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CHAPTER 19 – Communities and Ecosystems

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1 CHAPTER 19 – Communities and Ecosystems

A community Is an assemblage of species living close enough together for potential interaction..

3 Diversity The diversity of a community is the variety of different kinds of organisms that make up the community There are two main components: Species richness, the total number of different species in the community Relative abundance of the different species..

4 Prevalent Form of Vegetation
The prevalent form of vegetation mainly depends on the terrestrial situation The types and structural features of plants in a community largely determine the kinds of animals that live in the community..

5 Stability Community stability - ability to resist change and return to its original species combination after being disturbed Depends on both the type of community and the nature of disturbances..

6 Trophic Structure The trophic structure of a community concerns the feeding relationships among the various species making up the community.. Figure 19.4

Interspecific interactions are interactions between species Competition between species Predation Symbiosis

8 Competition Between Species
Interspecific competition May occur when two or more species in a community rely on similar limiting resources May limit population growth of the competing species..

9 Competitive Exclusion Principle
Russian ecologist G. F. Gause studied the effects of interspecific competition in two closely related species of protists.. Separate cultures Combined cultures P. aurelia P. caudatum Figure 19.5

10 From his research, Gause concluded that two species so similar that they compete for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place Competitive Exclusion Principle..

11 Testing the competitive exclusion principle..
High tide Chthamalus Balanus Ocean Low tide Figure 19.6

12 The Ecological Niche A species’ ecological niche
Is the sum total of a species’ use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment Is the species’ ecological role Two species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are identical..

13 Resource Partitioning
Is the differentiation of niches that enables similar species to coexist in a community There are two possible outcomes of competition between species with identical niches Extinction of one species Evolution of one species to use a different set of resources..

14 A. ricordii A. ricordii A. distichus A. insolitus A. aliniger A. christophei A. distichus A. distichus A. christophei A. cybotes A. cybotes A. etheridgei A. etheridgei A. insolitus Figure 19.7

15 Predation Is when organisms eat other organisms
Identifies the predator as the consumer and the food species as the prey Includes herbivory, the consumption of plants by animals..

16 Predator Adaptations Most predators have acute senses Many predators
Have adaptations such as claws, teeth, fangs, stingers, or poison to help catch and subdue prey Are fast and agile..

17 Plant Defenses Against Herbivores
Plants have various types of defenses against herbivores Chemical toxins Spines and thorns..

18 Animal Defenses Against Predators
Animals can avoid being eaten By using passive defenses such as hiding By using active defenses such as escaping or defending themselves..

19 Behavioral defenses include
Alarm calls Mobbing.. Figure 19.8

20 Distraction displays Direct the attention of the predator away from a vulnerable prey to another prey that is more likely to escape.. Figure 19.9

21 Camouflage, or cryptic coloration
Is a passive defense that makes a potential prey difficult to spot against its background.. Figure 19.10

22 Animals with chemical defenses are often brightly colored
Some animals have mechanical or chemical defenses against predators.. Animals with chemical defenses are often brightly colored This is a caution to predators called warning coloration.. Figure 19.11

23 Mimicry Is a “copycat” adaptation in which one species mimics the appearance of another Is used by some species to gain protection..

24 A palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model..
Figure 19.12

25 Two or more unpalatable species resemble each other..
Figure 19.13

26 Predation and Species Diversity in Communities
Predator-prey relationships Can actually preserve species diversity..

27 The experiments of Robert Paine
Removed a dominant predator from a community Provided evidence of the phenomenon of predation..

28 With Pisaster (control)
Without Pisaster Figure 19.14

29 Paine’s experiments and others
Led to the concept of keystone predators Keystone predators Help maintain species diversity by preventing competitive exclusion of weaker competitors..

30 Symbiotic Relationships
Is an interspecific interaction in which one species, the symbiont, lives in or on another species, the host Parasitism Mutualism

31 Parasitism Parasitism
Is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed The parasite obtains its nutrients by living in or on its host organism..

32 Mutualism Is a symbiosis that benefits both partners
Many mutualistic relationships have evolved from predator-prey or host-parasite interactions..

33 The Complexity of Community Networks
The branching of interactions between species makes communities complex.. Wounding Detection by plant Release of volatile attractants Recruitment Chemical in saliva Figure 19.17

Are episodes that damage biological communities, at least temporarily Destroy organisms and alter the availability of resources Affect all communities..

