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Chemical Kinetics Chapter 13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

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Presentation on theme: "Chemical Kinetics Chapter 13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chemical Kinetics Chapter 13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Chemical Kinetics Thermodynamics – does a reaction take place? Kinetics – how fast does a reaction proceed? Reaction rate is the change in the concentration of a reactant or a product with time (M/s). A B rate = -  [A] tt rate =  [B] tt  [A] = change in concentration of A over time period  t  [B] = change in concentration of B over time period  t Because [A] decreases with time,  [A] is negative. 13.1

3 A B 13.1 rate = -  [A] tt rate = [B][B] tt time

4 Br 2 (aq) + HCOOH (aq) 2Br - (aq) + 2H + (aq) + CO 2 (g) time 393 nm light Detector  [Br 2 ]   Absorption 13.1

5 Br 2 (aq) + HCOOH (aq) 2Br - (aq) + 2H + (aq) + CO 2 (g) average rate = -  [Br 2 ] tt = - [Br 2 ] final – [Br 2 ] initial t final - t initial slope of tangent slope of tangent slope of tangent instantaneous rate = rate for specific instance in time 13.1

6 rate  [Br 2 ] rate = k [Br 2 ] k = rate [Br 2 ] 13.1 = rate constant = 3.50 x s -1

7 2H 2 O 2 (aq) 2H 2 O (l) + O 2 (g) PV = nRT P = RT = [O 2 ]RT n V [O 2 ] = P RT 1 rate =  [O 2 ] tt RT 1 PP tt = measure  P over time 13.1

8

9 Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry A B Two moles of A disappear for each mole of B that is formed. rate =  [B] tt rate = -  [A] tt 1 2 aA + bB cC + dD rate = -  [A] tt 1 a = -  [B] tt 1 b =  [C] tt 1 c =  [D] tt 1 d

10 Write the rate expression for the following reaction: CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O (g) rate = -  [CH 4 ] tt = -  [O 2 ] tt 1 2 =  [H 2 O] tt 1 2 =  [CO 2 ] tt 13.1

11 The Rate Law 13.2 The rate law expresses the relationship of the rate of a reaction to the rate constant and the concentrations of the reactants raised to some powers. aA + bB cC + dD Rate = k [A] x [B] y reaction is xth order in A reaction is yth order in B reaction is (x +y)th order overall

12 F 2 (g) + 2ClO 2 (g) 2FClO 2 (g) rate = k [F 2 ] x [ClO 2 ] y Double [F 2 ] with [ClO 2 ] constant Rate doubles x = 1 Quadruple [ClO 2 ] with [F 2 ] constant Rate quadruples y = 1 rate = k [F 2 ][ClO 2 ] 13.2

13 F 2 (g) + 2ClO 2 (g) 2FClO 2 (g) rate = k [F 2 ][ClO 2 ] Rate Laws Rate laws are always determined experimentally. Reaction order is always defined in terms of reactant (not product) concentrations. The order of a reactant is not related to the stoichiometric coefficient of the reactant in the balanced chemical equation

14 Determine the rate law and calculate the rate constant for the following reaction from the following data: S 2 O 8 2- (aq) + 3I - (aq) 2SO 4 2- (aq) + I 3 - (aq) Experiment [S 2 O 8 2- ][I - ] Initial Rate (M/s) x x x rate = k [S 2 O 8 2- ] x [I - ] y Double [I - ], rate doubles (experiment 1 & 2) y = 1 Double [S 2 O 8 2- ], rate doubles (experiment 2 & 3) x = 1 k = rate [S 2 O 8 2- ][I - ] = 2.2 x M/s (0.08 M)(0.034 M) = 0.08/M s 13.2 rate = k [S 2 O 8 2- ][I - ]

15 First-Order Reactions 13.3 A product rate = -  [A] tt rate = k [A] k = rate [A] = 1/s or s -1 M/sM/s M =  [A] tt = k [A] - [A] is the concentration of A at any time t [A] 0 is the concentration of A at time t=0 [A] = [A] 0 exp(-kt) ln[A] = ln[A] 0 - kt

16 13.3 2N 2 O 5 4NO 2 (g) + O 2 (g)

17 The reaction 2A B is first order in A with a rate constant of 2.8 x s -1 at 80 0 C. How long will it take for A to decrease from 0.88 M to 0.14 M ? ln[A] = ln[A] 0 - kt kt = ln[A] 0 – ln[A] t = ln[A] 0 – ln[A] k = 66 s [A] 0 = 0.88 M [A] = 0.14 M ln [A] 0 [A] k = ln 0.88 M 0.14 M 2.8 x s -1 = 13.3

18 First-Order Reactions 13.3 The half-life, t ½, is the time required for the concentration of a reactant to decrease to half of its initial concentration. t ½ = t when [A] = [A] 0 /2 ln [A] 0 [A] 0 /2 k = t½t½ ln2 k = k = What is the half-life of N 2 O 5 if it decomposes with a rate constant of 5.7 x s -1 ? t½t½ ln2 k = x s -1 = = 1200 s = 20 minutes How do you know decomposition is first order? units of k (s -1 )

