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Lecture The Pelvic Cavity Bony Pelvis Reproductive Organs.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture The Pelvic Cavity Bony Pelvis Reproductive Organs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture The Pelvic Cavity Bony Pelvis Reproductive Organs

2 The Pelvic Girdle Paired hip bones Os coxae or coxal bones –Ilium –Ischium –Pubis Articulate w/each other in anterior midline –Pubic symphysis

3 The Bony Pelvis Pelvic girdle attaches to axial skeleton by some of the strongest ligaments in the body Sacrum and coccyx form part of pelvis

4 Pelvis 2 os coxae Sacrum Coccyx Features –Pelvic brim –Pelvic inlet –Pelvic outlet –True/false pelves

5 True vs. False Pelvis False Lies above pelvic brim/inlet Contains abdominal organs True Lies below pelvic brim Contains colon, rectum, bladder, ovaries and uterus Limited inferiorly by pelvic diaphragm

6 Pelvic Diaphragm Consists of levator ani and coccygeus muscles Seals opening of bony pelvis Supports pelvic organs Pierced by rectum, urethra, vagina

7 Articulations Ilia –Articulate with sacrum Hip –Acetabulum with head of femur Pubic symphysis –R and L os coxae Note: Bone features will be studied in lab

8 Male vs. Female Pelvises

9 Sexual Dimorphism Female –Cavity broad, shallow –Bones lighter, thinner –Pubic angle larger –Coccyx flexible, straight –Ishcial tuberosities shorter, everted –Pelvic inlet wide, oval Male –Cavity narrow, deep –Bones heavier, thicker –Pubic angle narrower –Coccyx less flexible, curved –Ischial tuberosities longer, face medially –Pelvic inlet narrow, heart-shaped

10 Functions of Pelvis Attachment of lower limb to axial skeleton Support visceral organs Transmit weight of upper body –To limbs when upright –To ischial tuberosities when sitting

11 Reproductive Embryology Identical structures in male and female Gonadal ridges develop on dorsal abdominal wall –future ovaries or testes Wolffian ducts –future male ducts Müllerian ducts –future female ducts

12 Reproductive Embryology External Genitalia –Genital tubercle (projection on perineal surface) –Urethral groove –Urethral folds –Labioscrotal swellings

13 Ridges testes –Wolffian ducts Epididymis Ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct –Müllerian ducts degenerate Male Embryology

14 Ridges ovaries Müllerian ducts –Uterine tubes –Uterus –Superior vagina Wolffian ducts degenerate Female Embryology


16 Week 8 –Tubercle enlarges forming penis –Urethral folds fuse midline forming penile urethra –Labioscrotal swellings fuse midline forming scrotum Male Embryology

17 Tubercle forms clitoris Urethral folds do not fuse - form labia minora Labioscrotal swellings do not fuse – form labia majora Female Embryology


19 Homologous Structures Male –Testes –Penis –Penile urethra –Scrotum Female –Ovaries –Clitoris –Labia minora –Labia majora

20 Descent of the Ovaries Ovaries –Gubernaculum guides descent Ovarian ligament Round ligament –Reach pelvis Broad ligament

21 Descent of the Testes Through pelvis to scrotum Bring blood vessels and nerves Guided by gubernaculum

22 Descent of the Testes Pushes through abdominal wall forming inguinal canal Vaginal process –Outpouching of peritoneum –Tunica vaginalis after closing off

23 Descent of the Testes Complete by 1 month post birth

24 Puberty ~Age 10 – 15 Reproductive organs grow to adult size Reproduction becomes possible Occurs under influence of rising levels of testosterone and estrogen

25 Male Puberty  Enlargement of testes and scrotum All accessory structures attain adult size Spermatogenesis

26 Secondary Sex Characteristics Hair –Pubic –Axillary –Facial –Other Larynx Skin –Apocrine sweat glands –Sebaceous (oil) glands Somatic –Bones length and density –Skeletal muscle size and mass Basal metabolic rate Libido

