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© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-1 Chapter 13 Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence Chapter 13 Multimedia and Artificial Intelligence
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-2 Presentation Overview The Use of Multimedia Creating Digital Media Creating Multimedia Artificial Intelligence
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-3 The Use of Multimedia Multimedia Web Pages Flash and Shockwave are the leading sources of Web movies and games. Shockwave is a more intensive format. Flash is faster and commonly used for more cartoon-like imagery. Both provide fast, easily created movies that transmit over the Internet as part of a Web page.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-4 The Use of Multimedia Educational Tools –Schools and colleges use online courses as a valuable teaching medium. –Online courses incorporate sound, images, and videos within a text framework. –Multimedia tutorials are helpful for special education students because the materials are presented in various forms.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-5 The Use of Multimedia Computer Games –About 68 percent of Americans play some type of computer game on a regular basis. –Game consoles rival personal computers for power and are priced under $300. –Online games involve thousands of players and enable them to chat, have adventures, and interact in worlds that only exist inside a computer.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-6 The Use of Multimedia Computer Games –Multimedia PCs are the most costly and high- powered computers on the consumer market. –Running a game makes a computer work harder than any other task because it requires fast 3D video, sound, and networking—often all at once.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-7 The Use of Multimedia Online Gaming Terminology
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-8 Creating Digital Media The process of taking analog data, such as a human voice, and turning it into a data file on a disk is called digitizing. Digital media collectively refers to digital copies of any form of media. The main advantage of digital media versus analog data is that it can be reproduced an infinite number of times with no degradation of quality.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-9 Creating Digital Media Painting and Drawing Programs –A bitmap-based graphics program allows users to create pictures by changing the pixels on the screen from white to black. –A vector-based graphics program enables users to construct pictures by creating, editing, and combining mathematically defined geometric shapes.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-10 Creating Digital Media Commonly Used Standard Graphics File Formats
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-11 Creating Digital Media Graphics File Formats –A native format is a format that is specific to that application. –Saving a graphic in a standard file format is called exporting the graphic. –Placing a graphic in standard file format into another document or file is called importing the graphic.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-12 Creating Digital Media Graphics File Formats –A bitmap is the simplest form of an image file. It will draw a perfect image without any of the guesswork of a compressed file. However, it takes up a lot of space. –In data compression, a conversion program can “compress” a bitmap image into another file format that looks almost as good, and requires less file space.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-13 Creating Digital Media Data Compression Shown here are a compressed bitmap file (left) and an uncompressed bitmap file (right) of the same image.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-14 Creating Digital Media Vector Graphics –A vector graphic stores an image as a series of geometric shapes. –Vector graphics are useful for line drawings, but cannot reproduce a detailed image such as a human face.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-15 Creating Digital Media Vector Graphics –A wireframe diagram can use three- dimensional techniques to show the underlying structure of a three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional surface. –Bitmaps called textures can then be drawn on top of the many facets of this diagram to make it look real.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-16 Creating Digital Media Clip Art Images –Clip art images are sizable icon-like images that can be inserted into the text of reports and Web pages to liven them up. –Clip art tends to be somewhat generic. –The images are normally stored in GIF file format, allowing for limited animation.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-17 Creating Digital Media Raster Image Editing –Adobe Photoshop and Corel Paint Shop Pro can edit digitized photographs. –Digitized photographs are stored as raster images—collections of black, white, or colored pixels. –The most common raster image file format for digitized photos is the Tag Image File Format (TIF or TIFF).
