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PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Longenecker Moore Petty Palich © 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. CHAPTER 14 Product and Supply Chain Management Focusing on the Customer: Marketing Growth Strategies Part 4
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–2 Looking AHEAD 1.Explain the challenges associated with growth in a small firm. 2.Explain the role of innovation in a firm’s growth. 3.Identify stages in the product life cycle and the new product development process. 4.Describe the building of a firm’s total product. 5.Explain product strategy and the alternatives available to small businesses. 6.Describe the legal environment affecting product decisions. 7.Explain the importance of supply chain management. 8.Specify the major considerations in structuring a distribution channel. After you have read this chapter, you should be able to:
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–3 To Grow or Not to Grow Growth sufficient to maintain the status quo is a goal of some entrepreneurs. Growing a business too quickly can be stressful for the small firm. A “growth trap” may occur when a firm’s growth soaks up cash faster than it can be generated. Growth also puts pressure on a small firm’s personnel.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–4 Innovation: A Path to Growth Competitive Advantage and Innovation Innovation and entrepreneurship often go hand-in- hand. Coming up with and perfecting new products or services is often not easy. The risk of failure increases when innovation is the goal. Innovation is a means by which a firm can sustain its competitive advantage.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–5 Reducing the Risk of Failure While Innovating Base innovative efforts on your experience. Focus on products or services that have been largely overlooked. Be sure there is a market for the product or service you are hoping to create. Pursue innovation that customers will perceive as adding value to their lives. Focus on new ideas that will lead to more than one product or service. Raise sufficient capital to launch the new product or service.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–6 Sustainability and Innovation Sustainable Competitive Advantage (SCA) A value-creating position likely to endure over time Is difficult to imitate Creates high barriers to market entry Can be patented or copyrighted Is renewable at higher performance capabilities Stages in the Competitive Advantage Life Cycle Develop: invest resources Deploy: boost performance Decline: competitors overcome advantage
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–7 The Competitive Advantage Life Cycle 14-1
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–8 Sustaining Competitive Advantage 14-2
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–9 The Product Life Cycle and New Product Development Product Life Cycle A detailed picture of what happens to a specific product’s sales and profits over time Promotion, pricing, and distribution policies must be adjusted to the product’s position on the curve. It is important to rejuvenate product lines before they die. The life cycle of a product follows the classic sigmoid curve—innovation is necessary for a firm’s survival.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–10 The Product Life Cycle 14-3
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–11 New Product Development Process Idea Accumulation Business Analysis New Product Development Product Testing
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–12 New Product Development Process Idea Accumulation Increasing the number of ideas under consideration Sources for ideas –Sales, engineering, or other personnel within the firm –Government-owned patents –Privately owned patents listed by the U.S. Patent Office –Small companies available for acquisition or merger –Competitors’ products and advertising –Requests and suggestions from customers
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–13 New Product Development Process Business Analysis Testing to determine if an idea can be profitable. Key factors to consider: Product’s relationship to the existing product line Cost of development and introduction Available personnel and facilities Competition and market acceptance
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–14 New Product Development Process (cont’d) Development of the Product Branding, packaging, pricing, and promotion Product Testing Proving the product design through consumer reaction to the product.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–15 Building the Total Product Branding A verbal and/or symbolic means of identifying a product. Brand Name A brand that can be spoken (tangible) Brand Mark A brand that cannot be spoken (tangible) Brand Image Symbolic (Intangible)
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–16 Components of a Brand Identity 14-4
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–17 Building the Total Product (cont’d) Rules for Naming a Product: 1. Select a name that is easy to pronounce and remember. 2. Choose a descriptive name. 3. Use a name that can have legal protection. 4. Select a name with promotional properties. 5. Select a name that can be used on several product lines of a similar nature.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–18 Building the Total Product (cont’d) Designing a Logo: 1. Be simple. 2. Leave it open to interpretation. 3. Be relentlessly consistent. 4. Don’t be embarrassed about design. 5. Get good advice. 6. Don’t expect miracles.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–19 Protecting the Product Offering Trademark An identifying feature used to distinguish a manufacturer’s product Service Mark A legal term indicating the exclusive right to use a brand to identify a service. Vinnie’s Villa ™
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–20 Building the Total Product (cont’d) Packaging Color, design, and protection for the product. Labeling Shows the brand and informs the consumer about product features, correct use, and care. Making Warranties A promise that the product will perform at a certain level or meet certain standards. Implied and written warranties Policy considerations: Cost, service capability, competitive practices, customer perceptions, legal implications
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–21 Product Strategy The way the product component of the marketing mix is used to achieve a firm’s objectives. Product item –The lowest common denominator in the product mix—the individual item Product line –The sum of the related individual product items Product mix –A firm’s total product lines Product mix consistency –The similarity of product lines in a product mix
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–22 Product Lines and Product Mix for 180s LLC 14-5 Source: http://www.180s.com, accessed January 23, 2007.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–23 Product Strategy (cont’d) Product A total bundle of satisfaction—a service, a good, or both—offered to consumers in an exchange transaction. Includes both the main element (physical product or core service) and complementary components (features).
