Presentation on theme: "Amendments 13-27. Civil War Amendments 13, 14, 15 th Amendment – Passed at the end of the Civil War – Intended to prevent discrimination in the South."— Presentation transcript:
Civil War Amendments 13, 14, 15 th Amendment – Passed at the end of the Civil War – Intended to prevent discrimination in the South – South circumvented by passing “Jim Crow Laws” – laws meant to keep African American’s in an inferior position
13 th Amendment 13 th - abolished slavery and involuntary servitude. – Plessy v. Ferguson Homer Adolph Plessy- – seven-eighths Caucasian- – took a seat in a "whites only" car of a Louisiana train. – refused to move to the car reserved for blacks and was arrested. Plessy’s lawyers said the law violated the 13 th and 14 th Amendments – law violated the 13th Amendment ban on slavery by destroying the legal equality of the races and, in effect, reintroducing slavery. – Law violated the 14 th Amendment’s equal protection Clause
14 th Amendment – Defined US citizen – anyone born in US – States can’t deny any citizen the rights stated in the Bill of Rights – Every citizen has 'right to due process and the equal protection of the law'. Due Process Clause – every citizen has the right to due process (be treated fairly) by both States and National governments Equal Protection Clause - no discrimination, all people must be treated equally Incorporation Clause -makes the first ten amendments to the Constitution—known as the Bill of Rights—binding on the states. Citizenship clause – any person born in the United States or naturalized (foreign birth, that has met requirements for citizenship)
14 th Amendment Plessy v. Ferguson – Courts ruled “Separate but Equal” didn’t violate 14 th Amendment’s equal protection clause Brown v. BOE of Topeka – Linda Brown, 3 rd Grader was denied admission to an all white school near her home – NAACP chose Kansas - Not considered the South – Ruling: Segregation in public schools solely on the basis of race denies minority children equal protection under the law
14 th Amendment Roe v. Wade – Roe sought to terminate her pregnancy by abortion – Texas law prohibited it unless woman’s life threatened Ruling: – Abortion falls within the right to privacy inferred in the Bill of Rights and made binding by the States in the 14 th Amendment – Woman has total control over abortion decisions in the 1 st trimester
14 th Amendment Bakke v. California Case: Allan Bakke, a thirty-five-year-old white man, had twice applied and was rejected for admission to the University of California Medical School at Davis. The school reserved sixteen places in each entering class of one hundred for "qualified" minorities, as part of the university's affirmative action program Ruling – Racial quota’s violate the equal protection clause – Racial quotas were discriminatory towards white males – Racial quotas sometimes turn away more qualified students
Suffrage Amendments “Suffrage Amendments” = voting population or electorate was expanded – 15 – African American Men – 19 – Women – 23 – Washington D.C. (given 3 electoral votes for President ) – 24 – ended Poll Taxes (Fees for voting) Literacy tests, poll taxes and grandfather clauses were all devices used in Jim Crow laws of the south to Discourage AA voters – 26 – 18 yr olds (fought in Vietnam, but couldn’t vote)
Progressive Amendments Progressivism – term applied to the political, economic and social problems created by the Industrial Revolution – Social reformers focused on fighting political corruption Crime opposition to immigrants growing gap between the rich and the poor and other social ills ( alcoholism, prostitution, illiteracy) Response to calls for reform that grew out of the Progressive Movement – Amendments 16, 17, 18, were passed
Progressive Amendments 16 th - Gave the federal government the power to collect a graduated income tax (pay based on income) – Meant to help alleviate growing gap between the rich and the poor 17 th – Direct Election of Senators by the people – Eliminated corruption of political machines in State Legislatures who previously appointed Senators 18 th – Prohibition – illegal to sell, manufacture or transport alcohol – Came out of the temperance movement – blaming alcohol for societies ills
21 st Amendment 21st – Repeal of prohibition – Amended constitution through state legislature proposal; National legislature Ratified Demonstrates which basic principal of government – Federalism Map showing dry (red), wet (blue), and mixed (yellow) counties in the United States.
Presidential Amendments Presidential Amendments – 20 th,22 nd, 25 th – Amendments detailing issues pertaining to the Presidency 20 th - Gave details on the terms of office for Congress and the President. History: concerned over delay from election in November until new Pres and Congress were sworn in to office in March Details: – Congress Session starts at noon on Jan. 3 and President is sworn in on Jan 20 th – VP will become President if President dies before Jan. 20 th.
Presidential Amendments 22 nd - Limits terms of Presidents to 2 History: FDR was the first President to serve for more than two years. He served for 4 terms. People realized it was bad for the country 25 th - defined the presidential succession if something should happen to the president. The first in line is the Vice-President. History: was not defined in the Constitution Details: allows for the Vice President to become president in the event of Death, Resignation, Impeachment, impairment – If both VP and Pres die, the succession occurs as follows Speaker of House President Pro Tempore of Senate Secretary of State
27 th Amendment 27 th - prohibits any law that increases or decreases the salary of members of the Congress from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms of office for Representatives. History: – Most Recent Amendment – Took the longest to adopt Submitted in 1789 and was adopted, over 200 years later, in 1992.