as human factors – but this can also be used to mean much of HCI!Ergonomics good at defining standards and guidelines for constraining the way we design certain aspects of systems
15 Physical Aspects of Interfaces arrangement of controls and displayscontrols grouped according to function or frequency of use, or sequentiallysurrounding environmentseating arrangements adaptable to cope with all sizes of userhealth issuesphysical position, environmental conditions (temperature, humidity), lighting, noise,use of colouruse of red for warning, green for okay, awareness of colour-blindness etc.
16 Industrial Interfaces Office interface vs. industrial interface?Context matters!office industrialtype of data textual numericrate of change slow fastenvironment clean dirty… the oil soaked mouse
17 multiple representations of same information Glass Interfaces ?industrial interface:traditional … dials and knobsnow … screens and keypadsglass interfacecheaper, more flexible, multiple representations, precise valuesnot physically located, loss of context, complex interfacesmay need bothVessel B Temp100200113multiple representations of same information
18 Indirect Manipulation office– direct manipulationuser interacts with artificial worldsystemindustrial – indirect manipulationuser interacts with real world through interfaceissues ..feedbackdelaysinterfaceplantimmediatefeedbackinstruments
19 Interaction Styles dialogue … computer and user distinct styles of interaction
20 Common Interaction Styles command line interfacemenusnatural languagequestion/answer and query dialogueform-fills and spreadsheetsWIMPpoint and clickthree–dimensional interfaces
21 Command line interface Way of expressing instructions to the computer directlyfunction keys, single characters, short abbreviations, whole words, or a combinationsuitable for repetitive tasksbetter for expert users than novicesoffers direct access to system functionalitycommand names/abbreviations should be meaningful!Typical example: the Unix system, DOS , Telnet
24 Menus Set of options displayed on the screen Options visible less recall - easier to userely on recognition so names should be meaningfulSelection by:numbers, letters, arrow keys, mousecombination (e.g. mouse plus accelerators)Often options hierarchically groupedsensible grouping is neededRestricted form of full WIMP system1
25 Natural language Familiar to user speech recognition or typed natural languageProblemsvagueambiguoushard to do well!Solutionstry to understand a subsetpick on key words
26 Query Interfaces Question/answer interfaces user led through interaction via series of questionssuitable for novice users but restricted functionalityoften used in informationsystems
27 Query Interfaces Query languages (e.g. SQL) used to retrieve information from databaserequires understanding of database structure and language syntax, hence requires some expertiseSelect from EmployeeWhere Salary > 30,000
28 Form-fills Primarily for data entry or data retrieval Screen like paper form.Data put in relevant placeRequiresgood designobvious correction facilities
30 Spreadsheetsfirst spreadsheet VISICALC, followed by Lotus MS Excel most common todaysophisticated variation of form-filling.grid of cells contain a value or a formulaformula can involve values of other cells e.g. sum of all cells in this columnuser can enter and alter data spreadsheet maintains consistency
34 WIMP Interface Windows Icons Menus Pointers … or windows, icons, mice, and pull-down menus!default style for majority of interactive computer systems, especially PCs and desktop machines
35 Point and Click Interfaces used in ..multimediaweb browsershypertextjust click something!icons, text links or location on mapminimal typing
36 Three Dimensional Interfaces virtual reality‘ordinary’ window systemshighlightingvisual affordanceindiscriminate use just confusing!3D workspacesuse for extra virtual spacelight and occlusion give depthdistance effects
37 Elements of the WIMP Interface windows, icons, menus, pointersbuttons, toolbars,palettes, dialog boxes
38 Windows Areas of the screen that behave as if they were independent can contain text or graphicscan be moved or resizedcan overlap and obscure each other, or can be laid out next to one another (tiled)
40 Icons small picture or image represents some object in the interface often a window or actionwindows can be closed down (iconised)small representation ﬁ many accessible windowsicons can be many and varioushighly stylizedrealistic representations.
41 Pointers important component WIMP style relies on pointing and selecting thingsuses mouse, trackpad, joystick, trackball, cursor keys or keyboard shortcutswide variety of graphical images
42 Menus Choice of operations or services offered on the screen Required option selected with pointer
43 Menus problem – take a lot of screen space solution – pop-up: menu appears when needed
44 Kinds of Menus Menu Bar at top of screen (normally), menu drags down pull-down menu - mouse hold and drag down menudrop-down menu - mouse click reveals menufall-down menus - mouse just moves over bar!Contextual menu appears where you arepop-up menus - actions for selected objectpie menus - arranged in a circleeasier to select item (larger target area)quicker (same distance to any option) … but not widely used!
50 Menus Extras Cascading menus Keyboard accelerators hierarchical menu structuremenu selection opens new menuand so in ad infinitumKeyboard acceleratorskey combinations - same effect as menu itemtwo kindsactive when menu open – usually first letteractive when menu closed – usually Ctrl + letterusually different
52 Menus Design Issues which kind to use what to include in menus at all words to use (action or description)how to group itemschoice of keyboard accelerators
53 Buttonsindividual and isolated regions within a display that can be selected to invoke an actionSpecial kindsradio buttons – set of mutually exclusive choicescheck boxes – set of non-exclusive choices
59 Palettes and Tear-off Menus Problem menu not there when you want itSolution palettes – little windows of actionsshown/hidden via menu option e.g. available shapes in drawing packagetear-off and pin-up menusmenu ‘tears off’ to become palette
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