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Chapter 13 Electrons Models of the Atom Electron Arrangement Physics and the Quantum Mechanical Model
Chapter 13.1 Models of the Atom The atom was considered a solid indivisible mass originally
Thomson Model Plum – Pudding Atom: Negatively charged electrons stuck into a lump of positively charged material.
Rutherford Model Electrons surround a dense nucleus made of protons and neutrons. The rest of the atom was empty space
Bohr Model (Planetary Model) Electrons are arranged in concentric circular paths (orbits) around the nucleus. Patterned after the motion of the planets Electrons have a fixed energy
Quantum Mechanical Model Primarily a mathematical model Restricts electron to certain energy levels No defined path for electrons Gives a percent chance of finding an electron in a certain space
Quantum Amount of energy required to move an electron from its current energy level to the next highest energy level
Fixed Energy Levels Rungs of a Ladder Garden Steps
Orbits S orbital P orbital D orbital F orbital
Chapter 13.2 Electron Arrangement Electron Configurations Exceptional Electron Configurations
Electron Configurations The way in which electrons are arranged around the nuclei of an atom. Three Rules: –Aufbau Principle –The Pauli Exclusion Principle –Hund’s Rule
Aufbau Principle Electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first. Some orbitals overlap between different energy levels
The Pauli Exclusion Principle An atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons One or two electrons may occupy one orbital They will have opposite spins (shown by opposite arrows)
Hund’s Rule When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy, one electron enters each orbital until all the orbitals contain one electron with parallel spins.
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