27 Female Puberty  Budding of breasts Reproductive structures attain adult size Menarche ~ 2 years after onset of puberty Ovulation ~ 2years after menarche

28 Secondary Sex Characteristics Hair –Pubic –Axillary Fat Deposition –Hip –Breast Skin –Apocrine glands –Sebaceous glands Somatic –Growth spurt (3–5 yrs) –Widening, lightening of pelvic girdle

29 Male Reproductive Organs Primary sex organ –Production of gametes and sex hormones –Testis Secondary or accessory sex organs –External Genitalia Penis and scrotum –Ducts Epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra –Glands Seminal vesicle, prostrate, bulbourethral


31 External Genitalia - Scrotum –Sac Skin Superficial fascia Septum –Contain testes –Temperature regulation

32 Scrotal Muscles Dartos –Superficial fascia –Puckering of scrotum Cremaster –Bands of skeletal muscle –Internal oblique –Elevate testes

33 Testes 1 x 1.5 inches Coverings –Tunica vaginalis Parietal layer, serous fluid, visceral layer –Tunica albuginea Fibrous capsule Extends inward forming septa

34 Testis Lobules –1-4 seminiferous tubules –Tubulus rectus Blood supply –Testicular artery –Testicular veins –Pampiniform plexus

35 Seminiferous Tubules “Sperm factories” Spermatogenic cells –Germ cells at basal membrane –Sperm released into lumen

36 Other Cells Sustenacular cells –Sertoli cells –Lumen of seminiferous tubules –Provide nutrients –Move cells toward lumen –Secrete testicular fluid

37 Other Cells Myoid cells –Smooth muscle-like –Around tubules –Squeeze sperm and fluid through tubules Interstitial cells –In loose connective tissue –Secrete male hormones

38 Epididymis Seminiferous tubules Tubulus rectus Rete testis –network of branching tubes Efferent ductules Epididymis

39 Comma-shaped organ arching over posterolateral testis Head, body tail –Efferent ductules form part of head –Duct of epididymis forms head, body and tail –20 feet

40 Ductus Deferens or Vas Deferens Epididymis Through scrotum Enters pelvic cavity through the abdominal wall Descends along posterior wall of bladder Ampulla (distal end) joins with duct of seminal vesicle forming short ejaculatory duct

41 The Spermatic Cord Tube of fascia Scrotum through inguinal canal Contents –Vas deferens –Testicular vessels –Nerves

42 Seminal Vesicles Posterior surface of bladder Secretes viscous fluid accounting for 60% of volume of semen Duct joins vas deferens forming ejaculatory duct which empties into prostatic urethra

43 Prostate Inferior to bladder Contains urethra Milky secretion –~1/3 of semen

44 Bulbourethral Glands Cowper’s glands Within urogenital diaphragm Empty into spongy urethra Produce mucus for lubrication and neutralization of traces of acidic urine

45 Urethra Bladder Prostate –Prostatic Urogenital diaphragm –Membranous Penis –Spongy or penile

46 Function –Sperm to female reproductive tract Anatomy –Root Attached end –Shaft or body Free end –Glans enlarged tip –Prepuce - foreskin –Spongy urethra External Genitalia - Penis

47 Penis – Erectile Bodies Spongy tissue –Smooth muscle –Connective tissue –Vascular spaces Corpus spongiosum –Single –Midventral Corpora cavernosa –Paired –Dorsal

48 Penis – Erectile Bodies Corpus spongiosum –Proximally – bulb Secured to urogenital diaphragm by bulbospongiosus muscle –Distally – forms glans Corpora cavernosa –Proximally – crura Anchored to pubic arch by ischiocavernosus muscle –Most of mass of penis

