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L-14 Part III Pre-reform Russia (5) 7. Culture. A. Themes 1.Expansion of education, esp. secondary and tertiary 2.Religious dissent: intensifies, diversifies.

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Presentation on theme: "L-14 Part III Pre-reform Russia (5) 7. Culture. A. Themes 1.Expansion of education, esp. secondary and tertiary 2.Religious dissent: intensifies, diversifies."— Presentation transcript:

1 L-14 Part III Pre-reform Russia (5) 7. Culture

2 A. Themes 1.Expansion of education, esp. secondary and tertiary 2.Religious dissent: intensifies, diversifies 3.Growth of Russian national consciousness 4.Emergence of proto-intelligentsia 5.Golden age of Russian literature

3 B. Education 1.Educational Reform of 1804 a. Structure b. Problems 2. Nikolaevan Retrenchment a. Education as social policy b. Nikolaevan policy 3.Growth and Impact 4.Science and Scholarship

4 Primary and Secondary School Enrollments Country Total (thousands) Per 1,000 population Total (thousands) Per 1,000 population Russia Germany3, , France2,900854,029149

5 Literacy Rates (percent) Country MFMF Russia Gt. Britain Germany France

6 Russia: Gymnasium and University Enrollments YearGymnasiumUniversity ,7001, ,9004, ,8003,600

7 Social Composition of University ( ) Social Group NumberPercent Nobility2, Clergy Raznochintsy1, Total3,

8 Moscow University: 1804 Charter

9 C. Religion: Orthodoxy and Dissent 1.Official Church and Popular Orthodoxy 2.Dissent: Old Believers and Sectarians

10 Old Believer Center: Rogozhskoe Cemetery Complex (Moscow)

11 D. Russian National Consciousness

12 Admiral Aleksandr S. Shishkov ( )

13 A. N. Karamzin( )

14 E. Decembrism 1.Historiography 2.Movement: overview 3.Decembrists: profile 4.“Decembrism”: liberal nationalism 5.Significance: mutual alienation

15 Decembrist Movement: Overview 1816 SPB Union of Salvation 1818 Union of Welfare 1821 Northern Society 1821 Southern Society 1825 Society of United Slavs 1825 Uprising: 14 December SPB 29 December Chernigov Regiment

16 Decembrist Uprising on Senate Square (December 1825)

17 Pavel Pestel: Pravda Russkaia (Russian Truth)

18 Sergei Murav’ev-Apostol

19 Decembrists in Chains

20 5 Decembrist Martyrs: Pestel, Ryleev, Bestuzhev, Murav’ev, Kakhovskii

21 Decembrist Execution Site: Petropavslovskii Fortress

22 F. Proto-intelligentsia 1.Terminology: Radicals and obshchestvo (“educated society”) 2.Social Profile 3.“Circles” (kruzhki) of the 1830s 4.Westerner-Slavophile debate 5.Radical socialist currents a.Herzen: Russian peasant socialism b.Bakunin: Anarchism c.Petrashevtsy: Utopian socialism, mass engagement 6.Russian Liberalism

23 Radical Dissenters: Social Origins Social CategoryPercent of Arrested Nobles80 Non-nobles20

24 Radical Dissenters: Social Position Social StatusPercent of Arrested Student49 Civil Servant25 Writer, Artist10 Army Officer6 Teacher9 Unknown1

25 P. Ia. Chaadaev ( ) 1836 “Philosophical Letter” 1837 “Apology of a Madman”

26 Vissarion G. Belinskii ( )

27 Konstantin Dm. Kavelin ( ): Westerner, Historian

28 Sergei Timofeevich Aksakov ( )

29 Konstantin S. Aksakov ( )

30 Ivan S. Aksakov ( )

31 Boris Chicherin : Liberal Ideologist

32 Alexander Herzen ( ): Russian peasant socialism

33 Alexander Herzen & Family Estate near Moscow

34 Mikhail Bakunin, : Anarchism

35 Mikhail V. Petrashevskii ( ): Utopian socialism

36 6. Literature and Creative Arts 1.Why a golden age? 2.Literary giants: Griboedov, Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol’ 3.Art: Ivanov and Venetsianov 4.Music: Glinka and Russian national opera

37 Aleksandr Griboedov ( ): “Woe of Wit” (1822-4)

38 A.S. Pushkin,

39 Hannibal and Granddaughter, Nadezhda O. Pushkina (and Pushkin’s mother)

40 Mikhail Iu. Lermontov ( )

41 Nikolai V. Gogol ( )

42 Aleksandr Ivanov ( )

43 Ivanov: “Appearance of Christ before the People” ( )

44 Aleksei G. Venetsianov

45 Venetsianov: “Fortune-telling with cards” (1830s)

46 Venetsianov: “In the Fields in Spring”

47 Venetsianov, “Peasant Children” (1820s)

48 Venetsianov, “The Reapers” (1820s)

49 Mikhail Iv. Glinka

50 6. Conclusions 1.Elite identity 2.Impact of Western ideology 3.Revolutionary inaction 4.Cultural pluralism 5.Elite/narod gap


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