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Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition Chapter 14: Risks, Security, and Disaster Recovery.

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Presentation on theme: "Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition Chapter 14: Risks, Security, and Disaster Recovery."— Presentation transcript:

1 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition Chapter 14: Risks, Security, and Disaster Recovery

2 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition2 Objectives Describe the primary goals of information security Enumerate the main types of risks to information systems List the various types of attacks on networked systems Describe the types of controls required to ensure the integrity of data entry and processing and uninterrupted e-commerce

3 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition3 Objectives (continued) Describe the various kinds of security measures that can be taken to protect data and ISs Improve the security of your personal information system and the information it stores Recognize online scams Outline the principles of developing a recovery plan Explain the economic aspects of information security

4 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition4 Goals of Information Security Protecting IT resources is a primary concern Securing corporate ISs is becoming increasingly challenging The major goals of information security are to: –Reduce the risk of systems ceasing operation –Maintain information confidentiality –Ensure the integrity and reliability of data resources –Ensure the uninterrupted availability of resources –Ensure compliance with policies and laws

5 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition5 Risks to Information Systems Downtime: the period of time during which an IS is not available Extremely expensive: average losses of: –$2,500/minute for CRM systems –$7,800/minute for e-commerce applications $4 billion lost annually in the U.S. due to downtime

6 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition6 Risks to Hardware #1 cause of system downtime is hardware failure Major causes of damage to hardware include: –Natural disasters Fires, floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, and lightning –Blackouts and brownouts Blackout: total loss of electricity Brownout: partial loss of electricity Uninterruptible power supply (UPS): backup power –Vandalism Deliberate destruction

7 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition7 Risks to Data and Applications Data should be a primary concern because it is often a unique resource Data and applications are susceptible to disruption, damage, and theft The culprit in damage to software or data is almost always human Keystroke logging: records individual keystrokes Social engineering: con artists pretend to be service people, and ask for passwords Identity theft: pretending to be another person

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9 9 Risks to Data and Applications (continued) Risks to data include: –Alteration –Destruction –Web defacement Deliberate alteration or destruction is often done as a prank, but has a high cost The target may be a company’s Web site Honeytoken: a bogus record in a networked database used to combat hackers

10 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition10 Risks to Data and Applications (continued) Honeypot: a server containing a mirrored copy of a database or a bogus database –Educates security officers about vulnerable points Virus: spreads from computer to computer Worm: spreads in a network without human intervention Antivirus software: protects against viruses Trojan horse: a virus disguised as legitimate software

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12 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition12 Risks to Data and Applications (continued) Logic bomb: software that is programmed to cause damage at a specific time Unintentional, nonmalicious damage can be caused by: –Human error –Lack of adherence to backup procedures –Poor training –Unauthorized downloading and installation of software may cause damage

13 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition13 Risks to Online Operations Many hackers try daily to interrupt online businesses Types of attacks include: –Unauthorized access –Data theft –Defacing of Web pages –Denial of service –Hijacking

14 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition14 Denial of Service Denial of service (DoS): an attacker launches a large number of information requests –Slows down legitimate traffic to site Distributed denial of service (DDoS): an attacker launches a DoS attack from multiple computers –Usually launched from hijacked personal computers called “zombies” –No definitive cure for this –A site can filter illegitimate traffic

15 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition15 Computer Hijacking Hijacking: using some or all of a computer’s resources without the consent of its owner –Often done for making a DDoS attack –Done by installing a software bot on the computer –Main purpose of hijacking is usually to send spam Bots are planted by exploiting security holes in operating systems and communications software –A bot usually installs e-mail forwarding software

16 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition16 Controls Controls: constraints and restrictions imposed on a user or a system –Controls can be used to secure against risks –Controls are also used to ensure that nonsensical data is not entered Controls can reduce damage caused to systems, application, and data

17 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition17 Controls (continued)

18 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition18 Application Reliability and Data Entry Controls A reliable application is one that can resist inappropriate usage such as incorrect data entry or processing –The application should provide clear messages when errors or deliberate misuses occur Controls also translate business policies into system features

19 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition19 Backup Backup: periodic duplication of all data Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks (RAID): set of disks programmed to replicate stored data Data must be routinely transported off-site as protection from a site disaster Some companies specialize in data backup services or backup facilities for use in the event of a site disaster

20 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition20 Access Controls Access controls: measures taken to ensure only authorized users have access to a computer, network, application, or data –Physical locks: lock the equipment in a secure facility –Software locks: determine who is authorized Three types of access controls: –What you know: access codes, such as user ID and password –What you have: requires special devices –Who you are: unique physical characteristics

21 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition21 Access Controls (continued) Access codes and passwords are usually stored in the OS or in a database Security card is more secure than a password –Allows two-factor access Biometric: uses unique physical characteristics such as fingerprints, retinal scans, or voiceprints Up to 50% of help desk calls are from people who have forgotten their passwords –Biometrics can eliminate these kinds of calls

22 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition22 Atomic Transactions Atomic transaction: a set of indivisible transactions –All of the transactions in the set must be completely executed, or none can be –Ensures that only full entry occurs in all the appropriate files to guarantee integrity of the data –Is also a control against malfunction and fraud

23 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition23 Atomic Transactions (continued)

