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ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 14: The.

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1 ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 14: The Sociology of the Body Health, Illness, and Sexuality 1

2 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Important topics Social forces and the body Theoretical approaches to health and illness Alternative medicine Health inequalities Global health and infectious diseases Sexuality and society 2

3 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Sociology of the body Explores the relationship between society and the body Examines the ways that cultural and social factors affect health and other conditions of the body 3

4 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Bodies 4

5 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Society and eating A dual example of a sociological approach to understanding the body: our relationship with food. –Eating disorders –Obesity 5

6 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Anorexia and bulimia 90% of those with eating disorders are women 20% of anorexics will die from anorexia Our diet culture: –25% of men and 45% of women are dieting –60% of girls age 13 diet –Over 80% of girls age 18 diet 6

7 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. BMI BMI = 703 x ____weight ___ height x height _____________________________________ Note: Weight in pounds, and height in inches. Category BMI Range Underweight < 18.5 Normal weight 18.5–24.9 Overweight 25.0–29.9 Obese I 30.0–34.9 Obese II 35.0–39.9 Obese III (Morbidly Obesity) __________________________________________________ Source: National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute

8 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Obesity epidemic in the U.S. 1990: 0 states > 15% obese 2008: 32 states > 25% obese We live in an “obesogenic” social environment Poverty also contributes to obesity Despite the fact that over 60 percent of adults are overweight, there remains a powerful stigma attached to obesity. 8

9 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Socialization of nature Processes that were once natural, or biological, are now influenced by social forces and social decisions. Norms and culture can lead to unhealthy behaviors. Society, then, is affecting the body. 9

10 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Being ill A phenomenological or symbolic interactionist approach to illness: what is the experience of being sick? How are daily patterns, relationships, and activities disrupted? How do we react? How do we cope? How do we deal with stigma? 10

11 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. The sick role A functionalist approach looks at how the sick person tries to minimize any damage her illness might create. The sick role has three basic expectations; they are: –Not responsible for the poor health –Entitled to release from normal duties –Expected to work to get well 11

12 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Alternative medicine The norm in Western societies is a biomedical model of health. Increasingly alternative forms of medicine are now available. –Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) –Traditional Chinese medicine –Osteopathy 12

13 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Health inequalities Improvements in health and healthcare are not equally distributed among societies. There are inequalities both within and between countries dealing with: –Class –Race –Gender 13

14 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. The spread of diseases Infectious diseases are often spread through travel and high population density. Colonialism was a major engine for the spread of disease. –New diseases were introduced to populations. –New farming techniques led to problems. Infectious diseases are still a much bigger problem in the developing world today. 14

15 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. HIV/AIDS Despite significant advances in treatment, HIV/AIDS remains a global epidemic. Major inequalities persist in terms of access to treatment and diagnosis of new cases. The majority of new cases are heterosexuals. Almost half are women. Over half are in sub-Saharan Africa. 15

16 Map 14.1 The Number of HIV- Positive People around the World Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

17 Looking AIDS in the Face Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

18 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Barriers to success Money Stigma Lack of nutrition Lack of medical literacy Ongoing mother  child transmission Economic impact keeps deepening the spiral 18

19 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Sex and sexuality Sex norms vary considerably across cultures. There are many possible sexualities (not just heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual). There are great variations in norms of sex practice as well as sexual attractiveness. 19

20 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Sex in Western culture Increasingly permissive Increasingly egalitarian according to gender 1960s era was the shifting point Men are happy with the increasingly open sexuality of women, but also a bit undone or confused by it. 20

21 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Social Influences on Sexual Behavior Number of Sex Partners Since Age 18 Total average Men Women GENDER 18 – – – – – 59 Never married Married Divorced * AGE MARITAL STATUS 0 partners 1 partner 2–4 partners 5–10 partners 11–20 partners 21+ partners Median number of sex partners since age 18 % of the population0%25%50%75% % of the population0%25%50%75% * Divorced, widowed, or separated 0%25%50%75% 100% Living aloneLiving with someone % of the population SOURCE: Laumann et al Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company Sex in America 21

22 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Social Influences on Sexual Behavior Number of Sex Partners Since Age 18 Some high school High school graduate Some college College graduate Advanced degree EDUCATION No religion Mainline Protestant Conservative Protestant Catholic Jewish Other religion White Black Hispanic Asian Native American RELIGION RACE & ETHNICITY 0 partners 1 partner 2–4 partners 5–10 partners 11–20 partners 21+ partners Median number of sex partners since age 18 % of the population0%25%50%75% % of the population0%25%50%75% 0%25%50%75% 100% SOURCE: Laumann et al Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company % of the population Sex in America 22

23 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Sexual orientation Homosexuality was once seen as mental illness. The bigger question today: is it social or biological? Most sociologists believe it is a combination. While attitudes have clearly shifted, homophobia and overt discrimination and violence remain. 23

