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Activities of Zoological Institute concerning biodiversity inventories in the Gulf of Finland and possibilities for cooperation Sergey Golubkov, Nadezda.

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Presentation on theme: "Activities of Zoological Institute concerning biodiversity inventories in the Gulf of Finland and possibilities for cooperation Sergey Golubkov, Nadezda."— Presentation transcript:

1 Activities of Zoological Institute concerning biodiversity inventories in the Gulf of Finland and possibilities for cooperation Sergey Golubkov, Nadezda Berezina, Marina Orlova, Aleksey Maximov, Eugenia Balushkina, Irena Telesh, Yulia Gubelit, Mikhail Golubkov Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences St. Petersburg, Russia, golubkov@zin.ru, www.zin.ru Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

2 Contents Brief history of long-term research Eastern Gulf of Finland – HELCOM habitat reference site. Biodiversity indicators Factors affecting biodiversity of bottom animals in open and coastal waters Kotka, April 12-13, 2007 Eutrophication Alien species Climatic fluctuations Distributional patterns and their variability Possibilities for cooperation

3 Some publications Monographs: Polution and self purification of the Neva River. 1968. Leningrad, 276 p. (In Russian) Winberg G.G. & B. L. Gutelmakher (eds.) 1987. Neva Bay. Hydrobiological researches. Leningrad, Nauka, 213 p. (in Russian) Alimov A.F. (ed.) 1988. Invertebrates communities in littoral reeds ecosystems. Proc. Zool. Inst. Acad. Sci., 186, 220 p. (in Russian) Alimov A.F. & N.V. Frolov (eds.) 1996. The environments of Neva River basin. St. Petersburg, Scientific Centre RAS, 208 p (in Russian) Alimov A.F. & S.M. Golubkov (eds.). 2007. Ecosystem of the Neva Estuary: biodiversity and ecological problems. (in Russian, in preparation). Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

4 ZOOPLANKTON ATLAS OF THE BALTIC SEA THE BALTIC MARINE BIOLOGISTS (BMB) Work Group 29: “Zooplankton Diversity” WG Convener: Irena V. Telesh Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences St. Petersburg RUSSIA 2002 2004 Telesh & Heerkloss, 2002 Telesh & Heerkloss, 2004

5 Recent papers in international journals and monograph Telesh I.V., Golubkov S.M., Alimov A.F. 2007. Neva Estuary. In: Schiewer U. (ed.), Ecology of Baltic Coastal Waters. Springer Verlag. (In press) Berezina N.A., Tsiplenkina I. G., Pankova E. S., Gubelit J. I. 2007. Dynamics of invertebrate communities in stony littoral of the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea) under macroalgal blooms. Transitional Water Bulletin. 1: 49-60. Orlova M.I, Telesh I.V, Berezina N.A, Antsulevich A.E, Maximov A.A, Litvinchuk L.F. 2006. Effects of nonindigenous species on diversity and community functioning in the eastern Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea). Helgoland Marine Research. 2: 98-105. Berezina N. A., Golubkov S. M., Gubelit J. I. 2005. Grazing effects of alien amphipods on macroalgae in the littoral zone of the Neva Estuary (eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea). Oceanological and Hydrobiological studies. 34 (1). 63-82. Orlova M.I., Therriault T.W., Antonov P.I., Shcherbina G.Kh. 2005. Invasion ecology of quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis):a review of evolutionary and phylogenetic impacts. Aquatic Ecology 39: 401-418 Orlova M., Golubkov, S., Kalinina L., Ignatieva N. 2004. Dreissena polymoprha (Bivalvia, Dreissenidae) in the Neva Estuary (eastern Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea): Is it a biofilter or source for pollution? Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49: 196-205. Telesh I.V. 2004. Plankton of the Baltic estuarine ecosystems with emphasis on Neva Estuary: a review of present knowledge and research perspectives. Marine Pollution Bull., 49: 206-219. Golubkov S.M., S. Back, V.N.Nikulina, M.I. Orlova, L.E. Anokhina, L.P. Umnova 2003. Effects of eutrophication and invasión of Dreissena polymorpha in coastal zone of the eastern Gulf of Finland // Proc.Estonian Acad.Sci.Biol.Ecol., 52, 3: 218- 235. Maximov A.A. 2003. Changes of bottom macrofauna in the eastern Gulf of Finland in 1985-2002. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol., Vol. 52, N 4. P. 378–393.

