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Chapter 13-3 War Affects the World

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1 Chapter 13-3 War Affects the World

2 I. The War Expands out of Europe
Countries outside of Europe a. Japan enters the war on the Allies’ side b. The Ottomans and Bulgaria allied with the Central Powers c. U.S. and Italy were the only major neutral powers in 1915 (Italy joined the allies)

3 B. Attack the Ottomans a. Allies attempt to end the STALEMATE
b. Attack a region of the Empire known as the Dardanelles 1. A narrow sea strait was the gateway to Constantinople 2. The Allies believed they could defeat the Turks and create a supply line to Russia

4 c. British, Australian, and French troops made assaults on the Gallipoli Peninsula (The Gallipoli campaign) 1. Turks defended the region causing another stalemate 2. Allies suffered 250,000 casualties and surrendered after 11 months

5 d. Allies were determined to destroy the Ottoman Empire
1. In Southwest Asia, the British helped Arab nations rise up against the Turks 2. T. E. Lawrence or Lawrence of Arabia, a British soldier, led guerrilla raids 3. With the Arabs, Allied forces took control of Baghdad, Jerusalem, and Damascus

6 C. Asia and Africa a. German colonial possessions were under assault
b. Japan overran German outposts in China c. England and France attacked Germany’s African possessions and seized control d. British and French military recruited subjects from their colonies

7 1. Troops and laborers came from India, South Africa, Egypt, Indochina, and Algeria
2. Some volunteered to obtain independence or to disobey their European ruler

8 II. The U.S. enters the War A. Submarine Warfare
a. Germany intensified war at sea in 1917 1. Failed crops and a British naval blockade caused food shortages 2. Germany set up its own naval blockade around Britain b. Unrestricted Submarine warfare 1. Germany’s policy to sink any ship in the waters around Britain without warning


10 2. Believed that this would starve Britain into defeat before the U. S
2. Believed that this would starve Britain into defeat before the U.S. could mobilize 3. Germany sinks three American ships after ignoring warnings by President Woodrow Wilson

11 c. Zimmerman Telegram 1. Britain intercepted a telegram from Arthur Zimmerman, Germany’s Foreign Secretary, to the German ambassador in Mexico 2. Message stated Germany would help Mexico regain land it lost to the U.S. if Mexico would ally itself with Germany 3. Americans called for war against Germany


13 a. Many Americans felt a bond to England because of shared ancestry and language
b. Anti-German sentiment was prominent in the U.S. 4. April 2, 1917, President Wilson asked Congress to declare war and entered on the Allies side

14 III. War Affects the Home Front
A. Total War a. Countries devoted all their resources to the war effort b. Britain, Germany, Austria, Russia, and France’s governments were dedicated to winning the war 1. Told factories what to produce and how much 2. Nearly every able-bodied civilian was put to work a. UNEMPLOYMENT nearly disappeared

15 c. RATIONING systems were put in place
1. Buy only small amounts of the items that were needed for the war 2. Rationing covered a wide range of goods from butter to shoe leather d. Governments suppressed antiwar activities and censored the news

16 1. Honest reporting would cause people to turn against the war
2. PROPAGANDA or one-sided information designed to persuade, was used to keep up moral and support a. War posters were colorful and urged support


18 B. The War’s Impact on Women
a. Thousands of women replaced men in factories, offices, and shops b. Built tanks, plowed fields, paved streets, and ran hospitals c. Supplied the troops with food, clothing, and weapons

19 d. Many women left the workforce at the end of the war but changed the views on what women could do
1. In a few years women will obtain the right to vote

20 IV. Allies win the War A. Russia withdraws from the War
a. March 1917 civil unrest in Russia due to a shortage of food and fuel caused the gov’t to break down 1. Czar Nicholas abdicated the throne due to a revolution 2. A provisional government was established that pledged to continue fighting the war

21 a. 5.5 million soldiers were wounded, killed or taken prisoner and the army refused to fight any longer 3. Later in 1917, a revolution took place, Communist leader Vladimir Ilyich Lenin became the leader a. Lenin insisted on ending Russia’s contribution to war by offering Germany a truce

22 1. March 1918, Germany and Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending the war between them, and Russia surrendered lands to Germany 2. Due to the treaty Russia surrendered lands to Germany

23 B. A Failed Final Push a. Germany sent all troops to the Western front b. March 1918, Germany attacked the Allies in France 1. 6,000 German cannons opened the attack, crushing everything in its path 2. By May, Germany was within 40 miles of Paris and victory was in reach

24 c. Germany’s military had weakened
1. The Allies, with 140,000 fresh American troops, launched a counterattack 2. July 1918, Germany and Allies clashed at the Second Battle of the Marne a tanks lead the Allied attack, smashing through the German lines b. 2 million American troops arrived to advance the Allies toward Germany d. Central Powers crumble 1. Bulgarians and the Ottoman Turks surrendered

25 2. A revolution in Austria-Hungary brought the empire to an end
3. German soldiers MUTINIED and the people turned against the Kaiser a. Kaiser Wilhelm was forced to step down in November b. Germany declares itself a REPUBLIC e. An ARMISTICE or an agreement to stop fighting was signed on November 11, 1918 and WWI came to an end 1. Allied nations gathered to work out a peace settlement

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