24 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition24 Audit Trail Audit trail: a series of documented facts that help detect who recorded which transactions, at what time, and under whose approval –Sometimes automatically created using data and timestamps Certain policy and audit trail controls are required in some countries Information systems auditor: a person whose job is to find and investigate fraudulent cases

25 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition25 Security Measures Organizations can protect against attacks using various approaches, including: –Firewalls –Authentication –Encryption –Digital signatures –Digital certificates

26 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition26 Firewalls and Proxy Servers Firewall: the best defense against unauthorized access over the Internet –Consists of hardware and software that blocks access to computing resources –Firewalls are now routinely integrated into routers DMZ: demilitarized zone approach –One end of the network is connected to the trusted network, and the other end to the Internet Proxy server: represents another server –Employs a firewall, and is usually placed between the Internet and the trusted network

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28 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition28 Authentication and Encryption Authentication: the process of ensuring that you are who you say you are Encryption: coding a message into an unreadable form Messages are encrypted and authenticated to ensure security A message may be text, image, sound, or other digital information

29 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition29 Authentication and Encryption (continued)

30 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition30 Authentication and Encryption (continued) Encryption programs scramble the transmitted information –Plaintext: the original message –Ciphertext: the encoded message Encryption uses a mathematical algorithm and a key Key: a unique combination of bits that will decipher the ciphertext Public-key encryption: uses two keys, one public and one private

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32 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition32 Authentication and Encryption (continued) Symmetric encryption: when the sender and the recipient use the same key Asymmetric encryption: both a public and a private key are used Transport Layer Security (TLS): a protocol for transactions on the Web that uses a combination of public key and symmetric key encryption HTTPS: the secure version of HTTP Digital signature: a means to authenticate online messages; implemented with public keys

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34 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition34 Authentication and Encryption (continued) Message digest: unique fingerprint of file Digital certificates: computer files that associate one’s identity with one’s public key –Issued by certificate authority Certificate authority (CA): a trusted third party A digital certificate contains its holder’s name, a serial number, its expiration dates, and a copy of holder’s public key –Also contains the digital signature of the CA

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36 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition36 The Downside of Security Measures Single sign-on (SSO): a user must enter his or her name/password only once Single sign-on saves employees time Encryption slows down communication –Every message must be encrypted and then decrypted IT specialists must clearly explain the implications of security measures to upper management

37 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition37 Recovery Measures Security measures may reduce mishaps, but no one can control all disasters Preparation for uncontrolled disasters requires that recovery measures are in place Redundancy may be used –Very expensive, especially in distributed systems Other measures must be taken

38 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition38 The Business Recovery Plan Business recovery plan: a plan about how to recover from a disaster –Also called disaster recovery plan, business resumption plan, or business continuity plan Nine steps to develop a business recovery plan: 1.Obtain management’s commitment to the plan 2.Establish a planning committee 3.Perform risk assessment and impact analysis 4.Prioritize recovery needs Mission-critical applications: those without which the business cannot conduct operations

39 The Business Recovery Plan (continued) Nine steps to develop a business recovery plan (continued): 5.Select a recovery plan 6.Select vendors 7.Develop and implement the plan 8.Test the plan 9.Continually test and evaluate The plan should include key personnel and their responsibilities Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition39

40 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition40 Recovery Planning and Hot Site Providers Can outsource recovery plans to firms that specialize in disaster recover planning Hot sites: alternative sites that a business can use when a disaster occurs –Backup sites provide desks, computer systems, and Internet links

41 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition41 The Economics of Information Security Security measures should be regarded as analogous to insurance Spending for security measures should be proportional to the potential damage A business must assess the minimum acceptable rate of system downtime and ensure that the company can financially sustain the downtime

42 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition42 How Much Security Is Enough Security? Two costs should be considered: –Cost of the potential damage –Cost of implementing a preventative measure As the cost of security measures increases, the cost of potential damage decreases –Companies try to find the optimal point The company must define what needs to be protected Security measures should never exceed the value of protected system

43 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition43 How Much Security Is Enough Security? (continued)

44 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition44 Calculating Downtime Businesses should try to minimize downtime, but the benefit of greater uptime must be compared to the added cost Mission-critical systems must be connected to an alternative source of power, duplicated with a redundant system, or both Many ISs are now interfaced with other systems –Interdependent systems have greater downtime Redundancy reduces downtime

45 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition45 Summary The purpose of controls and security measures is to maintain the functionality of ISs Risks to ISs include risks to hardware, data, and networks, and natural disaster and vandalism Risks to data and applications include theft of information, identity theft, data alteration, data destruction, defacement of Web sites, viruses, worms, logic bombs, and nonmalicious mishaps Risks to online systems include denial of service and hijacking

46 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition46 Summary (continued) Controls are used to minimize disruption Access controls require information to be entered before resources are made available Atomic transactions ensure data integrity Firewalls protect against Internet attacks Encryption schemes scramble messages to protect them on the Internet A key is used to encrypt and decrypt messages

47 Management Information Systems, Sixth Edition47 Summary (continued) SSL, TLS, and HTTPS are encryption standards designed for the Web Keys and digital certificates can be purchased from a certificate authority Many organizations have business recovery plans, which may be outsourced Careful evaluation of the amount spent on security measures is necessary Redundancy reduces the probability of downtime Governments are obliged to protect citizens against crime and terrorism


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