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A House Divided, 1840–1861 Norton Media Library Chapter 13 Eric Foner

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1 A House Divided, 1840–1861 Norton Media Library Chapter 13 Eric Foner

2 I. Statue of Freedom

3 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny
Continental Expansion In the 1840s, slavery moved to the center stage of American politics Territorial expansion Oregon and California The Mormons’ Plight The Mormons had been founded in the 1820s by Joseph Smith The absolute authority Smith exercised over his followers, and the refusal of the Mormons to separate church and state, alarmed many neighbors polygamy Smith’s successor, Brigham Young, led his followers to Utah

4 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t)
The Mexican Frontier Mexico won its independence from Spain in 1821 Northern frontier was California, New Mexico, and Texas California’s non-Indian population in 1821 was vastly outnumbered by Indians Californios versus Indios The Texas Revolt The first part of Mexico to be settled by significant numbers of Americans was Texas Moses Austin

5 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t)
Alarmed that its grip on the area was weakening, the Mexican government in 1830 annulled existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the United States Stephen Austin led the call from American settlers demanding greater autonomy within Mexico General Antonio López de Santa Anna sent an army in 1835 to impose central authority Rebels formed a provisional government that soon called for Texan independence The Alamo Sam Houston Texas desired annexation into the United States, but neither Jackson nor Van Buren acted on that

6 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t)
Polk and Expansion The issue of Texas annexation was linked to slavery and affected the nominations of presidential candidates Clay and Van Buren James Polk, a Tennessee slaveholder and friend of Jackson, received the Democratic nomination supported Texas annexation supported “reoccupation” of all of Oregon Polk had four clearly defined goals reduce the tariff reestablish the independent treasury system settle the Oregon dispute bring California into the Union Polk initiated war with Mexico to get California

7 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t)
The Mexican-American War Although the majority of Americans supported the war, a vocal minority feared the only aim of the war was to acquire new land for the expansion of slavery Henry David Thoreau’s On Civil Disobedience Combat took place on three fronts California and the “bear flag republic” General Stephen Kearney and Sante Fe Winfield Scott and Central Mexico Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848

8 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t)
Race and Manifest Destiny A region that for centuries had been united was suddenly split in two, dividing families and severing trade routes “Male citizens” were guaranteed American rights Indians were described as “savage tribes” The spirit of manifest destiny gave a new stridency to ideas about racial superiority “Race” in the mid-nineteenth century was an amorphous notion involving color, culture, national origin, class, and religion

9 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t)
Redefining Race Mexico had abolished slavery and declared persons of Spanish, Indian, and African origin equal before the law The Texas constitution adopted after independence not only included protections for slavery but denied civil rights to Indians and persons of African origin Gold Rush California California’s gold rush population was incredibly diverse The explosive population growth and fierce competition for gold worsened conflicts among California’s many racial and ethnic groups The boundaries of freedom in California were tightly drawn The Indians were particularly hurt

10 III. A Dose of Arsenic The Wilmot Proviso
Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania in 1846 proposed a resolution prohibiting slavery from all territory acquired from Mexico In 1848, opponents of slavery’s expansion organized the Free Soil Party Martin Van Buren

11 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t)
The Free Soil Appeal The free soil position had a popular appeal in the North because it would limit southern power in the federal government Wage earners of the North also favored the free soil movement The Free Soil platform of 1848 called both for barring slavery from western territories and for the federal government to provide homesteads to settlers without cost

12 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t)
The South and the Expansion of Slavery To single out slavery as the one form of property barred from the West would be an affront to the South and its distinctive way of life The admission of new free states would overturn the delicate political balance between the sections and make the South a permanent minority

13 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t)
Crisis and Compromise 1848 was a year of revolution in Europe, only to be suppressed by counter-revolution With the slavery issue appearing more and more ominous, established party leaders moved to resolve differences between the sections The Compromise of 1850

14 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t)
The Great Debate Powerful leaders spoke for and against compromise Daniel Webster John Calhoun William Seward President Taylor died in office and Millard Fillmore secured the adoption of the Compromise

15 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t)
The Fugitive Slave Issue The Fugitive Slave Act allowed special federal commissioners to determine the fate of alleged fugitives without benefit of a jury trial or even testimony by the accused individual In a series of dramatic confrontations, fugitives, aided by abolitionist allies, violently resisted recapture The fugitive slave law also led several thousand northern blacks to flee to safety in Canada

16 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t)
The Kansas-Nebraska Act Franklin Pierce won the 1852 presidential race Stephen Douglas saw himself as the new leader of the Senate after the deaths of Calhoun, Clay, and Webster Douglas introduced a bill for statehood for Nebraska and Kansas so that a transcontinental railroad could be constructed Slavery would be settled by popular sovereignty The Appeal of the Independent Democrats was issued by antislavery congressmen