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-18 Creating Digital Media 3D Modeling Programs –A 3D modeling program can make a computer screen appear to have depth. –Working with these programs requires the combined talents of an artist and an advanced computer user. –These programs require enormous computing power.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-19 Creating Digital Media Computer Animation –More and more movies are made with the aid of computer graphic special effects (CG FX), which allow user to draw computer-animated graphics. –It is far cheaper to create computer-animated graphics that to use traditional techniques. –Animated graphics are easily manipulated—any image can be redrawn until it is just right.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-20 Creating Digital Media Digitizing Sound The sound of someone singing is captured by sampling the sound and then storing the measurements in binary form for use by the computer.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-21 Creating Digital Media Digitizing Sound Wave files record any kind of sound by storing masses of binary numbers and measuring exactly how much voltage to send out to the speakers each fraction of a second in order to reproduce the sound. Sound files can become quite large because 16 bits are used for each measurement.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-22 Creating Digital Media Digitizing Sound The Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) technique digitally simulates musical instruments. It only needs to know which notes to play on each musical instrument. MIDI files tend to reproduce poorly on PCs and are used less frequently then they were a few years ago.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-23 Creating Digital Media Digitizing Sound The MP3 file format takes a wave file and reduces it by 90 percent, leaving behind a high- quality reproduction. It uses a data compression system that works in a similar fashion to that used by the JPEG or GIF formats. There has been an explosion in the use of this file format because of the dramatic reduction in size with very little loss in quality.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-24 Creating Digital Media Digitizing Video –Digital Movies Digital video will eventually replace analog video. –Movie Compression Techniques The MPEG file format is the movie equivalent of an MP3. Home DVD players use the MPEG2 file format. The MOV file format is an Apple format. The AVI file format is an older file format. Flash is the format of movies on the Internet.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-25 Creating Digital Media Digitizing Video Digital Cable The move to digital television was completed in the U.S. in June 2009, prompting many users to switch to digital cable. Digital cable offers a wide selection of stations, with the ability to expand to 2,000. It also provides easily accessible information buttons and scheduling data.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-26 Creating Digital Media Digitizing Video Digital Video Recorder A digital video recorder (DVR) operates as a digital TV cable box and can also perform the job of HDTV support. The DVR records TV on a hard drive inside the box. It provides the ability to pause and rewind live TV.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-27 Creating Digital Media High-Definition Television –High-definition television (HDTV) is television with more lines and more pixels than analog television—in other words, higher resolution. –HDTVs are offered in a variety of models, including 720i, 720p, 1080i, and 1080p. The number stands for the resolution. The i or p represents how the lines are drawn— interlaced or progressive.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-28 Creating Multimedia What are the steps in creating a multimedia work? –Planning the work –Creating the elements to be included in the work –Combining the elements to create the work –Testing, evaluating, and refining the work –Writing the work to a portable storage medium such as a CD-ROM, or posting it to the Web
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-29 Creating Multimedia Planning a Multimedia Work –In sequential, page-based multimedia, the work is a sequence of pages or slides appearing one after the other. This is appropriate for any application in which the presentation order of the material is fixed. –In hypertext, page-based multimedia, the work is a set of pages with links that can be followed at will. A tree diagram is usually used to plan hypertext.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-30 Creating Multimedia Tree Diagram for Hypertext Page-Based Multimedia This tree diagram shows the links between pages in a simple multimedia presentation.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-31 Creating Multimedia Planning a Multimedia Work –In movie-based multimedia, the work is a movie, or series of movies, that stops from time to time, enabling users to follow links. –A storyboard, consisting of sketches of the pages or frames as they will appear in the work, is usually created to plan movie-based multimedia.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-32 Creating Multimedia Creating the Content of the Work Content for a multimedia work can come from many different sources. Text can be created in a word-processing program. Graphics can be created in painting, drawing, 3D modeling, or animation programs. Images can be produced by traditional means and scanned and edited in a graphics program. Programs such as Adobe Soundbooth are available for capturing and editing sounds.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-33 Creating Multimedia Hardware/Software for Creating Multimedia –A sound digitizing card enables computers to capture and process digitized sounds. –A video digitizing card allows users to capture and digitize video images and sound. –Video editing software allows users to edit sounds and video and output in various digital formats.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-34 Creating Multimedia Combining the Elements –The simplest multimedia works are documents produced using standard office software such as word processors or presentation programs. –More complex works can be produced by using Adobe Acrobat to incorporate pages created in other applications into PDF files. –The most sophisticated works are created in authoring programs such as Adobe Director.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-35 Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is the computer application that has fueled the continual effort to create faster and more powerful machines. The goal of AI is to develop computers that can perform functions normally reserved for humans: thinking, talking, seeing, feeling, walking, and learning from their mistakes.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-36 Artificial Intelligence AI Technology Trends –AI development is moving toward limited, focused applications. –Modern AI systems focus on simulating specialized human functions. –The goal of AI has shifted to augmenting human capabilities rather than supplanting them.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-37 Artificial Intelligence Applications of Artificial Intelligence The three primary areas of artificial intelligence applications Cognitive science Natural interfaces Robotics