6 The Gulf of Finland and the Gulf of Gdansk have been selected by the BSRP as demonstration areas for the assessment of biological diversity. This assessment is also expected to be an illustrative example for the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) – Biodiversity component. The assessment should be based on historical and recent data and on limited number of biodiversity indicators, proposed by the ICES/BSRP Study Group on Ecosystem Health (SGEH) as priority indicators Kotka, April 12-13, 2007 Zoological Institute is a custom institution of HELCOM/ICES LEAD LABORATORY ON BIODIVERSITY OF BALTIC SEA REGIONAL PROJECT http://www.zin.ru/projects/baltdiv/index.html Local Project Manager – Sergey Golubkov (e-mail: golubkov@zin.ru)golubkov@zin.ru

7 Biodiversity indicators, proposed by the ICES/BSRP Study Group on Ecosystem Health Area and depth distribution of submerged vascular plants and depth distribution of perennial macroalgae. Zoobenthos community structure including (extinct) threatened and/or declining species Alien species: non-indigenous species Coastal fish community structure, and status of commercial fish species Coastal bird species populations (key groups – sea ducks, divers, eiders, auks, cormorants) Mammals: seal species population Percentage of the MPA from total coastal zone and proportion of different depth ranges under protection Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

8 Modern data were obtained during summer field expeditions on the catamaran Centaurus-2 conducted together with the team of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

9 Neva Estuary is one of the largest Baltic estuaries: area 400 km 2, runoff of the Neva River is 2000-3000 m 3 /sec. The estuary consists of shallow freshwater Neva Bay and brackishwater eastern Gulf of Finland. In the middle 1980’s Neva Bay had been separated from lower part of the estuary by a storm-surge barrier (the Dam) GF-6 GF-8 V-1 V-2 Stations of regular data collection in open waters of the eGF Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

10 and during field excursions along the coastal zone of the Gulf of Finland

11 Stations of regular data collection in the costal zone of the eGF Midsummer biomass (2004) and composition of zoobenthos 10.7 11.7 11.6 26.3 17.7 16.5 33.7 80.2 8.3 24.7 Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

12 The major treats to biodiversity of eGoF: Eutrophication The macroalgal blooms and oxygen deficiency are temporal and spatial large-scale effects of eutrophication (nutrient increase) in coastal zone affecting negatively the benthic fauna Invasive species Established non-indigenous species can enter into direct interactions with native species through predation, resource competition, modification of habitats and hybridization Decrease in biodiversity of benthos and increase a dominance of invasive species

13 2003 Concentration of chlorophyll a in the eastern Gulf of Finland in midsummer Concentration of chlorophyll a in the eastern Gulf of Finland in midsummer 2003-2006 2005 2004 2006 Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

14 2003 2004 2005 2006 Primary production of plankton (mgC l -1 d -1 ) in the eastern Gulf of Finland in midsummer Primary production of plankton (mgC l -1 d -1 ) in the eastern Gulf of Finland in midsummer 2003-2005 Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

15 After construction of oil terminals in Primorsk and Visotsk midsummer chlorophyll a concentration in the Gulf of Vyborg have increased 4 times. Intensive cyanobacteria blooms are observed. New oil terminal in Visotsk (Gulf of Vyborg)

16 17.07.05 Petrodvoretc Neva Bay “Macroalgae blooms” Cladophora glomerata Beach in Resort District of St.Petersburg “Macroalgal blooms” (mainly Cladophora glomerata) is severe environmental problem for littoral zone of the Neva Estuary

17 Cladophora glomerata Average biomass Cladophora glomerata near Zelenogorsk in 2003-2006 of filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata Estimated production of of filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata reaches 20 – 25 ton WW ha -1 month -1 in the northern littoral of the eastern Gulf of Finland at the depth 0.5 – 1.5 m Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

18 Distribution of nuisance algae in the northern littoral Zone of drifting algae and algal mats The great masses of the detached filamentous algae on beaches, loose-lying and driftingalgal mats represent a serious treat to the biodiversity of coastal communities filamentous algae on beaches, loose-lying and drifting algal mats represent a serious treat to the biodiversity of coastal communities Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