17 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t)
5. The Kansas-Nebraska bill became law, but shattered the Democratic party’s unity Whigs collapsed South was solidly Democratic Republican Party emerged to prevent the further expansion of slavery

18 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party
The Northern Economy The rise of the Republican party reflected underlying economic and social changes Railroad network By 1860, the North had become a complex, integrated economy Two great areas of industrial production had arisen Northeastern seaboard Great Lakes region

19 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t)
The Growth of Immigration Economic expansion fueled a demand for labor, which was met, in part, by increased immigration from abroad Ireland and Germany Settled in the northern states Numerous factors inspired this massive flow of population across the Atlantic European economic conditions American political and religious freedoms Refugees from disaster Irish potato famine

20 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t)
The second largest group of immigrants, Germans, included a considerably larger number of skilled craftsmen than the Irish The Rise and Fall of the Know-Nothings While immigrants from England were easily absorbed, those from Ireland encountered intense hostility Catholic Church The Irish influx thoroughly alarmed many native-born Americans “Nativists” claimed the Irish posed a threat to democratic institutions

21 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t)
Nativism emerged as a major political movement in 1854, with the sudden appearance of the American, or Know-Nothing Party All European immigrants benefited from being white suffrage The Free Labor Ideology Republicans managed to convince most northerners that the slave power posed a more immediate threat to their liberties and aspirations than “property” and immigration Appeal rested on the idea of “free labor”

22 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t)
“Free labor” could not compete with “slave labor” and so slavery’s expansion had to be halted to ensure freedom for the white laborer Republicans cried “freedom national”—meaning not abolition, but ending the federal government’s support of slavery Republicans were not abolitionists

23 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t)
Bleeding Kansas and the Election of 1856 “Bleeding Kansas” seemed to discredit Douglas’s policy of leaving the decision of slavery up to the local population, thus aiding the Republicans Civil War within Kansas Charles Sumner The election of 1856 demonstrated that parties had reoriented themselves along sectional lines

24 V. The Emergence of Lincoln
The Dred Scott Decision After having lived in free territories, the slave Dred Scott sued for his freedom The Supreme Court justices addressed three questions Could a black person be a citizen and therefore sue in federal court? Did residence in a free state make Scott free? Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory? Speaking for the majority, Chief Justice Roger A. Taney declared that only white persons could be citizens of the United States

25 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t)
Taney ruled that Congress possessed no power under the Constitution to bar slavery from a territory The decision in effect declared unconstitutional the Republican platform of restricting slavery’s expansion The Decision’s Aftermath Rather than abandoning their opposition to the expansion of slavery, Republicans now viewed the Court as controlled by the slave power Lecompton Constitution and Stephen Douglas

26 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t)
Lincoln and Slavery In seeking reelection, Douglas faced an unexpectedly strong challenge from Abraham Lincoln Although Lincoln hated slavery, he was willing to compromise with the South to preserve the Union Lincoln’s speeches combined the moral fervor of the abolitionists with the respect for order and the Constitution of more conservative northerners

27 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t)
The Lincoln-Douglas Campaign Lincoln campaigned against Douglas for Illinois’s senate seat The Lincoln-Douglas debates remain classics of American political oratory To Lincoln, freedom meant opposition to slavery Douglas argued that the essence of freedom lay in local self-government and individual self-determination Lincoln shared many of the racial prejudices of his day Douglas was reelected by a narrow margin

28 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t)
John Brown at Harpers Ferry An armed assault by the abolitionist John Brown on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, further heightened sectional tensions Brown had a long career of involvement in antislavery activities Placed on trial for treason to the state of Virginia, Brown’s execution turned him into a martyr to much of the North

29 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t)
The Rise of Southern Nationalism More and more southerners were speaking openly of southward expansion Ostend Manifesto William Walker and filibustering By the late 1850s, southern leaders were bending every effort to strengthen the bonds of slavery The Democratic Split The Democratic party was split with its nomination of Douglas in 1860 and the southern Democrats’ nomination of John Breckinridge

30 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t)
The Nomination of Lincoln Republicans nominated Lincoln over William Seward Lincoln appealed to many voters The party platform denied the validity of the Dred Scott decision opposed slavery’s expansion added economic initiatives

31 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t)
The Election of 1860 In effect, two presidential campaigns took place in 1860 The most striking thing about the election returns was their sectional character Without a single vote in ten southern states, Lincoln was elected the nation’s sixteenth president

32 VI. The Impending Crisis
The Secession Movement Rather than accept permanent minority status in a nation governed by their opponents, Deep South political leaders boldly struck for their region’s independence In the months that followed Lincoln’s election, seven states stretching from South Carolina to Texas seceded from the Union

