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Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 14 Interaction.

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Presentation on theme: "Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 14 Interaction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 14 Interaction Frameworks and Styles Virtual University Human-Computer Interaction

2 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 2 © Imran Hussain | UMT In the Last Lecture The Computer Text Entry Devices –Keyboard, different types –Handwriting & Speech Recognition Positioning, Pointing and Drawing –Mouse and Touchpad –Touch-sensitive Screens Display Devices –Bitmap screens (CRT & LCD) –Digital paper. Paper: Printing Scanning

3 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 3 © Imran Hussain | UMT In Today’s Lecture Interaction –Models of Interactionn Ergonomics –physical aspects of interfaces –industrial interfaces Common Interaction Styles –command line interface –menus –natural language –question/answer and query dialogue –form-fills and spreadsheets WIMP Interface

4 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 4 © Imran Hussain | UMT What is Interaction? communication

5 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 5 © Imran Hussain | UMT Models of Interaction terms of interaction Norman model interaction framework

6 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 6 © Imran Hussain | UMT Some Terms of Interaction domain – the area of work under study e.g. graphic design goal – what you want to achieve e.g. create a solid red triangle task – how you go about doing it – ultimately in terms of operations or actions e.g. … select fill tool, click over triangle Note … –traditional interaction … –use of terms differs a lot especially task/goal !!!

7 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 7 © Imran Hussain | UMT Donald Norman’s Model Norman’s model concentrates on user’s view of the interface system evaluationexecution goal

8 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 8 © Imran Hussain | UMT 7 Stages of Action Goals Intention to act sequence of actions execution of The action sequence THE WORLD Evaluation of the Interpretations Interpreting the perception Perceiving the state of the world

9 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 9 © Imran Hussain | UMT Using Norman’s Model Some systems are harder to use than others Gulf of Execution user’s formulation of actions ≠ actions allowed by the system Gulf of Evaluation user’s expectation of changed system state ≠ actual presentation of this state

10 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 10 © Imran Hussain | UMT Abowd and Beale Framework extension of Norman… their interaction framework has 4 parts –user –input –system –output each has its own unique language interaction  translation between languages problems in interaction = problems in translation S core U task O output I input

11 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 11 © Imran Hussain | UMT Using Abowd & Beale’s Model user intentions  translated into actions at the interface  translated into alterations of system state  reflected in the output display  interpreted by the user general framework for understanding interaction –not restricted to electronic computer systems –identifies all major components involved in interaction –allows comparative assessment of systems –an abstraction S core U task O output I input

12 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 12 © Imran Hussain | UMT HCI and Frameworks

13 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 13 © Imran Hussain | UMT Ergonomics physical aspects of interfaces industrial interfaces

14 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 14 © Imran Hussain | UMT Ergonomics Study of the physical characteristics of interaction Also known as human factors – but this can also be used to mean much of HCI! Ergonomics good at defining standards and guidelines for constraining the way we design certain aspects of systems

15 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 15 © Imran Hussain | UMT Physical Aspects of Interfaces arrangement of controls and displays –controls grouped according to function or frequency of use, or sequentially surrounding environment –seating arrangements adaptable to cope with all sizes of user health issues –physical position, environmental conditions (temperature, humidity), lighting, noise, use of colour –use of red for warning, green for okay, awareness of colour-blindness etc.

16 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 16 © Imran Hussain | UMT Industrial Interfaces Office interface vs. industrial interface? Context matters! office industrial type of datatextualnumeric rate of changeslowfast environmentcleandirty … the oil soaked mouse

17 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 17 © Imran Hussain | UMT Glass Interfaces ? industrial interface: –traditional … dials and knobs –now … screens and keypads glass interface +cheaper, more flexible, multiple representations, precise values –not physically located, loss of context, complex interfaces may need both Vessel B Temp multiple representations of same information

18 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 18 © Imran Hussain | UMT Indirect Manipulation office– direct manipulation –user interacts with artificial world industrial – indirect manipulation –user interacts with real world through interface issues.. –feedback –delays system interface plant immediate feedback instruments

19 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 19 © Imran Hussain | UMT Interaction Styles dialogue … computer and user distinct styles of interaction

20 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 20 © Imran Hussain | UMT Common Interaction Styles command line interface menus natural language question/answer and query dialogue form-fills and spreadsheets WIMP point and click three–dimensional interfaces

21 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 21 © Imran Hussain | UMT Command line interface Way of expressing instructions to the computer directly –function keys, single characters, short abbreviations, whole words, or a combination suitable for repetitive tasks better for expert users than novices offers direct access to system functionality command names/abbreviations should be meaningful! Typical example: the Unix system, DOS, Telnet

22 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 22 © Imran Hussain | UMT DOS

23 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 23 © Imran Hussain | UMT Telnet

24 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 24 © Imran Hussain | UMT Menus Set of options displayed on the screen Options visible –less recall - easier to use –rely on recognition so names should be meaningful Selection by: –numbers, letters, arrow keys, mouse –combination (e.g. mouse plus accelerators) Often options hierarchically grouped –sensible grouping is needed Restricted form of full WIMP system

25 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 25 © Imran Hussain | UMT Natural language Familiar to user speech recognition or typed natural language Problems –vague –ambiguous –hard to do well! Solutions –try to understand a subset –pick on key words