35 Ecological Succession
Is the process of community change Primary succession Secondary succession..

36 In primary succession A community arises in a virtually lifeless area with no soil.. Retreating glacier Barren landscape Moss & lichens

37 Primary succession from barren soil to a complex community can take hundreds of years..
Shrubs & small trees Larger, intermediate species Climax community

38 Secondary succession occurs where a disturbance has destroyed an existing community but left the soil intact..

An ecosystem Is a biological community and the abiotic factors with which the community interacts..

40 Energy Flow Chemical cycling
Is the passage of energy through the components of the ecosystem Chemical cycling Is the use and reuse of chemical elements within the ecosystem..

41 Chemical cycling (C, N, etc.)
Energy Flows through an ecosystem when consumers feed on producers Cannot be recycled within an ecosystem, but must flow through continuously.. Chemical cycling (C, N, etc.) Chemical energy Light energy Heat energy Figure 19.20

42 Energy flow and chemical cycling
Depend on the transfer of substances in the feeding relationships, or trophic structure of an ecosystem Trophic levels Divide the species of an ecosystem based on their main sources of nutrition Trophic relationships Determine an ecosystem’s routes of energy flow and chemical cycling..

43 Trophic Levels and Food Chains
A food chain Quaternary consumers Carnivore Is the sequence of food transfer from trophic level to trophic level May have many levels.. Carnivore Tertiary consumers Carnivore Carnivore Secondary consumers Carnivore Carnivore Primary consumers Herbivore Zooplankton Producers Plant Phytoplankton Figure 19.21 A terrestrial food chain A marine food chain

44 Herbivores, which eat plants, algae, or autotrophic bacteria, are the primary consumers of an ecosystem Above the primary consumers, the trophic levels are made up of carnivores, which eat the consumers from the levels below Secondary consumers include many small mammals, such as rodents, and small fishes that eat zooplankton Tertiary consumers, such as snakes, eat mice and other secondary consumers Quaternary consumers include hawks and killer whales..

45 Detritivores, or decomposers
Derive their energy from the dead material left by all trophic levels Recycle the nutrients locked in organisms.. Figure 19.22

46 Food Webs The feeding relationships in an ecosystem
Are typically not as simple as in an unbranched food chain Are usually woven into complex food webs..

47 Quaternary, tertiary, & secondary consumers Tertiary & Secondary & primary consumers Primary consumers Producers (plants)

Food chains cannot be longer than 4 – 5 trophic levels. What limits food chains?

49 Productivity and the Energy Budgets of Ecosystems
Biomass Is the amount of organic material in an ecosystem An ecosystem’s primary productivity Is the rate at which plants and other producers build biomass..

50 Productivity of different ecosystems..
Percentage of Earth’s surface area (b) Average net primary productivity (g/m2/yr) (c) Percentage of Earth’s net primary productivity Open ocean Continental shelf Extreme desert, rock, sand, ice Desert and semidesert scrub Tropical rain forest Savanna Cultivated land Boreal forest (taiga) Temperate grassland Woodland and shrubland Tundra Tropical seasonal forest Temperate deciduous forest Temperate evergreen forest Swamp and marsh Lake and stream Estuary Algal beds and reeds Upwelling zones

51 Energy Pyramids When energy flows as organic matter through the trophic levels of an ecosystem, much of it is lost at each link in a food chain..

52 Plant material eaten by caterpillar
100 kilocalories (kcal) 35 kcal Cellular respiration 50 kcal Feces 15 kcal Growth Figure 19.25

53 An energy pyramid Is a diagram that represents the cumulative loss of energy from a food chain..

54 Tertiary consumers 10 kcal Secondary consumers 100 kcal
Primary consumers 1,000 kcal Producers 10,000 kcal Figure 19.26

Depend on a recycling of chemical elements..

56 The General Scheme of Chemical Cycling
Biogeochemical cycles Are chemical cycles in an ecosystem that involve both biotic and abiotic components..

57 Three key points to biogeochemical cycles
Each circuit has an abiotic reservoir A portion of chemical cycling can rely completely on geological processes Some chemicals require processing before they are available as inorganic nutrients..

58 Generalized scheme for biogeochemical cycles..
Consumers Producers Detritivores Nutrients available to producers Abiotic reservoir Geologic processes Generalized scheme for biogeochemical cycles..

59 Examples of Biogeochemical Cycles
A chemical’s specific route through an ecosystem varies with the particular element and the trophic structure of the ecosystem..

