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L-14 Part III Pre-reform Russia (5) 7. Culture. A. Themes 1.Expansion of education, esp. secondary and tertiary 2.Religious dissent: intensifies, diversifies.

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Presentation on theme: "L-14 Part III Pre-reform Russia (5) 7. Culture. A. Themes 1.Expansion of education, esp. secondary and tertiary 2.Religious dissent: intensifies, diversifies."— Presentation transcript:

1 L-14 Part III Pre-reform Russia (5) 7. Culture

2 A. Themes 1.Expansion of education, esp. secondary and tertiary 2.Religious dissent: intensifies, diversifies 3.Growth of Russian national consciousness 4.Emergence of proto-intelligentsia 5.Golden age of Russian literature

3 B. Education 1.Educational Reform of 1804 a. Structure b. Problems 2. Nikolaevan Retrenchment a. Education as social policy b. Nikolaevan policy 3.Growth and Impact 4.Science and Scholarship

4 Primary and Secondary School Enrollments Country18401860 Total (thousands) Per 1,000 population Total (thousands) Per 1,000 population Russia270595513 Germany3,7001137,100156 France2,900854,029149

5 Literacy Rates (percent) Country18001850 MFMF Russia641910 Gt. Britain68437245 Germany80508684 France47276946

6 Russia: Gymnasium and University Enrollments YearGymnasiumUniversity 1809450 18257,7001,700 184818,9004,600 185417,8003,600

7 Social Composition of University (1848-49) Social Group NumberPercent Nobility2,50663.6 Clergy2797.2 Raznochintsy1,15229.3 Total3,937100.0

8 Moscow University: 1804 Charter

9 C. Religion: Orthodoxy and Dissent 1.Official Church and Popular Orthodoxy 2.Dissent: Old Believers and Sectarians

10 Old Believer Center: Rogozhskoe Cemetery Complex (Moscow)

11 D. Russian National Consciousness

12 Admiral Aleksandr S. Shishkov (1754-1841)

13 A. N. Karamzin(1766-1826)

14 E. Decembrism 1.Historiography 2.Movement: overview 3.Decembrists: profile 4.“Decembrism”: liberal nationalism 5.Significance: mutual alienation

15 Decembrist Movement: Overview 1816 SPB Union of Salvation 1818 Union of Welfare 1821 Northern Society 1821 Southern Society 1825 Society of United Slavs 1825 Uprising: 14 December SPB 29 December Chernigov Regiment

16 Decembrist Uprising on Senate Square (December 1825)

17 Pavel Pestel: Pravda Russkaia (Russian Truth)

18 Sergei Murav’ev-Apostol

19 Decembrists in Chains

20 5 Decembrist Martyrs: Pestel, Ryleev, Bestuzhev, Murav’ev, Kakhovskii

21 Decembrist Execution Site: Petropavslovskii Fortress

22 F. Proto-intelligentsia 1.Terminology: Radicals and obshchestvo (“educated society”) 2.Social Profile 3.“Circles” (kruzhki) of the 1830s 4.Westerner-Slavophile debate 5.Radical socialist currents a.Herzen: Russian peasant socialism b.Bakunin: Anarchism c.Petrashevtsy: Utopian socialism, mass engagement 6.Russian Liberalism

23 Radical Dissenters: Social Origins Social CategoryPercent of Arrested Nobles80 Non-nobles20

24 Radical Dissenters: Social Position Social StatusPercent of Arrested Student49 Civil Servant25 Writer, Artist10 Army Officer6 Teacher9 Unknown1

25 P. Ia. Chaadaev (1794-1856) 1836 “Philosophical Letter” 1837 “Apology of a Madman”

26 Vissarion G. Belinskii (1811-1848)

27 Konstantin Dm. Kavelin (1818-85): Westerner, Historian

28 Sergei Timofeevich Aksakov (1759- 1859)

29 Konstantin S. Aksakov (1817-60)

30 Ivan S. Aksakov (1823-86)

31 Boris Chicherin 1828-1904: Liberal Ideologist

32 Alexander Herzen (1812-70): Russian peasant socialism

33 Alexander Herzen & Family Estate near Moscow

34 Mikhail Bakunin, 1814-76: Anarchism

35 Mikhail V. Petrashevskii (1821-66): Utopian socialism

36 6. Literature and Creative Arts 1.Why a golden age? 2.Literary giants: Griboedov, Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol’ 3.Art: Ivanov and Venetsianov 4.Music: Glinka and Russian national opera

37 Aleksandr Griboedov (1795-1829): “Woe of Wit” (1822-4)

38 A.S. Pushkin, 1799-1837

39 Hannibal and Granddaughter, Nadezhda O. Pushkina (and Pushkin’s mother)

40 Mikhail Iu. Lermontov (1814-41)

41 Nikolai V. Gogol (1809-52)

42 Aleksandr Ivanov (1806-58)

43 Ivanov: “Appearance of Christ before the People” (1837-57)

44 Aleksei G. Venetsianov 1780-1847

45 Venetsianov: “Fortune-telling with cards” (1830s)

46 Venetsianov: “In the Fields in Spring”

47 Venetsianov, “Peasant Children” (1820s)

48 Venetsianov, “The Reapers” (1820s)

49 Mikhail Iv. Glinka 1804-57

50 6. Conclusions 1.Elite identity 2.Impact of Western ideology 3.Revolutionary inaction 4.Cultural pluralism 5.Elite/narod gap


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