Presentation on theme: "B ELL R INGER 10-6-14 1. How many chromosomes are contained in a human male gamete cell? a. 11 b. 23 c. 34 d. 46 2. The genetic disorder trisomy 21 (Down."— Presentation transcript:
B ELL R INGER 10-6-14 1. How many chromosomes are contained in a human male gamete cell? a. 11 b. 23 c. 34 d. 46 2. The genetic disorder trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) is caused by what genetic event? a. crossing-over b. Nondisjunction c. Base pair substitution d. Frame-shift location 3. The gene for red/green colorblindness in humans is recessive and primarily affects males. It must be located on a. The X chromosome b. The Y chromosome c. Both the X and Y chromosome d. Either the X or the Y chromosome
T HIS W EEK … Monday – Finish presentations if needed, Quiz over Genetic Disorder Presentations, DNA Technology Notes Tuesday – DNA Technology Webquest in the computer lab (521) Wednesday – GATTACA Thursday – Finish GATTACA if needed, Genetic Technology articles Friday – ABC Book Self Evaluation (daily grade), Introduction to Evolution and Organisms Unit – “Great Transformations” video
S TANDARD SB2. Students will analyze how biological traits are passed on to successive generations. f. Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine, and agriculture.
K EY I DEAS What is genetic engineering? How is genetic technology used in agriculture, medicine, and forensics? What concerns are there regarding genetic engineering?
W HAT ’ S G ENETIC E NGINEERING ? Genetic Engineering – the deliberate alteration of the genetic material (DNA) of an organism
H OW IS IT D IFFERENT THAN S ELECTIVE B REEDING ? Humans have been altering plants and animals for 1,000s of years through selective breeding. Selective breeding - is the process by which humans breed other animals and plants for particular traits. Genetic engineering involves changing the organisms on the cellular level. For example, transferring genes from one organism to another.
R ECOMBINANT DNA Recombinant DNA – DNA molecules that are artificially created by combining DNA from different sources
T RANSGENIC O RGANISMS Organisms whose genetic characteristics have been altered using the techniques of genetic engineering. Examples Plants modified to be disease or pest resistant Manipulating genetics of lab animals to test on human diseases Producing faster-growing livestock
G ENE T HERAPY Gene therapy – an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. Some forms of gene therapy: Inserting a normal gene to replace an abnormal one Swapping an abnormal gene for a normal one Repairing an abnormal gene
G ENE T HERAPY AND C YSTIC F IBROSIS It has not been perfected yet. There are benefits and risks. How does it work? The defective gene is identified and is corrected with a normal gene A vector is used to get the normal gene into the cells in the lungs The healthy, normal gene inserts itself randomly in the DNA of the individual with cystic fibrosis This random insertion can be helpful as well as harmful
DNA F INGERPRINTING IN F ORENSICS DNA fingerprinting – a method of isolating and making images of sequences of DNA Can be used to solve crime and determine paternity. Has its flaws
P ROCESS OF DNA F INGERPRINTING Step 1: Obtain a sample of DNA (tissue, saliva, blood, hair, etc.) Step 2: Cut the DNA into fragments using restriction enzymes Step 3: Complete a gel electrophoresis Step 4: Analyze the results of electrophoresis
Flaws It’s only as good as the DNA sample Degraded samples (overheated, frozen and thawed repeatedly, old, etc) Small samples Samples collected postmortem Identical twins (don’t they have the same DNA?!)
U SE OF G ENETIC E NGINEERING IN A GRICULTURE Disease and pest resistant crops Higher yield crops Crops with a longer shelf life Faster growing livestock Livestock with disease resistance Health concerns – is it safe to consume modified organisms? Possible effects on DNA of humans who consume genetically modified organisms What might happen if the modified organisms escape and mix with wild populations. Ethical implications of manipulating genes in animals. PROSCONS