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Chapter 14 Short-Term Financial Planning
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-1 Learning Objectives 1.Use the percent of sales method to forecast the financing requirements of a firm. 2.Describe the limitations of the percent of sales forecast methods. 3.Prepare a cash budget and use it to evaluate the amount and timing of a firm’s financing needs.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-2 FINANCIAL FORECASTING
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-3 Financial Forecasting Financial forecasting is the process of attempting to estimate a firm’s future financing requirements. Three basic steps are involved: 1.Project the firm’s sales revenues and expenses over the planning period. 2.Estimate the levels of investment in current and fixed assets that are needed to support the projected sales forecast. 3.Determine the firm’s financing needs throughout the planning period that are required to fund its assets.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-4 The Sales Forecast The key ingredient in a firm’s planning process is the sales forecast. It reflects: Past trend in sales that is expected to carry through into the new year; and The influence of any anticipated events that might materially affect that trend.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-5 Forecasting Financial Variables Traditional financial forecasting takes the sales forecast as a given and projects its impact on the firm’s various expenses, assets, and liabilities. Most common method used for making these projections is the percent of sales method.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-6 The Percent of Sales Method It involves estimating the level of an expense, asset, or liability for a future period as a percentage of the sales forecast. The percentages used can come from recent financial statements or from averages over past years, from the judgment of an analyst or some combination of sources. (See Table 14-1.)
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-7 Table 14-1
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-8 Spontaneous Financing Accrued expenses and accounts payable are the only liabilities allowed to vary with sales. Because they vary directly with the level of sales, they are referred to as sources of spontaneous financing.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-9 Discretionary Financing Needs (DFN) Requires explicit decisions on the part of the firm’s management every time funds are raised. Does not normally vary directly with the level of sales. Example: Notes payable, long-term debt, common stock, paid-in capital.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-10 Calculation of DFN: 4 Steps (example: Table 14-1) 1. Current assets as a % of sales: Convert each asset and liability account that varies directly with firm sales to a percentage of the current year’s sales Current Assets / Sales = $2M / $10M = 0.2 or 20%
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-11 Calculation of DFN 2.Predicting current assets: Project the level of each asset and liability account in the balance sheet using its percentage of sale multiplied by projected sales or by leaving the account balance unchanged when the account does not vary with the level of sales. Projected current assets = projected sales * (current assets/sales) = $12M *0.2 = $2.4M
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-12 Calculation of DFN 3.Predicting additional retained earnings: Project the addition to retained earnings available to help finance the firm’s operations. This equals projected net income for the period less planned common stock dividends.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-13 Calculation of DFN 4.Predicting DFN: Project the firm’s DFN as the projected level of total assets less projected liabilities and owners’ equity.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-14 DFN Relationships DFN = Predicted change in total assets – Predicted change in spontaneous liabilities – Predicted change in retained earnings Figure 14-1 graphically shows the relationship between growth rates for sales and DFN. At sales growth rate of 6.67%, DFN = 0, i.e., no need for external financing.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-15 Figure 14-1
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-16 Table 14-2
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-17 External Financing Needs (EFN) EFN includes all the firm’s needs for financing beyond the funds provided internally through the retention of earnings. EFN = Predicted change in total assets – Change in retained earnings.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-18 LIMITATIONS OF THE PERCENT OF SALES FORECASTING METHOD
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-19 Limitations of the Percent of Sales Forecasting Method The method provides reasonable estimates of financing requirements only when asset requirements and financing sources can be accurately forecast as a constant percent of sales (Figure 14-2A). However, this relationship may not always hold true: –Economies of scale are sometimes realized from investing in certain types of assets (Figure 14- 2B). –Some assets are lumpy assets or assets that must be purchased in large, nondivisible components (Figure 14-2C).
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-20 Figure 14-2a
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-21 Figure 14-2b
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-22 Figure 14-2c
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-23 CONSTRUCTING AND USING A CASH BUDGET
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-24 Budget Functions A budget is simply a forecast of future events. Budgets performs three functions: –They indicate the amount and timing of the firm’s needs for future financing. –They provide the basis for taking corrective action in the event budgeted figures do not match actual or realized figures. –They provide the basis for performance evaluation and control.
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-25 Cash Budget The cash budget represents a detailed plan of future cash flows and is composed of four elements: –Cash receipts –Cash disbursement –Net change in cash for the period –New financing needed See Table 14-3
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-26 Table 14-3
Copyright ©2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.14-27 Key Terms Budget Cash budget Discretionary financing External financing needs Intercept Percentage of sales method Slope coefficient Spontaneous financing
Chapter 14. Short-term Financial Planning Chapter Objectives Percent of sales method to forecast financing requirements Sustainable rate of growth Limitations.
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