33 VI. The Impending Crisis (con’t)
The Secession Crisis President Buchanan denied that a state could secede, but also insisted that the federal government had no right to use force against it The Crittenden plan was rejected by Lincoln The Confederate States of America was formed on March 4, 1861 Jefferson Davis as president

34 VI. The Impending Crisis (con’t)
And the War Came In time, Lincoln believed, secession might collapse from within Lincoln also issued a veiled warning: “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war” After the South fired upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to suppress the insurrection

35 The Trans-Mississippi West, 1840s • pg. 461

36 The Mexican War, 1846–1848 • pg. 465 The Mexican War, 1846–1848

37 Gold-Rush California • pg. 469

38 Continental Expansion through 1853 • pg. 471

39 The Compromise of 1850 • pg. 475 The Compromise of 1850

40 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 • pg. 477

41 The Railroad Network, 1850s • pg. 478

42 The Presidential Election of 1856 • pg. 485

43 The Presidential Election of 1860 • pg. 495

44 Table 13.1 • pg. 480

45 Table 13.2 • pg. 481

46 fig13_02a.jpg Page 459 (left): The original design for Thomas Crawford’s Statue of Freedom for the dome of the Capitol building. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis of Mississippi insisted that the liberty cap in the first design, a symbol of the emancipated slave in ancient Rome, be replaced. Credit: Reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress.

47 fig13_03.jpg Page 460: A rare photograph of wagons on their way to Oregon during the 1840s. Credit: National Archives and Records Administration 57-HS-277.

48 fig13_05.jpg Page 462: A flag carried at the Battle of San Jacinto during the Texas revolt of 1836 portrays a female figure displaying the rallying cry “Liberty or Death.” Credit: Courtesy of the State Preservation Board, Austin, Texas, photographer F. Thomson, Post 1990, CHA , post conservation.

49 fig13_07.jpg Page 466: As depicted in this 1853 engraving, Los Angeles was a tiny community when it became part of the United States as a result of the Mexican War. Credit: I.N. Phelps Stokes Collection, Mirriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints, and Photographs, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations.

50 fig13_09.jpg Page 468: A photograph of a Chinese immigrant carrying equipment used in California gold mining. Credit: Nevada Historical Society.

51 fig13_10.jpg Page 470: A poster offering passage to the California gold region from New Bedford, Massachusetts. Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.

52 fig13_11.jpg Page 473: The Hurly-Burly Pot, an 1850 cartoon based loosely on the witches’ scenes from Shakespeare’s Macbeth, criticizing northern and southern sectionalists said to be endangering the Union. From left to right, the figures are David Wilmot, who proposed the Proviso banning slavery from territory acquired from Mexico, abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, and New York antislavery newspaper editor Horace Greeley. Credit: Reproduced from the Collection of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ

53 fig13_12.jpg Page 474: An 1855 broadside depicting the life of Anthony Burns, a runaway slave captured in Boston and returned to the South in 1854 by federal officials enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act. Credit: Corbis.

54 fig13_16.jpg Page 486: Liberty, the Fair Maid of Kansas, in the Hands of the “Border Ruffians,” a cartoon blaming the Democratic Party for violence in Kansas in Leading Democrats surround the maid of liberty—from left to right, Secretary of State William L. Marcy, Democratic presidential candidate James Buchanan, President Franklin Pierce, Lewis Cass, the party’s candidate for president in 1848, and Stephen A. Douglas, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, shown scalping an Indian. Credit: Reproduced from the Collections of the Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, LC-USZ

55 fig13_18.jpg Page 488: Dred and Harriet Scott, as pictured in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, June 27, 1857, three months after the Supreme Court ruled that they must remain in slavery. Credit: Reproduced from the Collection of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ

56 fig13_22.jpg Page 496: An 1860 engraving of a mass meeting in Savannah, Georgia, shortly after Lincoln’s election as president, which called for the state to secede from the Union. The banner on the obelisk at the center reads, “Our Motto State’s Rights, Equality of the States, Don’t Tread on Me”—the last a slogan from the American Revolution. Credit: Reproduced from the Collection of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC

57 fig13_26.jpg Page 500: Young Girl with Portrait of George Washington. A patriotic photograph from around Ten years later it was not clear whether the nation Washington helped to create could survive. Credit: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of I.N. Phelps Stokes, Edward S. Hawes, Alice Mary Hawes, and Marion Augusta Hawes, ( ) Photograph, all rights reserved, The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

58 Go to website

59 Give Me Liberty! An American History
End chap. 13 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 13 Give Me Liberty! An American History by Eric Foner

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