60 Higher-level consumers
The carbon cycle CO2 in atmosphere Burning Wood and fossil fuels Cellular respiration Higher-level consumers Decomposition Detritivores Photosynthesis Producers Primary consumers Detritus Figure 19.29a

61 The nitrogen cycle Detritus Nitrates (NO3– ) Decomposition
Denitrifying bacteria Assimilation by plants Nitrogen (N2) in atmosphere Amino acids and proteins in plants and animals Detritus Detritivores Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules of legumes Decomposition Nitrogen fixation Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil Ammonium (NH4+ ) Nitrifying bacteria Nitrates (NO3– )

62 Precipitated (solid) phosphates Phosphates in solution
The phosphorous cycle Uplifting of rock Phosphates in rock Weathering of rock Phosphates in organic compounds Consumers Producers Rock Precipitated (solid) phosphates Phosphates in solution in soil (inorganic) Detritus Detritivores in soil Figure 19.29c

63 The water cycle Net movement of water vapor by wind (36) Solar heat
Precipitation over the sea (283) Solar heat Water vapor over the sea Oceans Net movement of water vapor by wind (36) Evaporation from the sea (319) Evaporation and transpiration (59) Water vapor over the land Precipitation over the land (95) Surface water and groundwater Flow of water from land to sea (36) Figure 19.29d

64 BIOMES Are the major types of ecosystems that cover large geographic regions of the Earth..

65 How Climate Affects Biome Distribution
Because of its curvature, Earth receives an uneven distribution of solar energy. Low angle of incoming sunlight Sunlight directly overhead Atmosphere Figure 19.30

66 Cloud formation and rain Ascending moist air releases moisture
The uneven heating causes rain and wind Heated by the direct rays of the sun, air at the equator rises, then cools, forms clouds, and drops rain.. Cloud formation and rain Ascending moist air releases moisture Descending dry air Tropics Temperate zone

67 Proximity to large bodies of water and the presence of landforms such as mountain ranges also affect climate.. Wind direction Pacific Ocean East Coast Range Cascade Range Figure 19.32

68 Terrestrial Biomes The distribution of terrestrial biomes depends largely on climate If the climate in two geographically separate areas is similar, the same type of biome may occur in them..

69 Most biomes are named for major physical or climatic features and for their predominant vegetation..
Figure 19.33

70 Tropical forest.. Figure 19.34a

71 Savanna Figure 19.34b

72 Desert Figure 19.34c

73 Chaparral Figure 19.34d

74 Temperate grassland Figure 19.34e

75 Temperate deciduous forest
Figure 19.31f

76 Coniferous forest Figure 19.34g

77 Tundra Figure 19.34h

78 Freshwater Biomes Aquatic biomes
Occupy the largest part of the biosphere..

79 Lakes and Ponds Standing bodies of water - range from small ponds to large lakes.. Figure 19.35a

80 The photic (photosynthetic) zone
In lakes and large ponds the communities are distributed according to the depth of water and its distance from shore. The photic (photosynthetic) zone Includes the shallow water near shore and the upper stratum of water away from shore Is named because light is available for photosynthesis The aphotic zone Is deeper, where light levels are too low to support photosynthesis The benthic zone Is the bottom of all aquatic biomes

81 Rivers and Streams Are bodies of water flowing in one direction
Support quite different communities of organisms than lakes and ponds Figure 19.35b

82 Marshes, ponds, and other wetlands
Are common in downstream areas Figure 19.35c

83 Human activities have affected many streams and rivers
Figure 19.36

84 Marine Biomes Oceans Estuaries Cover about 75% of the planet’s surface
Are areas where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean Are one of the most biologically productive environments on Earth “Nurseries of the sea”..

85 Major Oceanic Zones Marine life is distributed according to
Depth of the water Degree of light penetration Distance from shore Open water versus bottom..

86 Oceanic zones Intertidal zone Continental shelf Pelagic zone
Benthic zone (seafloor) Photic zone Aphotic zone Pelagic zone Figure 19.38

87 The intertidal zone Is the area where land meets water
Includes organisms adapted to attach to rocks or vegetation or to burrow.. Figure 19.39

88 The pelagic zone Is the open ocean
Contains phytoplankton and zooplankton Plankton are organisms that are pushed around because they are too small to resist the ocean currents..

89 The benthic zone Is the ocean bottom or seafloor
Temperature is constant 4o C May include hydrothermal vent communities.. Figure 19.40

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