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-38 Artificial Intelligence Cognitive Science Applications –The study and simulation of the human mind is known as cognitive science. It is based on biology, neurology, psychology, and other disciplines. It focuses on researching how the human brain thinks and learns. –Major applications in this area are intelligent agents, expert systems, data mining, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and neural networks.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-39 Artificial Intelligence Cognitive Science Applications An intelligent agent is an intuitive assistant that can utilize knowledge based on past experience and predictions of future behavior to assist computer users. The agent’s goal is to reduce difficult tasks down to a few mouse clicks. The best-known agents are the wizards found in Microsoft Office products.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-40 Artificial Intelligence Cognitive Science Applications An expert system attempts to embody human expertise in a particular field. Authorities in a field of study develop expert systems with the help of a knowledge engineer, a special type of programmer who specializes in building a knowledge base consisting of a set of rules. An inference engine enables the expert system to draw deductions from the rules in the knowledge base in response to user input.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-41 Artificial Intelligence Cognitive Science Applications Data mining finds new ways to use masses of data stored in the databases of large corporations. It sorts existing data to provide more carefully targeted marketing and pricing of products. It is able to determine with good accuracy whether a new offering will succeed or fail.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-42 Artificial Intelligence Cognitive Science Applications Genetic algorithms apply a Darwinian (survival of the fittest) method to problem solving. A computer creates thousands of slightly varied designs and then tests and selects the best of them. The best programs evolve to another generation, where more variations, or mutations, are made. The most successful mutations undergo a crossover, which produces a new generation of “offspring.”
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-43 Artificial Intelligence Cognitive Science Applications Instead of demanding yes/no or numerical information, a fuzzy logic system allows users to input “fuzzy” data. This is an attempt to simulate real-world conditions. These systems work more naturally with the user by piecing together an answer similar to what a traditional expert system uses.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-44 Artificial Intelligence Comparison of Traditional SQL Query and the Equivalent Fuzzy Logic Query
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-45 Artificial Intelligence Cognitive Science Applications A neural network simulates the physical workings of the human mind and presents the ultimate attempt to model human intelligence. It generally starts off with only an input source, some form of output, and a goal. It learns by trial and error how a desired output affects the input. The “gain” controls how quickly the system will learn or unlearn something.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-46 Artificial Intelligence Natural Interface Applications –With speech recognition, users can direct a computer with voice commands rather than typing information into it. –A natural-language interface is broader in scope than speech recognition—the goal is to have the computer read a set of news articles and understand what it has read.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-47 Artificial Intelligence Natural Interface Applications –Virtual reality (VR) describes the concept of creating a realistic world within the computer. The quality of a VR system is characterized in terms of its immersiveness—how real it feels. –A mental interface uses sensors mounted around the skull to read the alpha waves our brains give off. The computer measures brain activity and interprets it as a command.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-48 Artificial Intelligence Robots as Androids –The science of robotics is creating machines capable of independent movement and action. –An android is a simulated human. –To be more like humans, robots must undergo technological advances in visual and audio perception, touch, dexterity, locomotion, and navigation.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-49 Artificial Intelligence Robots as Androids –Visual perception is processing data coming from the eyes. A single camera can’t simulate the eye—two cameras are needed to give stereoscopic vision, which allows depth and movement perception. –Audio perception is processing data coming from the ears. The robot must be able to identify a single voice and interpret what is being said amid background noise.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-50 Artificial Intelligence Robots as Androids –Tactile perception is the sense of touch. The robot must not only be able to feel an object, but sense how much pressure it is applying. The robot also needs dexterity, or hand-eye coordination. –Locomotion includes broad movements such as walking. Robots need balance, as well as the ability to adapt to a variety of situations.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-51 Artificial Intelligence Robots as Androids Navigation deals with the science of moving a mobile robot through an environment. It must work closely with a visual system or some other kind of perception system.
© Paradigm Publishing, Inc. 13-52 On the Horizon Based on the information presented in this chapter and your own experience, what do you think is on the horizon?
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