17Ecological MethodsEcologists use a wide range of tools and techniques to study the living world.Apply the scientific method to do ecological research:ObservingExperimentingModeling
18Interactions Between Organisms All organisms depend upon other living things and nonliving things to meet their needs, such as:FoodShelterReproductionProtectionThus, an interdependence exists among organisms and the environment18
19Energy Flow All living things need ENERGY to survive. Where does this energy ultimately come from?
20AutotrophsOrganisms that capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use that energy to produce food.Ex. Bacteria,plants, and algaeAlso called producers
21Heterotrophs Rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply Also called consumers
22Types of Consumers Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores Decomposers
23HerbivoresHeterotrophs that eat plants (1st order consumers)23
24CarnivoresHeterotrophs that eat animalsThey come in many sizes!24
25OmnivoresEat both plants and animalsEx: humans, raccoons, bears25
26DetritivoresAnimals that feed on animal remains and dead matter (collectively called detritus)EX: mites, earthworms, snails, crabs26
27DecomposersBreak down decaying matterEx: bacteria and fungi27
28Feeding Relationships What happens to the energy in an ecosystem when one organism eats another?The energy moves along a one-way path.Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction, from the sun to autotrophs and then to various heterotrophs
29Food ChainsThe energy stored by producers can be passed through an ecosystem along a food chain, a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
30A food chain shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystem Each organism represents a trophic level, a step in the food chain.Natural Food ChainSun Grass Rabbit Snake HawkThe arrows show the direction that energy is transferred30
31Food WebShows all of the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level in the community.
34Ecological PyramidsA diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web.3 typesEnergy pyramidsBiomass pyramidsPyramids of numbers
35Energy PyramidOnly part of the energy that is stored in one trophic level is passed on to the next level…. why?Organisms use much of the energy that they consume for life processes (reproduction, respiration, and movement).Only 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level.
36Biomass PyramidThe total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level is called biomass.A biomass pyramid represents the amount of potential food available for each trophic level in an ecosystem.
37Pyramid of NumbersPyramid based on the numbers of individual organisms at each trophic level.
38Matter also is moved throughout an ecosystem... WaterCarbonNitrogen
39WaterThe water cycle is the continuous movement of water between Earth and its atmosphere.
43Carbon CycleThe carbon cycle has been operating to keep the amount of carbon dioxide in balance between the atmosphere and Earth.HOWEVER, the burning of fossil fuels has added more carbon dioxide than can be removed by plants during photosynthesis.
44Carbon CycleCarbon dioxide is considered a greenhouse gas …it traps heat on Earth.This contributes to global warming, which has led to an overall increase in the Earth’s average temperature.
46Nitrogen Cycle *78% of the atmosphere is composed of nitrogen *Living things cannot use nitrogen in the atmospheric form*Lightening and some bacteria convert nitrogen to usable forms, then producers use them to make proteins. Consumers then eat the producers and reuse the nitrogen to make their own proteins!*When organisms die, decomposers return nitrogen to the soil and it is either reused or converted into nitrogen gas and returned to the atmosphere.
47Nutrient LimitationPrimary Productivity—rate at which an organic matter is created by producersProcess can be limited by a lack of nutrients
48A polar bear, its fur stained with algae, stands in its cage at Higashiyama Zoo in Nagoya, central Japan, Saturday, Sept. 6, Three polar bears at the zoo changed their colors in July after swimming in a pond with an overgrowth of algae, prompting many questions from visitors concerned about whether the animals are sick or carrying mold, a zoo official said. Credit: AP Photo/Kyodo News, Shuzo Shikano
504–1 The Role of Climate Words you need to know: Weather Climate The Greenhouse EffectClimate Zones polar zones (66.5° and 90° North and South latitudes)temperate zones (between the polarzones and the tropics)tropical zone (23.5° North and ° South latitudes)
534–2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Biotic & abiotic factorsHabitat = the area where an organism lives (biotic and abiotic factors that affect it)Niche = full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
54no two species can share the same niche in the same habitat
55Community Interactions Competition = organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same timeResource = any necessity of life (water, nutrients, light, food, or space)competitive exclusion principle = ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time
624–1 The Role of Climate Words you need to know: Weather Climate The Greenhouse EffectClimate Zones polar zones (66.5° and 90° North and South latitudes)temperate zones (between the polarzones and the tropics)tropical zone (23.5° North and ° South latitudes)
654–2 What Shapes an Ecosystem? Biotic & abiotic factorsHabitat = the area where an organism lives (biotic and abiotic factors that affect it)Niche = full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
66no two species can share the same niche in the same habitat
67Community Interactions Competition = organisms of the same or different species attempt to use an ecological resource in the same place at the same timeResource = any necessity of life (water, nutrients, light, food, or space)competitive exclusion principle = ecological rule that states that no two species can occupy the same exact niche in the same habitat at the same time
83How Populations Grow Characteristics of Populations Three important characteristics of a populationgeographic distributionDensitygrowth rate
84Geographic Distribution Geographic distribution, or range, is a term that describes the area inhabited by a population.
