3 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny Continental ExpansionIn the 1840s, slavery moved to the center stage of American politicsTerritorial expansionOregon and CaliforniaThe Mormons’ PlightThe Mormons had been founded in the 1820s by Joseph SmithThe absolute authority Smith exercised over his followers, and the refusal of the Mormons to separate church and state, alarmed many neighborspolygamySmith’s successor, Brigham Young, led his followers to Utah
4 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t) The Mexican FrontierMexico won its independence from Spain in 1821Northern frontier was California, New Mexico, and TexasCalifornia’s non-Indian population in 1821 was vastly outnumbered by IndiansCalifornios versus IndiosThe Texas RevoltThe first part of Mexico to be settled by significant numbers of Americans was TexasMoses Austin
5 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t) Alarmed that its grip on the area was weakening, the Mexican government in 1830 annulled existing land contracts and barred future emigration from the United StatesStephen Austin led the call from American settlers demanding greater autonomy within MexicoGeneral Antonio López de Santa Anna sent an army in 1835 to impose central authorityRebels formed a provisional government that soon called for Texan independenceThe AlamoSam HoustonTexas desired annexation into the United States, but neither Jackson nor Van Buren acted on that
6 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t) Polk and ExpansionThe issue of Texas annexation was linked to slavery and affected the nominations of presidential candidatesClay and Van BurenJames Polk, a Tennessee slaveholder and friend of Jackson, received the Democratic nominationsupported Texas annexationsupported “reoccupation” of all of OregonPolk had four clearly defined goalsreduce the tariffreestablish the independent treasury systemsettle the Oregon disputebring California into the UnionPolk initiated war with Mexico to get California
7 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t) The Mexican-American WarAlthough the majority of Americans supported the war, a vocal minority feared the only aim of the war was to acquire new land for the expansion of slaveryHenry David Thoreau’s On Civil DisobedienceCombat took place on three frontsCalifornia and the “bear flag republic”General Stephen Kearney and Sante FeWinfield Scott and Central MexicoTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848
8 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t) Race and Manifest DestinyA region that for centuries had been united was suddenly split in two, dividing families and severing trade routes“Male citizens” were guaranteed American rightsIndians were described as “savage tribes”The spirit of manifest destiny gave a new stridency to ideas about racial superiority“Race” in the mid-nineteenth century was an amorphous notion involving color, culture, national origin, class, and religion
9 II. Fruits of Manifest Destiny (con’t) Redefining RaceMexico had abolished slavery and declared persons of Spanish, Indian, and African origin equal before the lawThe Texas constitution adopted after independence not only included protections for slavery but denied civil rights to Indians and persons of African originGold Rush CaliforniaCalifornia’s gold rush population was incredibly diverseThe explosive population growth and fierce competition for gold worsened conflicts among California’s many racial and ethnic groupsThe boundaries of freedom in California were tightly drawnThe Indians were particularly hurt
10 III. A Dose of Arsenic The Wilmot Proviso Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania in 1846 proposed a resolution prohibiting slavery from all territory acquired from MexicoIn 1848, opponents of slavery’s expansion organized the Free Soil PartyMartin Van Buren
11 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t) The Free Soil AppealThe free soil position had a popular appeal in the North because it would limit southern power in the federal governmentWage earners of the North also favored the free soil movementThe Free Soil platform of 1848 called both for barring slavery from western territories and for the federal government to provide homesteads to settlers without cost
12 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t) The South and the Expansion of SlaveryTo single out slavery as the one form of property barred from the West would be an affront to the South and its distinctive way of lifeThe admission of new free states would overturn the delicate political balance between the sections and make the South a permanent minority
13 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t) Crisis and Compromise1848 was a year of revolution in Europe, only to be suppressed by counter-revolutionWith the slavery issue appearing more and more ominous, established party leaders moved to resolve differences between the sectionsThe Compromise of 1850
14 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t) The Great DebatePowerful leaders spoke for and against compromiseDaniel WebsterJohn CalhounWilliam SewardPresident Taylor died in office and Millard Fillmore secured the adoption of the Compromise
15 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t) The Fugitive Slave IssueThe Fugitive Slave Act allowed special federal commissioners to determine the fate of alleged fugitives without benefit of a jury trial or even testimony by the accused individualIn a series of dramatic confrontations, fugitives, aided by abolitionist allies, violently resisted recaptureThe fugitive slave law also led several thousand northern blacks to flee to safety in Canada
16 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t) The Kansas-Nebraska ActFranklin Pierce won the 1852 presidential raceStephen Douglas saw himself as the new leader of the Senate after the deaths of Calhoun, Clay, and WebsterDouglas introduced a bill for statehood for Nebraska and Kansas so that a transcontinental railroad could be constructedSlavery would be settled by popular sovereigntyThe Appeal of the Independent Democrats was issued by antislavery congressmen
17 III. A Dose of Arsenic (con’t) 5. The Kansas-Nebraska bill became law, but shattered the Democratic party’s unityWhigs collapsedSouth was solidly DemocraticRepublican Party emerged to prevent the further expansion of slavery
18 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party The Northern EconomyThe rise of the Republican party reflected underlying economic and social changesRailroad networkBy 1860, the North had become a complex, integrated economyTwo great areas of industrial production had arisenNortheastern seaboardGreat Lakes region