19 Dynamics of oxygen in water (near bottom) and density of invertebrates at study sites We obtained significant positive correlations between density of invertebrate groups (oligochaetes, chironomids, ephemeropterans, trichopterans, amphipods) and oxygen content in water. Temporary hypoxia (0.62–2.8 mgl-1) and 4-10-fold decrease in density of amphipods, oligochaetes and aquatic insects were rjdserved in littoral habitats during decomposition of drifting filamentous algae (July-August). We conclude that intensive macroalgal blooms in littoral zone due to hard eutrophication of the Neva Estuary can negatively affect density of intolerant species and structure of invertebrate community through deterioration of oxygen conditions as a result of intensive decomposition of drifting algae. Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

20 Alien amphipods Gmelinoides fasciatus and Pontogammarus robustoides established and have become dominant species at all studied habitats in the coastal zone of the Estuary. They contribute about 70 % in the total biomass of zoobenthos and practically replace of aborigine amphipod Gammarus lacustris Pontogammarus robustoides Gmelinoides fasciatus Gammarus lacustris Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

21 NIS contribution into species diversity at the study area by the results for 2004-2005 after Orlova MI, Telesh IV, Berezina NA et al. 2006. Helgol Mar Res 60: 98–105 Total number of species NIS and their (%) in total number Assemblages Phytoplankton 147 0 (0) Phytobenthos 69 3 (4) Zooplankton (holo-) 186 4 (2) The same with larvae of benthic animals 190 7 (3) Zoobenthos, nectobenthos, Fouling 196 22 (9) Totally 597 28 ( 5 ) Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

22 Number of NIS in the Russian Part of the EGOF 14(10) 20(15) 7 6-8 1212 11 Neva Bay Cordylophora caspia Dreissena polymorpha Elodea canadensis Acorus calamus Riccia fluitans Gmelinoides fasciatus Pontogammarus robustoides Eriocheir sinensis Perccottus glenii Neogobius melanostomus Protrrorhynus marmoratus Potamothrix moldavensis Isohaetides michaelseni Paranais frici Resort District Elodea canadensis Acorus calamus Riccia fluitans Perccottus glenii Acartia tonsa Cordylophora caspia Dreissena polymopha Gmelinoides fasciatus Pontogammarus robustoides Chaetogammarus warpachowkyi Marenzelleria neglecta Potamothrix moldavensis Isohaetides michaelseni Tubifex newaensis Paranais frici Potamothrix veidovkyi P. Heusheri Cercopagis pengoi Evadne anonyx Prostoma puteale Open waters Tubificoides pseudogaster Stenocuma graciloides Larvae of NIS Cercopagis pengoi Evadne anonyx Acartia tonsa Primorsk Cordylophora caspia Dreissena polymoprha Balanus improvisus Potamopyrgus antipodarum Jaera sarsi Marenzelleria heglecta Cercopagis pengoi Evadne anonyx Acartia tonsa Gammarus tigrinus Mustela vison Gulf of Vyborg Acorus calamus Elodea canadensis Cornigerius maeoticus Cercopagis pengoi Evadne anonyx Acartia tonsa Dreissena polymoprha Balanus improvisus Cordylophora caspia Jaera sarsi Dreissena polymoprha Dreissena bugensis Luga Bay Dreissena polymorpha Codylophora caspia Balanus improvisus Cercopagis pengoi Evadne anonyx Acartia tonsa Marenzelleria neglecta In 2006 Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

23 Complex and productive zoobenthos in shallow coastal zone (0.5-1.5 m) and dominance of invasive species After Berezina NA, Tciplenkina IG, Pankova ES, Gubelit JI. 2007. Transitional Water Bulletin. 1. 49-60 Midsummer biomass (2004) and composition of zoobenthos 10.7 11.7 11.6 26.3 17.7 16.5 33.7 80.2 8.3 24.7 Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

24 At mixed and hard bottom…. < 90% contributed by sessile seston feeders High contribution of alien species to species diversity of macrozoobenthos Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

25 Dreissena as an example for habitat engineer (depth 2-5 m) bacterioplankton phytoplankton zooplankton planktivorous fishes phytobenthos sediments nutrients zoobenthos faeces, pseudofaeces benthivorous fishes waterfowl Species- competitors water transparency Phytobenthos (Cladophora) DIP= 513 kg/day (S=4.7 km 2 ) microhabitats, substrate Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

