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THE GEOGRAPHY OF – MS 13. MS 13 MARA SALVATRUCHA 13 ONE OF THE MOST VIOLENT, DANGEROUS GANGS IN U.S ONE OF THE MOST ORGANIZED - HAS CLIQUES, OR FACTIONS,

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Presentation on theme: "THE GEOGRAPHY OF – MS 13. MS 13 MARA SALVATRUCHA 13 ONE OF THE MOST VIOLENT, DANGEROUS GANGS IN U.S ONE OF THE MOST ORGANIZED - HAS CLIQUES, OR FACTIONS,"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE GEOGRAPHY OF – MS 13

2 MS 13 MARA SALVATRUCHA 13 ONE OF THE MOST VIOLENT, DANGEROUS GANGS IN U.S ONE OF THE MOST ORGANIZED - HAS CLIQUES, OR FACTIONS, LOCATED THROUGHOUT U.S UNIQUE  RETAINS IS TIES TO ITS EL SALVADOR COUNTERPARTS

3 MS 13 MS-13 WAS NAMED AFTER "LA MARA", A STREET IN EL SALVADOR SALVATRUCHA – GUERRILLAS WHO FOUGHT IN THE SALVADORAN CIVAL WAR (WAR)WAR)

4 MS 13 "13TH STREET" IN LOS ANGELES (ALSO 13 TH LETTER OF THE ALPHABET IS M)

5 MS 13 ORIGINAL MEMBERS WERE REFUGEES FROM THE CIVIL WAR IN EL SALVADOR DURING THE 1980S; MANY WERE FORMER SOLDIERS AND GUERRILLAS, WELL TRAINED IN WEAPONS AND WARFARE TACTICS – MOVED TO US AS REFUGEES YOUNG REFUGEES IN AREA WHERE THERE WERE ALREADY MANY GANGS (18 TH STREET GANG – MEXICANS)

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8 SALVADORANS FORMED THEIR OWN GANG IN RESPONSE TO NEED FOR PROTECTIONS OF ALREADY EXISTING GANGS (SEOUL INTERNATIONAL PARK) ACCORDING TO FOUNDING MEMBER (ERNESTO “SMOKEY” MIRANDA TRAUMAS SUFFERED DURING THE WAR HELPED MAKE THE GANG SO VIOLENT

9 AFTER RODNEY KING VERDICT –RIOTS –RIOTS CALIFORNIA STARTING PASSING NEW ANTI-GANG LAWS THAT LEAD TO LONGER PRISON SENTENCES FOR GANG MEMBERSRODNEY KINGRIOTS

10 1996 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PASSED THE “ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION REFORM AND IMMIGRATION RESPONSIBILITY ACT” MADE DEPORTATION GOVERNMENTS MOST IMPORTANT STRATEGY FOR DEALING WITH GANGS PEOPLE WERE CITIZENS BUT NOT PERMANENT RESIDENTS (IF SENTENCED TO MORE THAN A YEAR IN PRISON) BE DEPORTED

11 LIST OF CRIMES FOR DEPORTATION WAS ALSO EXPANDED TO DRUNK DRIVING AND PETTY THEFT SOME DEPORTEES WERE US CITIZENS NO SUPPORT FROM US OR EL SALVADOR GOV’TS SOME GOT OFF PLANE WITH FEW CONDOMS AND MAP SOME STRIPPED OF US CITIZENSHIP ONCE THEY GOT OUT OF JAIL

12 IN 1996 ~ 38,000 IMMIGRANTS WERE DEPORTED AFTER COMMITTING A CRIME 2003 #  TO ~ 80,000 MANY DEPORTEES HAD LIVED IN US ALMOST THEIR LIVES (SOME SPOKE NO SPANISH) JOINED TOGETHER WITH “HOMEBOYS” WHO HAD BEEN DEPORTED WITH THEM AND RECREATED LA’S GANGS IN CENTRAL AMERICA OR ATTEMPTED TO RETURN TO US ILLEGALLY

13 GANG PROBLEM SNOWBALLED EL SALVADOR WAS RIPE FOR DEVELOPMENT OF GANGS AFTER CIVIL WAR – ARMY WAS REMOVED FROM INTERNAL SECURITY DUTIES & CIVILIAN POLICE FORCE WAS CREATED (NEEDED TIME TO BE TRAINED AND BECOME EFFECTIVE)  CRIME FAMILIES MANY ORPHANS AND STREET CHILDREN DUE TO WAR

14 YOUNG POPULATION (1/2 POPULATION IN 1998 UNDER 18 AND ¾ OF CHILDREN LIVING IN POVERTY) FEW OPPORTUNITIES – WAR AND INTERNATIONAL FREE MARKET BROUGHT A COLLAPSE OF THE COFFEE ECONOMY URBANIZATION RAPID BUT NO JOBS (6.5% UNEMPLOYMENT RATE)

