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The Pelvic Cavity Bony Pelvis Reproductive Organs

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Presentation on theme: "The Pelvic Cavity Bony Pelvis Reproductive Organs"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Pelvic Cavity Bony Pelvis Reproductive Organs
Lecture The Pelvic Cavity Bony Pelvis Reproductive Organs

2 The Pelvic Girdle Paired hip bones Os coxae or coxal bones Ilium
Ischium Pubis Articulate w/each other in anterior midline Pubic symphysis

3 The Bony Pelvis Pelvic girdle attaches to axial skeleton by some of the strongest ligaments in the body Sacrum and coccyx form part of pelvis

4 Pelvis 2 os coxae Sacrum Coccyx Features Pelvic brim Pelvic inlet
Pelvic outlet True/false pelves

5 True vs. False Pelvis True Lies below pelvic brim
Contains colon, rectum, bladder, ovaries and uterus Limited inferiorly by pelvic diaphragm False Lies above pelvic brim/inlet Contains abdominal organs

6 Pelvic Diaphragm Consists of levator ani and coccygeus muscles
Seals opening of bony pelvis Supports pelvic organs Pierced by rectum, urethra, vagina

7 Articulations Ilia Hip Pubic symphysis Articulate with sacrum
Acetabulum with head of femur Pubic symphysis R and L os coxae Note: Bone features will be studied in lab

8 Male vs. Female Pelvises

9 Sexual Dimorphism Female Male Cavity broad, shallow
Bones lighter, thinner Pubic angle larger Coccyx flexible, straight Ishcial tuberosities shorter, everted Pelvic inlet wide, oval Male Cavity narrow, deep Bones heavier, thicker Pubic angle narrower Coccyx less flexible, curved Ischial tuberosities longer, face medially Pelvic inlet narrow, heart-shaped

10 Functions of Pelvis Attachment of lower limb to axial skeleton
Support visceral organs Transmit weight of upper body To limbs when upright To ischial tuberosities when sitting

11 Reproductive Embryology
Identical structures in male and female Gonadal ridges develop on dorsal abdominal wall future ovaries or testes Wolffian ducts future male ducts Müllerian ducts future female ducts

12 Reproductive Embryology
External Genitalia Genital tubercle (projection on perineal surface) Urethral groove Urethral folds Labioscrotal swellings

13 Male Embryology Ridges testes Wolffian ducts
Epididymis Ductus deferens Ejaculatory duct Müllerian ducts degenerate

14 Female Embryology Ridges ovaries Müllerian ducts
Uterine tubes Uterus Superior vagina Wolffian ducts degenerate


16 Male Embryology Week 8 Tubercle enlarges forming penis
Urethral folds fuse midline forming penile urethra Labioscrotal swellings fuse midline forming scrotum

17 Female Embryology Tubercle forms clitoris
Urethral folds do not fuse - form labia minora Labioscrotal swellings do not fuse – form labia majora


19 Homologous Structures
Male Testes Penis Penile urethra Scrotum Female Ovaries Clitoris Labia minora Labia majora

20 Descent of the Ovaries Ovaries Gubernaculum guides descent
Ovarian ligament Round ligament Reach pelvis Broad ligament

21 Descent of the Testes Through pelvis to scrotum
Bring blood vessels and nerves Guided by gubernaculum

22 Descent of the Testes Pushes through abdominal wall forming inguinal canal Vaginal process Outpouching of peritoneum Tunica vaginalis after closing off

23 Descent of the Testes Complete by 1 month post birth

24 Puberty ~Age 10 – 15 Reproductive organs grow to adult size
Reproduction becomes possible Occurs under influence of rising levels of testosterone and estrogen

25 Male Puberty Enlargement of testes and scrotum
All accessory structures attain adult size Spermatogenesis

26 Secondary Sex Characteristics
Hair Pubic Axillary Facial Other Larynx Skin Apocrine sweat glands Sebaceous (oil) glands Somatic Bones length and density Skeletal muscle size and mass Basal metabolic rate Libido

27 Female Puberty Budding of breasts
Reproductive structures attain adult size Menarche ~ 2 years after onset of puberty Ovulation ~ 2years after menarche

28 Secondary Sex Characteristics
Hair Pubic Axillary Fat Deposition Hip Breast Skin Apocrine glands Sebaceous glands Somatic Growth spurt (3–5 yrs) Widening, lightening of pelvic girdle

29 Male Reproductive Organs
Primary sex organ Production of gametes and sex hormones Testis Secondary or accessory sex organs External Genitalia Penis and scrotum Ducts Epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra Glands Seminal vesicle, prostrate, bulbourethral


31 External Genitalia - Scrotum
Sac Skin Superficial fascia Septum Contain testes Temperature regulation

32 Scrotal Muscles Dartos Cremaster Superficial fascia
Puckering of scrotum Cremaster Bands of skeletal muscle Internal oblique Elevate testes

33 Testes 1 x 1.5 inches Coverings Tunica vaginalis
Parietal layer, serous fluid, visceral layer Tunica albuginea Fibrous capsule Extends inward forming septa

34 Testis Lobules Blood supply 1-4 seminiferous tubules Tubulus rectus
Testicular artery Testicular veins Pampiniform plexus

35 Seminiferous Tubules “Sperm factories” Spermatogenic cells
Germ cells at basal membrane Sperm released into lumen

36 Other Cells Sustenacular cells Sertoli cells
Lumen of seminiferous tubules Provide nutrients Move cells toward lumen Secrete testicular fluid

37 Other Cells Myoid cells Interstitial cells Smooth muscle-like
Around tubules Squeeze sperm and fluid through tubules Interstitial cells In loose connective tissue Secrete male hormones

