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Chapter 13 Electrons Models of the Atom Electron Arrangement Physics and the Quantum Mechanical Model

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Chapter 13.1 Models of the Atom The atom was considered a solid indivisible mass originally

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Thomson Model Plum – Pudding Atom: Negatively charged electrons stuck into a lump of positively charged material.

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Rutherford Model Electrons surround a dense nucleus made of protons and neutrons. The rest of the atom was empty space

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Bohr Model (Planetary Model) Electrons are arranged in concentric circular paths (orbits) around the nucleus. Patterned after the motion of the planets Electrons have a fixed energy

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Quantum Mechanical Model Primarily a mathematical model Restricts electron to certain energy levels No defined path for electrons Gives a percent chance of finding an electron in a certain space

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Quantum Amount of energy required to move an electron from its current energy level to the next highest energy level

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Fixed Energy Levels Rungs of a Ladder Garden Steps

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Orbits S orbital P orbital D orbital F orbital

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Chapter 13.2 Electron Arrangement Electron Configurations Exceptional Electron Configurations

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Electron Configurations The way in which electrons are arranged around the nuclei of an atom. Three Rules: –Aufbau Principle –The Pauli Exclusion Principle –Hund’s Rule

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Aufbau Principle Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first. Some orbitals overlap between different energy levels

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The Pauli Exclusion Principle An atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons One or two electrons may occupy one orbital They will have opposite spins (shown by opposite arrows)

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Hund’s Rule When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contain one electron with parallel spins.

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