49 Penis Arterial supply –Branches of internal pudendal (branch of internal iliac) Innervation –Sensation via branches of pudendal nerve (sacral plexus) –Autonomic – hypogastric plexus Parasympathetic - engorgement of blood in erectile bodies - erection Sympathetic - contraction of smooth muscle in ducts, glands, and bulbospongiosus muscle - ejaculation

50 Semen Sperm –50 – 130 million/ml Fluid –Transport –Nutrients –Chemicals

51 Spermatogenesis Occurs in seminiferous tubules Spermatogonia = stem cells Spermiogenesis = maturation of spermatids into spermatozoa –Develop head, midpiece and tail –Newly formed sperm detach from epithelium and enter lumen of tubule –Controlled by FSH & testosterone

52 Male Perineum Contains –Scrotum, root of penis, and anus Boundaries –Pubic symphysis, coccyx, ischial tuberosities Muscles –See diagram –Urogenital diaphragm deep transverse perineus and sphincter urethrae

53 Female Reproductive Organs Primary sex organ –Ovary Secondary or accessory sex organs –External genitalia or vulva Labia majora Labia minora Clitoris Mons pubis

54 Female Reproductive Organs Secondary or accessory sex organs –Internal genitalia Ducts –Oviducts –Uterus –Vagina Glands –Greater vestibular gland


56 Ovaries Size –~1 x 1½ inches Function –Produce female hormones –Produce gametes –Store gametes

57 Ovary Tunica albuginea Cortex –Oocytes Medulla –Connective tissues, nerves, blood vessels

58 Ovary Arterial Supply –Ovarian arteries –Ovarian branches of uterine arteries (arise from internal iliac arteries) Venous drainage –Ovarian veins to IVC

59 Ovarian Ligaments Ovarian ligament –Remnant of gubernaculum Suspensory ligament –Ovaries to pelvic wall –Ovarian arteries, veins, and nerves Broad ligament –Uterus and oviducts –Large fold of peritoneum

60 Oviducts Uterine or Fallopian tubes Infundibulum –Funnel-like –Fimbrae with cilia Ampulla & Isthmus –Ciliated –Smooth muscle Peristalsis –Mucosa Ciliated cells Nonciliated cells –nourish ova

61 The Uterus Gross Anatomy –Fundus –Body –Isthmus –Cervix Wall –Perimetrium –Myometrium –Endometrium

62 Uterine Blood Supply Uterine arteries (int. iliac) Arcuate branches of uterine arteries

63 The Cervix External os –Nulliparous vs. parous Cervical canal Internal os

64 Vagina Wall – 3 layers –Adventia –Muscularis –Mucosa Rugae

65 Vagina Location –Inferior to uterus –Anterior to rectum –Posterior to bladder

66 External Genitalia Mons pubis –Fatty pad over pubic symphysis Labia majora –Fatty skin folds Labia minora –Hairless folds within labia majora

67 External Genitalia Vestibule – opening for urethra and vagina Clitoris –Crura –Prepuce –Corpora cavernosum –No corpus spongiosum

68 Perineum Contents –Urethra –External genitalia –Anus Boundaries –Pubic symphysis –Coccyx –Ischial tuberosities Central tendon –Perineal body –Muscle insertion –Episiotomy

69 Perineum Contains –Urethra, ext. genitalia, and anus Boundaries –Pubic symphysis, coccyx, ischial tuberosities Muscles –See diagram –Urogenital diaphragm deep transverse perineus and sphincter urethrae Central tendon perineal body – muscle insertion

70 Glands Greater vestibular glands –Bartholin’s –Mucus

71 Oogenesis

72 Fertilization – Formation of Zygote Path of Sperm –Seminiferous tubules –Tubulus rectus –Rete testis –Efferent ductules –Duct of epididymis –Vas deferens –Urethra –Vagina – Uterus –Oviduct Path of Ovum –Ovary –Peritoneal cavity –Infundibulum –Oviduct Path of Zygote –Oviduct –Uterus Path of Fetus –Uterus –Vagina fertilization

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