15 AVAILABILITY OF WEAPONS (AFTER WAR THEY ARE EVERYWHERE) ~450,000 FIREARMS IN EL SALVADOR (NOT EVEN HALF ARE LEGAL)

16 WEAPONS ALLOWED MS13 TO BE INFLUENTIAL (NOW MAJOR MARKET FOR THE GANG) SAVATRUCHAS DID NOT STAY IN EL SALVADOR BUT IMMIGRATED BACK TO US (LEGALLY AND ILLEGALLY)  FOR BETTER OPPORTUNITY AND BETTER LIVES

17 90% OF DEPORTED GANG MEMBERS RETURN TO THE US AS FAST AS THEY CAN BY 2005 MS13 STARTING TO SPREAD THROUGHOUT US (WASHINGTON D.C., LONG ISLAND, NORTHERN VIRGINIA, SUBURBAN MIDWEST

18 GANG IS RETURNING MORE ORGANIZED AND SOPHISTICATED, WITH BETTER WEAPONS, COORDINATION, COMMUNICATION AMONG CLIQUES IN CENTRAL AMERICAN NATIONS THE RESPONSE TO GANGS IS TO THROW MEMBERS IN JAIL JAIL OVERCROWDED (EL SALVADOR DOUBLED IN 5 YEARS) JAILJAIL SERVE TO REINFORCE GANG CULTURE (FINISHING SCHOOL) HELP TO ORGANIZE THE HIERARCHY OF THE CLIQUES AND GANG

19 MS 13 MS 13 INTERNATIONAL GANG WITH MEMBERS IN WASHINGTON DC, OREGON, ALASKA, ARKANSAS, TEXAS, NEVADA, UTAH, OKLAHOMA, ILLINOIS, MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, GEORGIA, FLORIDA, CANADA, EL SALVADOR, GUATEMALA, MEXICO, AND SEVERAL OTHER SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES BECOMING THE FIRST GANG TO BE CATEGORIZED AS AN "ORGANIZED CRIME" ENTITY.

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21 MS-13 presence – darkness indicates strength

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26 MS 13 MEMBERS SPORT NUMEROUS TATTOOS ON THEIR BODIES AND FACES WEAR BLUE AND WHITE COLORS TAKEN FROM THE EL SALVADORAN FLAG

27 MS 13 TATTOO'S ARE GOTHIC WHICH MEANS THEY ARE VERY DARK SPIRITED MANY MEMBERS HAVE 666 TATTED ON THEM TEARDROPS UNDER THEIR LEFT EYE REPRESENT A SHOT OR A WOUNDED GANG MEMBER & THOSE UNDER RIGHT EYE REPRESENT THEIR COMBAT WITH THE RIVAL GANGS

28 THE FIST OF ONE OF THE CONVICT SHOWS TATTOOS OF A CLUB AND A SPADE SYMBOL OVER THE ‘M’ AND ‘S’ TO HIDE HIS ASSOCIATION SINCE DEPARTING FROM MS 13 THE WHOLE THING EARLIER READ ‘GMSP’ ACROSS FOUR FINGERS WHERE ‘G’ AND ‘P’ STOOD FOR HIS TERRITORY GREENSPOINT. MS 13 GANG TATTOOS REVEAL SPECIALTIES OF GANG MEMBERS (GRENADE)

29 STACKING HOW THEY SPELL WHO IS IN THEIR GANG WITH THEIR HANDS HOW THEY TELL OTHER GANG MEMBERS WHAT GANG THEIR FROM AND WHO IS IN THEIR CLIQUE ALWAYS CHANGING AND DIFFERENT GANG SIGNS CONTINUALLY EMERGE

30 MS 13 MEMBERSHIP IS ESTIMATED TO TOTAL OVER 150,000 WORLDWIDE MEMBERS RANGE IN AGE FROM 11 TO 40 YEARS OLD INCREASE IN VIOLENT ACTIVITIES AND CARELESS DISREGARD FOR THE LAW (THREATS AND ATTACKS AGAINST LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS ARE COMMON)  MADE THEM THE MOST FEARED GANG IN THE UNITED STATES US

31 MS 13 MS-13 CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES INCLUDE DRUG SMUGGLING, GUN RUNNING, PEOPLE SMUGGLING, HUMAN TRAFFICKING, HITS FOR HIRE, THEFT, DRUG SALES, ARSON, AND OF COURSE, STRONG ARMING THE LOCALS MEMBERS OFTEN ARRIVE IN U.S. WITH FIGHTING SKILLS GAINED FROM MILITARY TRAINING, AND ARE PARTICULARLY ADEPT WITH MACHETES