19 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t) The Growth of ImmigrationEconomic expansion fueled a demand for labor, which was met, in part, by increased immigration from abroadIreland and GermanySettled in the northern statesNumerous factors inspired this massive flow of population across the AtlanticEuropean economic conditionsAmerican political and religious freedomsRefugees from disasterIrish potato famine
20 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t) The second largest group of immigrants, Germans, included a considerably larger number of skilled craftsmen than the IrishThe Rise and Fall of the Know-NothingsWhile immigrants from England were easily absorbed, those from Ireland encountered intense hostilityCatholic ChurchThe Irish influx thoroughly alarmed many native-born Americans“Nativists” claimed the Irish posed a threat to democratic institutions
21 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t) Nativism emerged as a major political movement in 1854, with the sudden appearance of the American, or Know-Nothing PartyAll European immigrants benefited from being whitesuffrageThe Free Labor IdeologyRepublicans managed to convince most northerners that the slave power posed a more immediate threat to their liberties and aspirations than “property” and immigrationAppeal rested on the idea of “free labor”
22 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t) “Free labor” could not compete with “slave labor” and so slavery’s expansion had to be halted to ensure freedom for the white laborerRepublicans cried “freedom national”—meaning not abolition, but ending the federal government’s support of slaveryRepublicans were not abolitionists
23 IV. The Rise of the Republican Party (con’t) Bleeding Kansas and the Election of 1856“Bleeding Kansas” seemed to discredit Douglas’s policy of leaving the decision of slavery up to the local population, thus aiding the RepublicansCivil War within KansasCharles SumnerThe election of 1856 demonstrated that parties had reoriented themselves along sectional lines
24 V. The Emergence of Lincoln The Dred Scott DecisionAfter having lived in free territories, the slave Dred Scott sued for his freedomThe Supreme Court justices addressed three questionsCould a black person be a citizen and therefore sue in federal court?Did residence in a free state make Scott free?Did Congress possess the power to prohibit slavery in a territory?Speaking for the majority, Chief Justice Roger A. Taney declared that only white persons could be citizens of the United States
25 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t) Taney ruled that Congress possessed no power under the Constitution to bar slavery from a territoryThe decision in effect declared unconstitutional the Republican platform of restricting slavery’s expansionThe Decision’s AftermathRather than abandoning their opposition to the expansion of slavery, Republicans now viewed the Court as controlled by the slave powerLecompton Constitution and Stephen Douglas
26 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t) Lincoln and SlaveryIn seeking reelection, Douglas faced an unexpectedly strong challenge from Abraham LincolnAlthough Lincoln hated slavery, he was willing to compromise with the South to preserve the UnionLincoln’s speeches combined the moral fervor of the abolitionists with the respect for order and the Constitution of more conservative northerners
27 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t) The Lincoln-Douglas CampaignLincoln campaigned against Douglas for Illinois’s senate seatThe Lincoln-Douglas debates remain classics of American political oratoryTo Lincoln, freedom meant opposition to slaveryDouglas argued that the essence of freedom lay in local self-government and individual self-determinationLincoln shared many of the racial prejudices of his dayDouglas was reelected by a narrow margin
28 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t) John Brown at Harpers FerryAn armed assault by the abolitionist John Brown on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, further heightened sectional tensionsBrown had a long career of involvement in antislavery activitiesPlaced on trial for treason to the state of Virginia, Brown’s execution turned him into a martyr to much of the North
29 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t) The Rise of Southern NationalismMore and more southerners were speaking openly of southward expansionOstend ManifestoWilliam Walker and filibusteringBy the late 1850s, southern leaders were bending every effort to strengthen the bonds of slaveryThe Democratic SplitThe Democratic party was split with its nomination of Douglas in 1860 and the southern Democrats’ nomination of John Breckinridge
30 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t) The Nomination of LincolnRepublicans nominated Lincoln over William SewardLincoln appealed to many votersThe party platformdenied the validity of the Dred Scott decisionopposed slavery’s expansionadded economic initiatives
31 V. The Emergence of Lincoln (con’t) The Election of 1860In effect, two presidential campaigns took place in 1860The most striking thing about the election returns was their sectional characterWithout a single vote in ten southern states, Lincoln was elected the nation’s sixteenth president
32 VI. The Impending Crisis The Secession MovementRather than accept permanent minority status in a nation governed by their opponents, Deep South political leaders boldly struck for their region’s independenceIn the months that followed Lincoln’s election, seven states stretching from South Carolina to Texas seceded from the Union
33 VI. The Impending Crisis (con’t) The Secession CrisisPresident Buchanan denied that a state could secede, but also insisted that the federal government had no right to use force against itThe Crittenden plan was rejected by LincolnThe Confederate States of America was formed on March 4, 1861Jefferson Davis as president
34 VI. The Impending Crisis (con’t) And the War CameIn time, Lincoln believed, secession might collapse from withinLincoln also issued a veiled warning: “In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war”After the South fired upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, Lincoln called for 75,000 troops to suppress the insurrection
46 fig13_02a.jpgPage 459 (left): The original design for Thomas Crawford’s Statue of Freedom for the dome of the Capitol building. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis of Mississippi insisted that the liberty cap in the first design, a symbol of the emancipated slave in ancient Rome, be replaced.Credit: Reproduced from the collections of the Library of Congress.