26 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 26 © Imran Hussain | UMT Query Interfaces Question/answer interfaces –user led through interaction via series of questions –suitable for novice users but restricted functionality –often used in information systems

27 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 27 © Imran Hussain | UMT Query Interfaces Query languages (e.g. SQL) –used to retrieve information from database –requires understanding of database structure and language syntax, hence requires some expertise Select from Employee Where Salary > 30,000

28 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 28 © Imran Hussain | UMT Form-fills Primarily for data entry or data retrieval Screen like paper form. Data put in relevant place Requires –good design –obvious correction facilities

29 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 29 © Imran Hussain | UMT Form-fills

30 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 30 © Imran Hussain | UMT Spreadsheets first spreadsheet VISICALC, followed by Lotus MS Excel most common today sophisticated variation of form-filling. –grid of cells contain a value or a formula –formula can involve values of other cells e.g. sum of all cells in this column –user can enter and alter data spreadsheet maintains consistency

31 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 31 © Imran Hussain | UMT VISICALC

32 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 32 © Imran Hussain | UMT Lotus 1-2-3

33 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 33 © Imran Hussain | UMT MS Excel

34 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 34 © Imran Hussain | UMT WIMP Interface W indows I cons M enus P ointers … or windows, icons, mice, and pull-down menus! default style for majority of interactive computer systems, especially PCs and desktop machines

35 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 35 © Imran Hussain | UMT Point and Click Interfaces used in.. –multimedia –web browsers –hypertext just click something! –icons, text links or location on map minimal typing

36 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 36 © Imran Hussain | UMT Three Dimensional Interfaces virtual reality ‘ordinary’ window systems –highlighting –visual affordance –indiscriminate use just confusing! 3D workspaces –use for extra virtual space –light and occlusion give depth –distance effects

37 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 37 © Imran Hussain | UMT Elements of the WIMP Interface windows, icons, menus, pointers buttons, toolbars, palettes, dialog boxes

38 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 38 © Imran Hussain | UMT Windows Areas of the screen that behave as if they were independent –can contain text or graphics –can be moved or resized –can overlap and obscure each other, or can be laid out next to one another (tiled)

39 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 39 © Imran Hussain | UMT Windows scrollbars title bars

40 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 40 © Imran Hussain | UMT Icons small picture or image represents some object in the interface –often a window or action windows can be closed down (iconised) –small representation fi many accessible windows icons can be many and various –highly stylized –realistic representations.

41 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 41 © Imran Hussain | UMT Pointers important component –WIMP style relies on pointing and selecting things uses mouse, trackpad, joystick, trackball, cursor keys or keyboard shortcuts wide variety of graphical images

42 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 42 © Imran Hussain | UMT Menus Choice of operations or services offered on the screen Required option selected with pointer

43 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 43 © Imran Hussain | UMT Menus problem – take a lot of screen space solution – pop-up: menu appears when needed

44 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 44 © Imran Hussain | UMT Kinds of Menus Menu Bar at top of screen (normally), menu drags down –pull-down menu - mouse hold and drag down menu –drop-down menu - mouse click reveals menu –fall-down menus - mouse just moves over bar! Contextual menu appears where you are –pop-up menus - actions for selected object –pie menus - arranged in a circle easier to select item (larger target area) quicker (same distance to any option) … but not widely used!

45 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 45 © Imran Hussain | UMT Pull-down Menu

46 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 46 © Imran Hussain | UMT Drop-down Menu

47 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 47 © Imran Hussain | UMT Fall-down Menus

48 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 48 © Imran Hussain | UMT Pop-up Menus

49 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 49 © Imran Hussain | UMT Pie Menu

50 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 50 © Imran Hussain | UMT Menus Extras Cascading menus –hierarchical menu structure –menu selection opens new menu –and so in ad infinitum Keyboard accelerators –key combinations - same effect as menu item –two kinds active when menu open – usually first letter active when menu closed – usually Ctrl + letter usually different

51 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 51 © Imran Hussain | UMT Keyboard Accelerators Alt +T

52 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 52 © Imran Hussain | UMT Menus Design Issues which kind to use what to include in menus at all words to use (action or description) how to group items choice of keyboard accelerators

53 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 53 © Imran Hussain | UMT Buttons individual and isolated regions within a display that can be selected to invoke an action Special kinds –radio buttons – set of mutually exclusive choices –check boxes – set of non-exclusive choices

54 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 54 © Imran Hussain | UMT Radio Buttons

55 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 55 © Imran Hussain | UMT Check Boxes

56 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 56 © Imran Hussain | UMT Toolbars long lines of icons … … but what do they do? fast access to common actions often customizable: –choose which toolbars to see –choose what options are on it

57 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 57 © Imran Hussain | UMT Customization

58 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 58 © Imran Hussain | UMT Customization

59 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 59 © Imran Hussain | UMT Palettes and Tear-off Menus Problem menu not there when you want it Solution palettes – little windows of actions –shown/hidden via menu option e.g. available shapes in drawing package tear-off and pin-up menus –menu ‘tears off’ to become palette

60 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 60 © Imran Hussain | UMT Palettes and Tear-off Menus

61 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 61 © Imran Hussain | UMT Dialogue Boxes information windows that pop up to inform of an important event or request information.


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