19 A product First-order reaction # of half-lives [A] = [A] 0 /n

20 Second-Order Reactions 13.3 A product rate = -  [A] tt rate = k [A] 2 k = rate [A] 2 = 1/M s M/sM/s M2M2 =  [A] tt = k [A] 2 - [A] is the concentration of A at any time t [A] 0 is the concentration of A at time t=0 1 [A] = 1 [A] 0 + kt t ½ = t when [A] = [A] 0 /2 t ½ = 1 k[A] 0

21 Zero-Order Reactions 13.3 A product rate = -  [A] tt rate = k [A] 0 = k k = rate [A] 0 = M/s  [A] tt = k - [A] is the concentration of A at any time t [A] 0 is the concentration of A at time t=0 t ½ = t when [A] = [A] 0 /2 t ½ = [A] 0 2k2k [A] = [A] 0 - kt

22 Summary of the Kinetics of Zero-Order, First-Order and Second-Order Reactions OrderRate Law Concentration-Time Equation Half-Life rate = k rate = k [A] rate = k [A] 2 ln[A] = ln[A] 0 - kt 1 [A] = 1 [A] 0 + kt [A] = [A] 0 - kt t½t½ ln2 k = t ½ = [A] 0 2k2k t ½ = 1 k[A]

23 Exothermic ReactionEndothermic Reaction The activation energy (E a ) is the minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction A + B AB C + D + +

24 Temperature Dependence of the Rate Constant k = A exp( -E a / RT ) E a is the activation energy (J/mol) R is the gas constant (8.314 J/Kmol) T is the absolute temperature A is the frequency factor lnk = - EaEa R 1 T + lnA (Arrhenius equation) 13.4

25 lnk = - EaEa R 1 T + lnA

26 13.4

27 13.5 Reaction Mechanisms The overall progress of a chemical reaction can be represented at the molecular level by a series of simple elementary steps or elementary reactions. The sequence of elementary steps that leads to product formation is the reaction mechanism. 2NO (g) + O 2 (g) 2NO 2 (g) N 2 O 2 is detected during the reaction! Elementary step:NO + NO N 2 O 2 Elementary step:N 2 O 2 + O 2 2NO 2 Overall reaction:2NO + O 2 2NO 2 +

28 2NO (g) + O 2 (g) 2NO 2 (g) 13.5

29 Elementary step:NO + NO N 2 O 2 Elementary step:N 2 O 2 + O 2 2NO 2 Overall reaction:2NO + O 2 2NO 2 + Intermediates are species that appear in a reaction mechanism but not in the overall balanced equation. An intermediate is always formed in an early elementary step and consumed in a later elementary step. The molecularity of a reaction is the number of molecules reacting in an elementary step. Unimolecular reaction – elementary step with 1 molecule Bimolecular reaction – elementary step with 2 molecules Termolecular reaction – elementary step with 3 molecules

30 Unimolecular reactionA productsrate = k [A] Bimolecular reactionA + B productsrate = k [A][B] Bimolecular reactionA + A productsrate = k [A] 2 Rate Laws and Elementary Steps 13.5 Writing plausible reaction mechanisms: The sum of the elementary steps must give the overall balanced equation for the reaction. The rate-determining step should predict the same rate law that is determined experimentally. The rate-determining step is the slowest step in the sequence of steps leading to product formation.

31 13.5 Sequence of Steps in Studying a Reaction Mechanism

32 The experimental rate law for the reaction between NO 2 and CO to produce NO and CO 2 is rate = k[NO 2 ] 2. The reaction is believed to occur via two steps: Step 1:NO 2 + NO 2 NO + NO 3 Step 2:NO 3 + CO NO 2 + CO 2 What is the equation for the overall reaction? NO 2 + CO NO + CO 2 What is the intermediate? NO 3 What can you say about the relative rates of steps 1 and 2? rate = k[NO 2 ] 2 is the rate law for step 1 so step 1 must be slower than step

33 CH 2 2 CH 2 2 Chemistry In Action: Femtochemistry 13.5

34 A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed. k = A exp( -E a / RT )EaEa k rate catalyzed > rate uncatalyzed E a < E a ‘ 13.6 UncatalyzedCatalyzed

35 In heterogeneous catalysis, the reactants and the catalysts are in different phases. In homogeneous catalysis, the reactants and the catalysts are dispersed in a single phase, usually liquid. Haber synthesis of ammonia Ostwald process for the production of nitric acid Catalytic converters Acid catalysis Base catalysis 13.6

36 N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) Fe/Al 2 O 3 /K 2 O catalyst Haber Process 13.6

37 Ostwald Process Hot Pt wire over NH 3 solution Pt-Rh catalysts used in Ostwald process 4NH 3 (g) + 5O 2 (g) 4NO (g) + 6H 2 O (g) Pt catalyst 2NO (g) + O 2 (g) 2NO 2 (g) 2NO 2 (g) + H 2 O (l) HNO 2 (aq) + HNO 3 (aq) 13.6

38 Catalytic Converters 13.6 CO + Unburned Hydrocarbons + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O catalytic converter 2NO + 2NO 2 2N 2 + 3O 2 catalytic converter

39 Enzyme Catalysis 13.6

40 uncatalyzed enzyme catalyzed 13.6 rate =  [P] tt rate = k [ES]


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