47 fig13_03.jpgPage 460: A rare photograph of wagons on their way to Oregon during the 1840s.Credit: National Archives and Records Administration 57-HS-277.
48 fig13_05.jpgPage 462: A flag carried at the Battle of San Jacinto during the Texas revolt of 1836 portrays a female figure displaying the rallying cry “Liberty or Death.”Credit: Courtesy of the State Preservation Board, Austin, Texas, photographer F. Thomson, Post 1990, CHA , post conservation.
49 fig13_07.jpgPage 466: As depicted in this 1853 engraving, Los Angeles was a tiny community when it became part of the United States as a result of the Mexican War.Credit: I.N. Phelps Stokes Collection, Mirriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints, and Photographs, The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox and Tilden Foundations.
50 fig13_09.jpgPage 468: A photograph of a Chinese immigrant carrying equipment used in California gold mining.Credit: Nevada Historical Society.
51 fig13_10.jpgPage 470: A poster offering passage to the California gold region from New Bedford, Massachusetts.Credit: Bettmann/Corbis.
52 fig13_11.jpgPage 473: The Hurly-Burly Pot, an 1850 cartoon based loosely on the witches’ scenes from Shakespeare’s Macbeth, criticizing northern and southern sectionalists said to be endangering the Union. From left to right, the figures are David Wilmot, who proposed the Proviso banning slavery from territory acquired from Mexico, abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, Senator John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, and New York antislavery newspaper editor Horace Greeley.Credit: Reproduced from the Collection of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ
53 fig13_12.jpgPage 474: An 1855 broadside depicting the life of Anthony Burns, a runaway slave captured in Boston and returned to the South in 1854 by federal officials enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act.Credit: Corbis.
54 fig13_16.jpgPage 486: Liberty, the Fair Maid of Kansas, in the Hands of the “Border Ruffians,” a cartoon blaming the Democratic Party for violence in Kansas in Leading Democrats surround the maid of liberty—from left to right, Secretary of State William L. Marcy, Democratic presidential candidate James Buchanan, President Franklin Pierce, Lewis Cass, the party’s candidate for president in 1848, and Stephen A. Douglas, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, shown scalping an Indian.Credit: Reproduced from the Collections of the Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, LC-USZ
55 fig13_18.jpgPage 488: Dred and Harriet Scott, as pictured in Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper, June 27, 1857, three months after the Supreme Court ruled that they must remain in slavery.Credit: Reproduced from the Collection of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ
56 fig13_22.jpgPage 496: An 1860 engraving of a mass meeting in Savannah, Georgia, shortly after Lincoln’s election as president, which called for the state to secede from the Union. The banner on the obelisk at the center reads, “Our Motto State’s Rights, Equality of the States, Don’t Tread on Me”—the last a slogan from the American Revolution.Credit: Reproduced from the Collection of the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC
57 fig13_26.jpgPage 500: Young Girl with Portrait of George Washington. A patriotic photograph fromaround Ten years later it was not clear whether the nation Washington helped to create could survive.Credit: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Gift of I.N. Phelps Stokes, Edward S. Hawes, Alice Mary Hawes, and Marion Augusta Hawes, ( ) Photograph, all rights reserved, The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
59 Give Me Liberty! An American History End chap. 13W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-OwnedThis concludes the Norton Media LibrarySlide Set for Chapter 13Give Me Liberty!An American HistorybyEric Foner