Presentation on theme: "Observational Studies and Experiments"— Presentation transcript:
1Observational Studies and Experiments Chapter 13Observational Studies and Experiments
2Observational Study Experiment Researchers don’t assign choices. They only observe what is already happening.Researchers manipulate factors. They create a treatment and compare the responses.
3Observational Study vs Experiment Video Clip –Observational Study vs Experiment
4Observational Study or Experiment? Over a 4-month period, among 30 people with bipolar disorder, patients who were given a high dose of omega-3 fats from fish oil improved more than those given a placebo.The leg muscles of men aged 60 to 75 were 50% to 80% stronger after they participated in a 16-week high-intensity resistance training program twice a week.EXPERIMENTOBSERVATIONAL STUDY
5Observational Study or Experiment? Among a group of disabled women aged 65 and older who were tracked for several years, those who had vitamin B12 deficiency were twice as likely to suffer severe depression as those who did not.Some gardeners prefer to use nonchemical methods to control insect pests in their gardens. Researchers have designed two kinds of traps and want to know which design is more effective. They randomly choose 10 locations in a garden and place one of each type of trap in each location. After a week, they count the number of bugs in each trap.OBSERVATIONAL STUDYEXPERIMENT
6Observational Study Retrospective: Prospective: Subjects are selected and then their past conditions are observedProspective:Subjects are followed to observe future outcomes
7Experimental Design:Control Make conditions as similar as possible for all treatment groupsRandomize Experimental units (or subjects) need to be assigned to treatments at randomReplicate The outcome of one subject is not enough to be called dataBlock (if necessary) Group similar individuals together and then randomize within these blocks
8Experiment Random Allocation Group 1 Group 2 Treatment 1 Treatment 2 Compare
9A Step-by-Step Experiment Plan: State what you want to know.I want to know whether tomato plants grown with OptiGro yield jucier, tastier tomatoes than plants raised in otherwise similar circumstances but without the fertilizer.
10Response: Specify the response variable A Step-by-Step ExperimentResponse: Specify the response variableI’ll evaluate the juiciness and taste of the tomatoes by asking a panel of judges to rate them on a scale from 1 to 7 in juiciness and in taste.
11Treatments: Specify the factor levels and the treatments A Step-by-Step ExperimentTreatments: Specify the factor levels and the treatmentsThe factor is fertilizer (OptiGro). I’ll grow tomatoes at three different factor levels: some with no fertilizer, some with half the specified amount of OptiGro, and some with the full dose of OptiGro. These are the three treatments.
12Experimental Units: Specify the experimental units A Step-by-Step ExperimentExperimental Units: Specify the experimental unitsI’ll obtain 24 tomato plants of the same variety from a local garden store.
13Experimental Design: Control A Step-by-Step ExperimentExperimental Design: ControlI’ll locate the farm plots near each other so that the plants get similar amounts of sun and rain and experience similar temperatures. I will weed the plots equally and otherwise treat the plants alike.
14I’ll use 8 plants in each treatment group. A Step-by-Step ExperimentExperimental Design: ReplicateI’ll use 8 plants in each treatment group.
15Experimental Design: Randomly Assign A Step-by-Step ExperimentExperimental Design: Randomly AssignTo randomly divide the plants into three groups, first I’ll label the plants with numbers 00 – 23. I’ll look at pairs of digits across a random number table. The first 8 plants identified will go in Group 1, the next 8 in Group 2, and the remaining plants in Group 3.
16Experimental Design: Make a Picture A Step-by-Step ExperimentExperimental Design: Make a PictureGroup 18 PlantsTreatment 1control24 tomato plants from a garden storeCompare juiciness and tastinessGroup 28 PlantsTreatment 2½ doseGroup 38 PlantsTreatment 3Full dose
17Specify any other details, including how to measure the response. A Step-by-Step ExperimentSpecify any other details, including how to measure the response.I will grow the plants until the tomatoes are mature. I’ll harvest the tomatoes when ripe and store them for evaluation. I’ll set up a numerical scale of juiciness and one of tastiness for the taste testers.
18A Step-by-Step Experiment Display the DataI will display the results with side-by-side boxplots to compare the three treatment groups. I will compare the means of the groups.
19Decide of the results are meaningful. A Step-by-Step ExperimentDecide of the results are meaningful.If the differences in taste and juiciness among the groups are greater than I would expect by knowing the usual variation among tomatoes, I may be able to conclude that these differences can be attributed to treatment with the fertilizer.
20Today’s Assignment:READ CHAPTER 13! There is a lot of vocab in this chapter. Be sure to read and take notes from the book.