2Civil War Amendments 13, 14, 15th Amendment Passed at the end of the Civil WarIntended to prevent discrimination in the SouthSouth circumvented by passing “Jim Crow Laws” – laws meant to keep African American’s in an inferior position
313th Amendment 13th - abolished slavery and involuntary servitude. Plessy v. FergusonHomer Adolph Plessy-seven-eighths Caucasian-took a seat in a "whites only" car of a Louisiana train.refused to move to the car reserved for blacks and was arrested.Plessy’s lawyers said the law violated the 13th and 14th Amendmentslaw violated the 13th Amendment ban on slavery by destroying the legal equality of the races and, in effect, reintroducing slavery.Law violated the 14th Amendment’s equal protection Clause
414th Amendment14th AmendmentDefined US citizen – anyone born in USStates can’t deny any citizen the rights stated in the Bill of RightsEvery citizen has 'right to due process and the equal protection of the law'.Due Process Clause – every citizen has the right to due process (be treated fairly) by both States and National governmentsEqual Protection Clause - no discrimination, all people must be treated equallyIncorporation Clause -makes the first ten amendments to the Constitution—known as the Bill of Rights—binding on the states.Citizenship clause – any person born in the United States or naturalized (foreign birth, that has met requirements for citizenship)
514th Amendment Plessy v. Ferguson Brown v. BOE of Topeka Courts ruled “Separate but Equal” didn’t violate 14th Amendment’s equal protection clauseBrown v. BOE of TopekaLinda Brown, 3rd Grader was denied admission to an all white school near her homeNAACP chose Kansas - Not considered the SouthRuling:Segregation in public schools solely on the basis of race denies minority children equal protection under the law
614th Amendment Roe v. Wade Ruling: Roe sought to terminate her pregnancy by abortionTexas law prohibited it unless woman’s life threatenedRuling:Abortion falls within the right to privacy inferred in the Bill of Rights and made binding by the States in the 14th AmendmentWoman has total control over abortion decisions in the 1st trimester
714th Amendment Bakke v. California Case: Allan Bakke, a thirty-five-year-old white man, had twice applied and was rejected for admission to the University of California Medical School at Davis. The school reserved sixteen places in each entering class of one hundred for "qualified" minorities, as part of the university's affirmative action programRulingRacial quota’s violate the equal protection clauseRacial quotas were discriminatory towards white malesRacial quotas sometimes turn away more qualified students
8Suffrage Amendments“Suffrage Amendments” = voting population or electorate was expanded15 – African American Men19 – Women23 – Washington D.C. (given 3 electoral votes for President )24 – ended Poll Taxes (Fees for voting)Literacy tests, poll taxes and grandfather clauses were all devices used in Jim Crow laws of the south to Discourage AA voters26 – 18 yr olds (fought in Vietnam, but couldn’t vote)
9Progressive Amendments Progressivism – term applied to the political, economic and social problems created by the Industrial RevolutionSocial reformers focused onfighting political corruptionCrimeopposition to immigrantsgrowing gap between the rich and the poorand other social ills ( alcoholism, prostitution, illiteracy)Response to calls for reform that grew out of the Progressive MovementAmendments 16, 17, 18, were passed
10Progressive Amendments 16th - Gave the federal government the power to collect a graduated income tax (pay based on income)Meant to help alleviate growing gap between the rich and the poor17th – Direct Election of Senators by the peopleEliminated corruption of political machines in State Legislatures who previously appointed Senators18th – Prohibition – illegal to sell, manufacture or transport alcoholCame out of the temperance movement – blaming alcohol for societies ills
1121st Amendment Federalism 21st – Repeal of prohibition Amended constitution through state legislature proposal; National legislature RatifiedDemonstrates which basic principal of governmentFederalismMap showing dry (red), wet (blue), and mixed (yellow) counties in the United States.
12Presidential Amendments Presidential Amendments – 20th,22nd , 25thAmendments detailing issues pertaining to the Presidency20th - Gave details on the terms of office for Congress and the President.History: concerned over delay from election in November until new Pres and Congress were sworn in to office in MarchDetails:Congress Session starts at noon on Jan. 3 and President is sworn in on Jan 20thVP will become President if President dies before Jan. 20th.
13Presidential Amendments 22nd - Limits terms of Presidents to 2History: FDR was the first President to serve for more than two years. He served for 4 terms. People realized it was bad for the country25th - defined the presidential succession if something should happen to the president. The first in line is the Vice-President.History: was not defined in the ConstitutionDetails: allows for the Vice President to become president in the event of Death, Resignation, Impeachment, impairmentIf both VP and Pres die, the succession occurs as followsSpeaker of HousePresident Pro Tempore of SenateSecretary of State
1427th Amendment27th - prohibits any law that increases or decreases the salary of members of the Congress from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms of office for Representatives.History:Most Recent AmendmentTook the longest to adoptSubmitted in 1789 and was adopted, over 200 years later, in 1992.