Presentation on theme: "HONORS BIOLOGY CHAPTER 5 REVIEW. #1 Why is fluid mosaic a good description of the plasma membrane? Structures shift in place Watery hydrophilic heads."— Presentation transcript:
HONORS BIOLOGY CHAPTER 5 REVIEW
#1 Why is fluid mosaic a good description of the plasma membrane? Structures shift in place Watery hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic (fatty tails)
#1 Why is the cell membrane called a phospholipid bilayer? Two layers of phospho heads and fatty acid tails
#2 Six functions of proteins in a plasma membrane: p.74 Attach to ECM Signal transduction Transport Intercellular junction Cell-cell recognition Enzymatic activity
#3 Can easily enter Hydrophobic molecules (oil soluble): O 2, N 2 Nonpolar: benzene Very small uncharged or small polar molecules: H 2 O, Urea, glycerol, CO 2 Can NOT easily enter Large uncharged Glucose,Sucrose Polar molecules sucrose (see OH groups) Hydrophilic Ions (charged) H+, Na+, HCO3, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, Mg2+
#4 3 types of passive transport Diffusion-just passing of hi to low Osmosis-passing of water thru a selectively permeable memb. Facilitated – Hi to low through a protein channel
#5 What does it mean to go “down the gradient?” Move from hi to low concentration What does it mean to go “against the gradient? Move from low to high (with energy)
#6 What direction does the water flow if a cell of 4% solutes is placed in: 10% 4%0%
#6 What direction does the water flow if a cell of 4% solutes is placed in: REMEMBER: HYPO TO HYPER 10% 4%0% 4%
#7 What is tonicity? Measure of osmotic pressure gradient determined by the solute concentration that cannot cross the selectively permeable membrane
#7 Note water flows from high water concentration to low (hypo to hyper)
#8 Animal Cells
#9 How does the contractile vacuole control water in a paramecium? Contractile vacuole youtube Water squeezed out of vacuole
#10 What is an aquaporin? Integral membrane proteins moving water 3 billion more times than just moving through a regular plasma membrane
#11 Exocytosis and endocytosis are both active transport. Protein channels span the membrane. Endocytosis and exocytosis engulf the particle with the membrane.
#12 –Large liquid receptors Particle drops specific
#13 Ability to cause change or do work L. energy Thermal energy O. heat
13 Energy as a result of location or structure I. potential Type of energy released or need in molecules N. chemical
#13 Study of energy transformations M thermodynamics Reaction that releases energy E. exergonic
#13 Makes products rich in potential energy G. Endergonic Energy of motion J. kinetic
#13 Measure of disorder B. Entropy Energy in the universe is constant C.1st Law of Thermodynamics
#13 Energy from exergonic to run endergonic K. Energy coupling Total of an organism’s chemical reactions F. metabolism
#13 Series of chemical reactions. A. Metabolic pathway
#13 Energy conversions increase the entropy D. 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics Cells use oxygen to release energy from molecules H. Cellular respiration
#14 What does ATP stand for? Adenosine triphosphate
#15 What part of the ATP molecule is lost or gained? Phosphate Is ATP recyclable? YES
#16 Is ATP made by phosphorylation? YES ADP + P = ATP ADP is made by hydrolysis. ATP = ADP + P
#17 Is ATP made from exergonic reactions or endergonic? Endergonic
#18 What is activation energy? Amount of energy needed to get a reaction going. Why is this energy needed? Reactants are stable and bonds need to be broken or distorted.
#18 How do enzymes affect the amount of activation energy needed? Reduces the activation energy needed Why? Enzyme brings the reactants together.
#19 Why are enzymes called “Biological catalysts? They are proteins (biological) and speed up reactions without changing themselves.
#20 SKETCH HOW AN ENZYME WORKS:
#21 What is the purpose of the “induced fit” of an enzyme-substrate complex? The enzyme slightly changes the shape of the active site to contort/break substrate bonds.
#22 Why might too high temperatures make an enzyme not function properly? Denature (unravel) the enzyme and change the shape of the active site.
#23 What is the optimal temperature for most human enzymes? o C What is the optimal pH for most enzymes? 6-8
#24 What is the difference between cofactors and coenzymes? Cofactors are inorganic and coenzymes are organic.
#25 Sketch an enzyme with a competitive inhibitor.
#26 Sketch an enzyme and its substrate with a noncompetitive inhibitor.
#28 What is it called if a cell produces more product than it needs and the product act as an inhibitor? Feedback inhibition (negative feedback)
#29 MATCH Inhibits prostanglandins (sensation of pain) Blocks bact. Cell walls Blood pressure meds Target HIV Ibuprofen Penicillin Beta blockers Protease inhibitors
#31 LABEL THE PLASMA MEMBRANE: Phospho head A1 Cholesterol E Lipid tail A2 Protein pump G Carbohydrate chain D Glycolipid F
#31 Peripheral protein Glycoprotein Phospholipid Receptor protein Passive transport protein H I A B C
32. If given the concentrations in and out of dialysis tubing of sucrose solutions predict movement of distilled water. 1M 0.8 M 0.6 M 0.4 M 0.2 M 0.0 M
32. movement of water If given the concentrations in and out of dialysis tubing of sucrose solutions predict movement of distilled water. 1M in tube 0.8 M in tube 0.6 M in tube 0.4 M in tube 0.2 M in tube 0.0 M in/out
What is the molarity of the potato core? (where line crosses zero line) 0.3M