24 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Gay and lesbian rights Is this a civil rights issue? What is being sought? –Anti-discrimination laws –Marriage rights –Adoption rights 24

25 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint Presentation for For more learning resources, please visit our online StudySpace at: 25 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Chapter 14: The Sociology of the Body

26 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 1. Which of the following best describes the field known as “sociology of the body”? a. It investigates how and why our bodies are affected by our social experiences and the norms and values of the groups to which we belong. b. It investigates any kind of regular intervention we make into the functioning of our bodies in order to alter them in specific ways. c. It investigates anything we use to adorn our bodies, such as glasses, watches, and jewelry. d. It investigates the increasing use of such devices as cell phones, pagers, and hand-held computing devices that make it possible for people to communicate over large distances. 26

27 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 2. What is the “socialization of nature”? a. Phenomena that used to be “natural,” or given by nature (such as the circumstances under which a woman can get pregnant), have now become “social”—they depend on our own social decisions (such as coming off the birth control pill or not using condoms). b. It is the use of agricultural land for house building and of nature reserves for tourism. c. It is the public ownership of natural resources. d. It is the provision of birth control and abortion by public hospitals. 27

28 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 3. According to Talcott Parsons, which of the following is one of the three pillars of the sick role? a. The sick person is personally responsible for being sick. b. The sick person is not entitled to withdrawal from normal responsibilities. c. The sick person should work to regain health by exercising and dieting. d. The sick person should consult a medical expert. 28

29 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 4. Anorexia and obesity are both conditions of the body, yet the causes reflect a. social factors more than physical or biological factors. b. the changing expectations about men’s and women’s roles. c. the spread of fast food restaurants over the past forty years. d. increased globalization and contact among societies with different standards. 29

30 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 5. Most sociologists currently believe that sexual orientation a. results from biological factors. b. results from social factors. c. results from both biological and social factors. d. results primarily from biological factors and secondarily from social factors. 30

31 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 6. Which of the following is a part of what Kelly Brownell calls the “obesogenic environment”? a. sedentary jobs, which have replaced physical jobs such as farming b. restaurants that no longer offer “kids meals,” which provided smaller portions c. large grocery stores that are popping up in poor neighborhoods and selling low-cost produce d. lack of sidewalks in rural and suburban areas, which make exercising outdoors potentially harmful 31

32 Art Presentation Slides Chapter 14 Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr The Sociology of the Body: Health, Illness, and Sexuality

33 Chapter Opener Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

34 The first woman is painfully thin as a result of famine and malnutrition, sadly common problems in areas of the world plagued by frequent drought and crop failure. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

35 The second has become painfully thin by her own doing; people suffering from anorexia feel compelled by a variety of personal and social pressures to lose weight, and will often continue to view themselves as overweight even when they have reached a state of emaciation. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

36 The third woman is severely overweight and is preparing for a dangerous gastric bypass surgery. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

37 Why do many parents turn to fast food to feed their families? What are the consequences? Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

38 Ayurvedic treatment: Ayurvedic physician Kumar Das uses a hot iron rod and fabric soaked in herbs to heal an arthritic hip. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

39 Dr. Regina Benjamin, a family physician dedicated to serving the working- class families in a small shrimping community on the Gulf Coast, visits one of her patients at home. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

40 Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

41 Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

42 Looking AIDS in the Face Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

43 Map 14.1 The Number of HIV- Positive People around the World Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

44 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Sex in America Social Influences on Sexual Behavior Number of Sex Partners Since Age 18 Total average Men Women GENDER 18 – – – – – 59 Never married Married Divorced * AGE MARITAL STATUS 0 partners 1 partner 2–4 partners 5–10 partners 11–20 partners 21+ partners Median number of sex partners since age 18 % of the population0%25%50%75% % of the population0%25%50%75% * Divorced, widowed, or separated 0%25%50%75% 100% Living aloneLiving with someone % of the population SOURCE: Laumann et al Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

45 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Sex in America Social Influences on Sexual Behavior Number of Sex Partners Since Age 18 Some high school High school graduate Some college College graduate Advanced degree EDUCATION No religion Mainline Protestant Conservative Protestant Catholic Jewish Other religion White Black Hispanic Asian Native American RELIGION RACE & ETHNICITY 0 partners 1 partner 2–4 partners 5–10 partners 11–20 partners 21+ partners Median number of sex partners since age 18 % of the population0%25%50%75% % of the population0%25%50%75% 0%25%50%75% 100% SOURCE: Laumann et al Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company % of the population

46 The Stonewall Inn nightclub raid in 1969 is regarded as the first shot fired in the battle for gay rights in the United States. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

47 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned Essentials Of Sociology THIRD EDITION This concludes the Art Presentation Slides Slide Set for Chapter 14 by Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr


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