26 Climatic fluctuations Decrease of frequency of Major Baltic inflows from the Northern Sea from the middle of 1970’s to the middle of 1990’s is connected with climatic phase of intensive atmospheric circulation, intensive precipitation and increase of river runoff in the Baltic region in that time Decrease of atmospheric circulation and decrease of river runoff are observed during the last 10 years. That results in intensive Major Baltic Inflows and intrusions of poor oxygen salt waters from the western Gulf of Finland to its eastern part in 1996 и 2003. These intrusions leads to temporal deterioration of bottom fauna in the eastern Gulf of Finland Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

27 Biomass of zoobenthos in the eastern Gulf of Finland in 2003 The areas of low benthic biomass that were impacted by saline oxygen-poor waters from deeper western part of the Gulf of Finland as a result of Major Baltic Inflows in 1996 and 2003. These intrusions led to destruction of zoobenthic communities Direct impact of periodic inflows of saline poor oxygen waters from the western Gulf of Finland Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

28 Biomass of alien North-American polychaeta Marenzelleria viridis in the eastern Gulf of Finland in 2005 Two alien species Marenzelleria viridis and Tubificoides pseudogaster appeared in the middle 1990’s and widely distributed in the western part of the Neva Estuary. In future Marenzelleria may become an important factor of eutrophication due to its ability to enhance a nutrient release from bottom sediments. Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

29 Average biomass of zoobenthos (g/m 2 ) in the Neva Bay at the beginning of 1980’s and in 2000’s Very high biomass of small freshwater mollusks Pisidiidae and worms Oligochaeta was observed in the eastern part of the Neva Bay at the beginning of 1980’s Rather low biomass of zoobenthos was observed in the eastern part of the Neva Bay in 2000’s. At present, the dominant groups are Oligochaeta and large freshwater mollusks Unionidae 1980’s 2000’s Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

30 Water discharge of the River Neva during the late decades Relationships between biomass of zoobenthos in the Neva Bay and water discharge of the River Neva River runoff, m 3 sec -1 During XX Centaury high biomass of zoobenthos in the Neva Bay were observed in the years with high river runoff Water discharge of the River Neva considerably decreased since the middle of 1990’s. This may resulted in a great decrease in zoobenthic biomass due to strong relationships between this parameter and river runoff.

31 Vertical distribution of benthic habitats “littoral” Open part Shallow waterDeep water Secchi depth Phytal Soft bottoms (clay, silt, sand) with episodic oxygen deficit events Sands, hard and mixed bottoms, fouling and soft- bottom communities, depth of 2-7 m Good illumination, terrestrial, semi- aquatic and aquatic vegetation, depth of 0-2 m, wave action, ice abrasion, water level oscillation up to 1m Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

32 Typical Dataset (1 transect) on dominant species (Dreissena polymoprha (1998-2005)) Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

33 A portion of different taxa in the biomass of bottom animals in the eastern Gulf of Finland in 2000’s In contrast to the early 1980’s when glacial relicts dominated in zoobenthos, Oligochaeta, alien Polychaeta and mollusk Macoma baltica dominate in bottom communities of the eastern Gulf of Finland nowadays. Variability Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

34 Distributional patterns of zoobenthc biomass in the eGF Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

35 Average value of number of species of zoobenthos for Neva Bay in 1994 - 2005 for 180 examined stations Average value of zoobenthos species diversity index for Neva Bay in 1994 - 2005 for 180 examined stations Average value of integrated index for Neva Bay in 1994 - 2005 for 180 examined stations Species richness and biodiversity considerably changed during last decades Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

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37 Assessment of the state and quality of waters of ecosystems of the Neva Bay by Integrated Index in 2005 Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

38 Russian State Programs “Ocean” and “Biodiversity” Scientific Program of St. Petersburg Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences Government of St. Petersburg Finnish Ministry of Environment INTAS Program ICES/ HELCOM Baltic Sea Regional Profect Kotka, April 12-13, 2007 In different years the investigations of Zoological Institute were supported by

39 Summary The most important anthropogenic factors affecting biodiversity of bottom animal communities are high eutrophication and facilitation of invasions of alien species; Natural climatic fluctuations also contribute to variability of biodiversity and distributional patterns in the eastern Gulf of Finland; Trilateral cooperation may concern inventory of species composition and modern distributional patterns of bottom and planktonic communities in different parts of the Gulf of Finland; analysis of long-term data-sets to better understanding of factors effecting biodiversity; creation and cross-country exchange by GIS data-bases harmonization of the methods of biodiversity assessment, and methods using biodiversity for environmental assessment. Kotka, April 12-13, 2007

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