38 Epididymis Seminiferous tubules Tubulus rectus Rete testis
network of branching tubes Efferent ductules Epididymis

39 Epididymis Comma-shaped organ arching over posterolateral testis
Head, body tail Efferent ductules form part of head Duct of epididymis forms head, body and tail 20 feet

40 Ductus Deferens or Vas Deferens
Epididymis Through scrotum Enters pelvic cavity through the abdominal wall Descends along posterior wall of bladder Ampulla (distal end) joins with duct of seminal vesicle forming short ejaculatory duct

41 The Spermatic Cord Tube of fascia Scrotum through inguinal canal
Contents Vas deferens Testicular vessels Nerves

42 Seminal Vesicles Posterior surface of bladder
Secretes viscous fluid accounting for 60% of volume of semen Duct joins vas deferens forming ejaculatory duct which empties into prostatic urethra

43 Prostate Inferior to bladder Contains urethra Milky secretion
~1/3 of semen

44 Bulbourethral Glands Cowper’s glands Within urogenital diaphragm
Empty into spongy urethra Produce mucus for lubrication and neutralization of traces of acidic urine

45 Urethra Bladder Prostate Urogenital diaphragm Penis Prostatic
Membranous Penis Spongy or penile

46 External Genitalia - Penis
Function Sperm to female reproductive tract Anatomy Root Attached end Shaft or body Free end Glans enlarged tip Prepuce - foreskin Spongy urethra

47 Penis – Erectile Bodies
Spongy tissue Smooth muscle Connective tissue Vascular spaces Corpus spongiosum Single Midventral Corpora cavernosa Paired Dorsal

48 Penis – Erectile Bodies
Corpus spongiosum Proximally – bulb Secured to urogenital diaphragm by bulbospongiosus muscle Distally – forms glans Corpora cavernosa Proximally – crura Anchored to pubic arch by ischiocavernosus muscle Most of mass of penis

49 Penis Arterial supply Innervation
Branches of internal pudendal (branch of internal iliac) Innervation Sensation via branches of pudendal nerve (sacral plexus) Autonomic – hypogastric plexus Parasympathetic - engorgement of blood in erectile bodies - erection Sympathetic - contraction of smooth muscle in ducts, glands, and bulbospongiosus muscle - ejaculation

50 Semen Sperm Fluid 50 – 130 million/ml Transport Nutrients Chemicals

51 Spermatogenesis Occurs in seminiferous tubules
Spermatogonia = stem cells Spermiogenesis = maturation of spermatids into spermatozoa Develop head, midpiece and tail Newly formed sperm detach from epithelium and enter lumen of tubule Controlled by FSH & testosterone

52 Male Perineum Contains Scrotum, root of penis, and anus Boundaries
Pubic symphysis, coccyx, ischial tuberosities Muscles See diagram Urogenital diaphragm deep transverse perineus and sphincter urethrae

53 Female Reproductive Organs
Primary sex organ Ovary Secondary or accessory sex organs External genitalia or vulva Labia majora Labia minora Clitoris Mons pubis

54 Female Reproductive Organs
Secondary or accessory sex organs Internal genitalia Ducts Oviducts Uterus Vagina Glands Greater vestibular gland


56 Ovaries Size Function Produce female hormones Produce gametes
~1 x 1½ inches Function Produce female hormones Produce gametes Store gametes

57 Ovary Tunica albuginea Cortex Medulla Oocytes
Connective tissues, nerves, blood vessels

58 Ovary Arterial Supply Venous drainage Ovarian arteries
Ovarian branches of uterine arteries (arise from internal iliac arteries) Venous drainage Ovarian veins to IVC

59 Ovarian Ligaments Ovarian ligament Remnant of gubernaculum
Suspensory ligament Ovaries to pelvic wall Ovarian arteries, veins, and nerves Broad ligament Uterus and oviducts Large fold of peritoneum

60 Oviducts Uterine or Fallopian tubes Infundibulum Funnel-like
Fimbrae with cilia Ampulla & Isthmus Ciliated Smooth muscle Peristalsis Mucosa Ciliated cells Nonciliated cells nourish ova

61 The Uterus Gross Anatomy Wall Fundus Body Isthmus Cervix Perimetrium
Myometrium Endometrium

62 Uterine Blood Supply Uterine arteries (int. iliac)
Arcuate branches of uterine arteries

63 The Cervix External os Cervical canal Internal os
External os Nulliparous vs. parous Cervical canal Internal os

64 Vagina Wall – 3 layers Adventia Muscularis Mucosa Rugae

65 Vagina Location Inferior to uterus Anterior to rectum
Posterior to bladder

66 External Genitalia Mons pubis Labia majora Labia minora
Fatty pad over pubic symphysis Labia majora Fatty skin folds Labia minora Hairless folds within labia majora

67 External Genitalia Vestibule – opening for urethra and vagina Clitoris
Crura Prepuce Corpora cavernosum No corpus spongiosum

68 Perineum Contents Urethra External genitalia Anus Boundaries
Pubic symphysis Coccyx Ischial tuberosities Central tendon Perineal body Muscle insertion Episiotomy

69 Perineum Contains Boundaries Muscles Urethra, ext. genitalia, and anus
Pubic symphysis, coccyx, ischial tuberosities Muscles See diagram Urogenital diaphragm deep transverse perineus and sphincter urethrae Central tendon perineal body – muscle insertion

70 Glands Greater vestibular glands Bartholin’s Mucus

71 Oogenesis

72 Fertilization – Formation of Zygote
Path of Sperm Seminiferous tubules Tubulus rectus Rete testis Efferent ductules Duct of epididymis Vas deferens Urethra Vagina Uterus Oviduct Path of Ovum Ovary Peritoneal cavity Infundibulum Oviduct Path of Zygote Uterus Path of Fetus Vagina fertilization

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