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–24 Services Marketing versus Goods Marketing 14-6
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–25 Product Strategy Options Key to Strategy Alternatives (1) One product/one market(3) Modified product/one market(5) Multiple products/one market (2) One product/multiple markets(4) Modified product/multiple markets(6) Multiple products/multiple markets One Market Multiple Markets One Product Modified Product Multiple Products (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Product MixStrategy AlternativesTarget Market(s)
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–26 The Legal Environment Consumer Protection Labeling Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 –Listing of contents –Proper care and use Product safety Consumer Product Safety Act of 1972 Packaging Use instructions Disposal
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–27 Protecting Marketing Assets 14-7
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–28 The Legal Environment (cont’d) Trademark Protection The Lanham Trademark Act grants exclusive rights of use of a registered non-generic name, symbol or other mark to identify a product or service. Trademarks are researched and then registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Loss of rights If the mark enters into use as a generic term. If the mark is not labeled with the symbols tm or® or the phrase “Registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.”
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–29 The Legal Environment (cont’d) Patent Protection The registered, exclusive right of an inventor to make, use, or sell and invention. Utility patent Registered protection for a new process or product’s function Design patent Registered protection for the appearance of a product and its inseparable parts Plant patent Registered protection for any distinct and new variety of plant
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–30 Protecting a Product Offering (cont’d) Copyright The exclusive right of a creator to reproduce, publish, perform, display, or sell his or her works. Copyright notice –Copyright symbol © –Year the work was published –Copyright owner’s name Trade Dress Elements of a firm’s distinctive image (“look”) not protected by a trademark, patent, or copyright.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–31 Supply Chain Management Integrates and coordinates the means by which a firm creates or develops a product or service and delivers it to customers. Distribution Physically moving products and establishing intermediary relationships to support such movement.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–32 Supply Chain Management (cont’d) Physical Distribution (Logistics) The activities of distribution involved in the physical relocation of products. Channel of Distribution The system of relationships established to guide the movement of a product.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–33 Supply Chain Management (cont’d) Channels of Distribution Direct Channel Dual Distribution Indirect Channel
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–34 Supply Chain Management (cont’d) Factors in Building a Distribution Channel Cost to Establish Channel Control of Distribution Market Coverage of Channel
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–35 Supply Chain Management (cont’d) Functions of Intermediaries Perform the marketing function better. Provide efficient distribution of the product. Types of Intermediaries Merchant middlemen Take title to the goods they distribute. Agents/brokers Do not take title to the goods they distribute.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–36 Alternative Channels of Distribution 14-8
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–37 The Scope of Physical Distribution Transportation—Which Mode to Use? Common Carriers Private Carriers Contract Carriers
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–38 The Scope of Physical Distribution (cont’d) Storage Lack of storage space is a common problem. Materials Handling Protecting the firm’s output during warehousing. Specifying Responsibility for Delivery Terms Paying freight costs—F.O.B. origin, freight collect. Selecting the carriers. Bearing the risk of damage. Selecting the modes of transport.
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–39 The Scope of Physical Distribution (cont’d) Logistics Companies Firms which specialize in providing cost-effective transportation, storage, and distribution services to small companies. Trucking Packaging Warehousing
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–40 Key TERMS sustainable competitive advantage (SCA) product life cycle brand brand image brand name brand mark trademark service mark warranty product strategy product item product line product mix product mix consistency product patent utility patent design patent plant patent copyright trade dress supply chain management distribution physical distribution (logistics) channel of distribution merchant middlemen agents/brokers
© 2008 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.14–41 Key TERMS direct channel indirect channel dual distribution common carriers contract carriers private carriers
PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama Copyright © 2006 Thomson Business & Professional Publishing. All rights reserved.
© 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible Web site, in whole or in part.
1.Recognize the challenges associated with the growth of a small business. 2.Explain the role of innovation role in a company’s growth. 3.Identify stages.
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