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Schools and Society Workshop Dr Len Newton April 2011.

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1 Schools and Society Workshop Dr Len Newton April 2011

2 Aim To develop PGCE/GTP students’ understanding of curriculum developments and the implications of these for us as teachers.

3 Indicative learning outcomes Know the current structure of education and its origins Explore links between curriculum and its underpinning aims and values Consider the likely future directions of education in light of recent reforms and reviews Reflect on teachers’ roles in implementing and shaping curriculum reforms

4 Warm up activity - 5 minutes! Qualifications conundrum Can you name them? Have you studied any of them? Are they still current? What’s on offer in your schools? There are one or two distracters!

5 Paired activity – minutes Your experience of Consider your own experience of schooling: Was it ‘mainstream’? What were the range of options available to you at age 14? How did you decide on your pathway? What factors shaped your decisions? What agency did you exercise in making choices? As the world is now, would you make the same decisions? Supplementary activity: ‘Put yourself first’ [5 minutes]

6 14-19 and ‘policy churn’ Contested territory! education has been the subject of a lot of debate. Which qualifications appear relatively stable? Academic/Vocational divide? Does it exist? What does it represent? What are its origins? How does any ‘divide’ appear in your subject?

7 Nuffield Review of Education and Training : October 2003 to September 2009 An independent review of Key question: What counts as an educated 19 year old in this day and age? What is your answer to this question?

8 Nuffield Review: 5 demands The re-assertion of a broader vision of education. System performance indicators ‘fit for purpose’. The re-distribution of power and decision-making. The creation of strongly collaborative local learning systems. The development of a more unified system of qualifications.

9 Nuffield Review: - about 15 minutes Summary hand out Read sections: ‘The Key Question’ ‘Overall Conclusions’ What is the groups’ viewpoint on: a ‘broader vision’ of education ‘measures of success’ ‘voice of the learner’ ‘unified qualifications system’

10 p3 ‘Values shape all that we do and decide, not least in education. The values we hold affect our opinions…’

11 Going deeper What ideologies and values underpin your own approach to education?

12 Activity: ‘Exploring Educational Philsophies’ Use the educational philosophies audit tool to explore your educational beliefs and values. How might these have shifted during the PGCE course so far? What is the range of beliefs and values represented in the group? Going deeper… The next few slides explore the main features of each of the four educational codes and offer critiques. Source: Bottery, M. (1990) The Morality of the School. London Continuum Books.

13 Cultural Transmission This ideology attaches great value to cultural heritage; education is seen as a perfect vehicle for passing a cultural heritage on to the younger generation. Teachers are seen as guardians and transmitters of cultural heritage and values; pupils ‘receive’ the cultural heritage passively. BOTTERY’S KEY QUESTIONS: This is a conservative ideology. Shouldn’t we be more critical about our cultural heritage? To say “we did it in this way in the past so we should do it in the same way now” is not socially progressive.

14 Child-centred A child-centred approach puts the child’s interests and experiences at the centre of educational provision. Within this approach, the child is seen as active and involved. It is through the child’s activity that learning primarily takes place. The teacher is more a facilitator of learning than an instructor. BOTTERY’S KEY QUESTIONS: In allowing children to develop naturally, are we limiting them to their own interests? Is the focus on individuals more or less an abdication of social responsibility? Could each child become a law unto herself or himself?

15 Social constructionist The aim of the social reconstructionist is to reform society through education. As in the child centred view, the teacher is seen here as a facilitator rather than an instructor but also a critical guide, and in some sense, a guardian of values from the past. The child is again seen as active, developing a critical identity through social interaction. BOTTERY’S KEY QUESTIONS: Isn’t it rather too much to ask the teacher to be a social reformer? Why should a teacher have a moral right to be a social reformer? Might not valuable aspects of your cultural heritage be neglected in the passion for social reconstruction?