85Population DensityPopulation density is the number of individuals per unit area.The population of saguaro cactus in the desert plant community has a low density, whereas other plants in that community have a relatively high density.
86Populations Growth Population Growth Three factors can affect population size:number of birthsthe number of deathsthe number of individuals that enter or leave the population.* Simply put, a population will increase or decrease in size depending on how many individuals are added to it or removed from it
87Immigration & Emmigration the movement of individuals into an area, is another factor that can cause a population to grow.Emigrationthe movement of individuals out of an area, can cause a population to decrease in size.
88Word OriginImmigration is formed from the Latin prefix in-, meaning “in,” and migrare, meaning “to move from one place to another.If the Latin prefix e- means “out,” then which of the following means “migration out”?A.) emigrationB.) migrationC.) Immigration
89Exponetial Growth Exponential Growth If a population has abundant space and food, and is protected from predators and disease, then organisms in that population will multiply and the population size will increase.
91Exponential GrowthExponential growth occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate.Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources, a population will grow exponentially.
92Logistic GrowthLogistic growth occurs when a population's growth slows or stops following a period of exponential growth.As resources become less available, the growth of a population slows or stops. The general, S-shaped curve of this growth pattern, called logistic growth
94Carrying Capacity Carrying Capacity The number or the largest number of individuals that a given environment can support.
95Pythons have replaced alligators as the apex (top) predator in the In the Belly of a PythonPythons have replaced alligators as the apex (top) predator in theFlorida Everglades
96What is a Python?Native to grassy marshes and jungles of Southeast AsiaCan grow up 23 feet longCan weigh up to 200 lbsExcellent swimmers – can stay submerged inwater up to 30 minutesDiameter can be about the same as a telephone poleCarnivores that kill by constriction (squeezing prey)On Threatened List in native lands, but not threatened in Florida
97Burmese Pythons are an Invasive Species An invasive species is one that “invades” a habitat that is not its native habitat. In its native habitat it is part of an ecosystem that keeps its population in balance with other organisms.
98An Invasive Species can Severely Damage an Ecosystem’s Balance But when it is imported into another environment that provides the right combination of climate and resources to live but where its population is NOT kept in check in the new ecosystem, it becomes an INVASIVE SPECIES that disrupts the balance of the ecosystem.
99What are the Everglades? The Florida Everglades is a huge, wetland ecosystem .Over 4,500 miles of slow moving waters feed the sub- tropical habitats.Formed over thousands of years its waters and vegetation provides home to thousands of mammals, amphibians, birds, fish, insects, arachnids, reptiles and plants.The Everglades is America's only sub-tropical wilderness and visitors travel from all over the world over to experience its natural beauty.Has diverse habitats of pine and freshwater cypress forests, open prairie, and tropical saltwater mangrove swamps.Fragile ecosystems are easily disrupted by invasive species.
101Burmese Pythons Disturb the Ecosystems of the Everglades The non-native python has virtually no predators in the Everglades.It is a voracious eater.It disrupts the fragile balance of the ecosystems in the EvergladesThe following slides show some of the very different kinds of animals that have been found in stomachs of captured pythons.
103Endangered Key Largo Woodrat Rare – only about 100 in the wild
104White-tailed DeerWhite-tails have a home territory that is less than one square mile. If the deerin an area decrease because of python predation, how does that affect the ecosystem?Think – what else eats deer? What do deer eat? Think in both directions of the food chain.
107Limpkins – southern marsh bird Feed almost exclusively on apple snails, which are voracious plant eaters. Ifthe limpkin population goes down from python predation, what does the applesnail population do?
108Wood StorkWood Storks have been on the Endangered Species List since 1984
111How Many Pythons Are in Florida? An estimated 150,000 are slithering around the EvergaldesSo let’s see – what’s the math?72 mice x 150,000 =4 gators x 150,000 =1 racoon x 150,000 =15 rabbits x 150,00 =And so on - you get the picture!Now multiply the above by the fact that they can live to be 30 years old and hatch 35 to 100 eggs a year! And some percentage of the babies live and continue eating and hatching more snakes!It’s a problem, alright.
113Ready to Watch Our Movie? What are we interested in picking up information about?How the invasion startedWhat predators they replaceWhat they eatWays that they disrupt the ecosystemWhat can be done to solve the problem?