16 GNP Code This is an economic educational ideology in which the school’s primary purpose is to provide a well-trained workforce which can compete in the world economy. The teacher is seen as a trainer and transmitter. The pupil is seen primarily as somebody who needs to fit into the economic machine. Initiative is only encouraged if it links into an occupational destination. BOTTERY’S KEY QUESTIONS: Doesn’t a focus on work-related skills and issues narrow the curriculum? Shouldn’t education be preparing pupils for a life which involves more than just the economy? Shouldn’t education involve some criticism of an economy-driven model?

17 Comfort break!

18 14-19 Where are we now? In 2005, the government published the White Paper Education and Skills, which set out a 10-year programme of reforms to transform the education system for year olds in England. This included proposals to reform the qualifications offer, such as introducing Diplomas, a new suite of qualifications, and the expansion of Apprenticeships. Phased implementation of the Diplomas began during the academic year 2008/09.

19 /Where are we now? In March 2008, a consultation document on qualifications, entitled Promoting Achievement, Valuing Success: A Strategy for Qualifications, was published. This emphasised the complexity of the existing qualification offer and set out proposals to reform qualifications in England, with the intention of achieving a more rational and streamlined qualifications system by 2013.

20 The picture in April 2010

21 14-19 Progression Routes

22 Possible Diploma issues

23 Diploma lines planned From 2008 Construction & Built Environment Creative &Media Engineering Information Technology Society Health & Development From 2009 Business, Administration & Finance Environment & Land- based Studies Hair & Beauty Studies Hospitality Manufacturing & Product Design

24 Diploma lines planned From 2010 Public Services Retail Business Sports and Active Leisure Travel and Tourism From 2011 Humanities Languages Science

25 Since the General Election of May 2010 Removal of Diploma entitlement – schools free to chose Phase 4 Diploma development in Science; Languages and Humanities stopped (earlier ones continue) Extended Diploma development (equivalent to 4.5 A levels) stopped State schools can now offer iGCSEs in English, mathematics, science and ICT Review of Vocational Education –Wolf Review (now published) Schools White Paper 2011 Review of the National Curriculum

26 Wolf argues that for between a quarter and a third of the post-16 cohort there is 'a diet of low-level vocational qualifications, most of which have little to no labour market value‘ among year olds, at least 350,000 get 'little to no benefit from the post-16 education system‘ There have been 'well-meaning attempts to pretend that everything is worth the same as everything else‘

27 Wolf Review – key recommendations the government should ensure league table measures do not give schools perverse incentives to divert low-attaining pupils onto courses and qualifications that are not recognised by employers or accepted by colleges students in full-time education should not follow a programme which is entirely 'occupational'. Programmes for the lowest attainers should concentrate on the core academic skills of English and maths. Students under 19 without a good GCSE pass in English and/or maths should be required to follow a course leading either directly to these qualifications or towards future GCSE course entry. Key Skills should not be considered a suitable qualification in this context. Funding for full-time students aged should be on a programme basis, with a given level of funding per student. Employers who take on year old apprentices should be eligible for payments, as they are bearing some of the cost of students with a right to free education. Teachers qualified to teach in FE colleges should automatically be qualified to teach in schools (which is not currently the case). The government should introduce a league table measure which focuses on the whole distribution of performance within a school, including those at both the top and bottom ends of the distribution.

28 Gove immediately accepts 4 recommendations To allow qualified further education lecturers to teach in school classrooms on the same basis as qualified school teachers. To clarify the rules on allowing industry professionals to teach in schools. To allow any vocational qualification offered by a regulated awarding body to be taken by 14 – 19 year- olds. To allow established high-quality vocational qualifications that have not been accredited to be offered in schools and colleges in September 2011.

29 Your views…? On the range and purpose of qualifications in your subject? What does you subject association (ASE, NATE, ATM etc) say? On widening the teaching force in schools and colleges to include FE and industry professionals? On the need for all young people to pursue qualifications in Maths and English? To ‘skew’ what is valued in educational outcomes by introducing the English BAC? Your role as a teacher? Your agency as a professional?

30 Indicative learning outcomes Know the current structure of education and its origins Explore links between curriculum and its underpinning aims and values Consider the likely future directions of education in light of recent reforms and reviews Reflect on teachers’ roles in implementing and shaping curriculum reforms


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