32 MS 13 CALLING CARD  MS-13 OFTEN LEAVES BEHIND DISMEMBERED CORPSES, COMPLETE WITH THE DECAPITATED HEAD, AT THE SCENE OF THEIR MURDERS. OFTEN A GRIM NOTE IS ATTACHED TO THE BODY EX. TEXAS  A MS-13 GANG MEMBER LED THE GANG RAPE OF A 24 YEAR-OLD WOMAN AND THEN KICKED HER IN THE NECK WITH SUCH FORCE THAT IT KILLED HER

33 ASKING SOMEONE “WHERE ARE YOU FROM” – MEANS TROUBLE  ASKING WHAT GANG ARE YOU FROM AND WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO ABOUT IT REASON FOR MOVEMENT  JOBS (CONSTRUCTION MAINLY) MOVING TO PLACES WITH SOME TYPE OF GROWTH AS LA POLICE CRACKED DOWN – MOVED TO AREAS THAT WERE NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE GANG

34 SOME CORRECTIONS OFFICIALS’ VIEW  MS- 13 MARKETS THE GANG AS A WAY TO EMBRACE LATIN AMERICAN HERITAGE ENCOURAGE YOUTH TO SHOW PRIDE TOWARDS THEIR CULTURE WHEN IT IS REALLY JUST A MASK OVER THE GANG'S REAL CRIMINAL OBJECTIVES

35 GANG MEMBERS PAY GUARDS TO SMUGGLE IN CELLPHONES, WHICH MEMBERS USE TO CONSULT AND COMMUNICATE WITH OTHER MEMBERS IN GUATEMALA, HONDURAS AND THE US

36 MS 13 IN ARIZONA ACCORDING TO POLICE  GANG MEMBERS COME TO ARIZONA BECAUSE ITS POSITION ON THE BORDER MAKES IT A HOT SPOT FOR DRUGS AND HUMAN SMUGGLING

37 MS 13 IN NEBRASKA THE LAST OF 24 MS-13 MEMBERS SWEPT UP ON FEDERAL FIREARMS CHARGES AND CONSPIRACY TO DISTRIBUTE METHAMPHETAMINE WERE SENTENCED LAST YEAR IN THE LARGEST BUST SINCE THE GROUP EMERGED THERE IN 2004

38 MS 13 IN NEBRASKA MS 13 GANG GRAFFITI HAS BEEN SHOWING UP MORE FREQUENTLY OMAHA NEIGHBORHOODS MS13

39 MS 13 IN MARYLAND

40 PRESENT THROUGHOUT MONTGOMERY AND PRINCE GEORGE’S COUNTIES, BALTIMORE CITY AND BALTIMORE, CARROLL COUNTY, FREDERICK, HARFORD, AND WASHINGTON COUNTIES NUMEROUS ASSAULTS, MURDERS, RAPES, AS WELL AS EXTORTION, PROSTITUTION RINGS AND THEFTS FROM AUTOS.

41 MS 13 IN TEXAS GROUPS OPERATING IN TEXAS – MOSTLY IN DALLAS– TEXAS

42 MS 13 IN N. VIRGINIA ACTIVE IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA SINCE EARLY 1990S (~12 CLIQUES) CONCERN ABOUT GANGS ESCALATED AMONG THE PUBLIC AND POLITICIANS AFTER A SERIES OF VIOLENT ATTACKS IN 2004, INCLUDING THE SLAYING OF A HERNDON TEENAGER BY TWO MS-13 MEMBERS AND A MACHETE ATTACK ON A MEMBER OF ANOTHER GANG BY THREE MS-13 MEMBERS IN THE ALEXANDRIA AREA

43 MS 13 IN MEXICO EXISTS IN AT LEAST SEVEN MEXICAN STATES, FROM THE SOUTHERN END OF MEXICO TO THE U.S. BORDER LARGELY ALONG EXISTING CARTEL DRUG- SMUGGLING ROUTES THE GANG IS FOUND ALONG TRADITIONAL MIGRATION ROUTES AS WELL, AND IMMIGRANTS TRAVELING BOTH LEGALLY AND ILLEGALLY ALONG THESE ROUTES ARE REGULARLY ATTACKED AND ROBBED BY MS- 13 GANG MEMBERS.

44 MS 13 IN CANADA VANCOUVER, MONTREAL, TORONTO, AND TO A LESSER EXTENT, EDMONTON AND CALGARY. FIRST MS-13 MEMBER WAS ARRESTED IN VANCOUVER IN 1997, BUT OVER THE PAST FOUR YEARS, THE NUMBER OF MS-13 GANG MEMBERS IDENTIFIED BY VANCOUVER POLICE HAS INCREASED AND THE NUMBER OF DRUG HOUSES RAIDED HAS RISEN.

45 MS 13 IN CANADA THE TORONTO CHAPTER OF MS-13 HAS A PRESENCE IN THE WEST SIDE OF THE CITY'S DOWNTOWN REGION REMAINED TRUE TO ITS ROOTS AND IS COMPRISED ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY OF YOUNG MEN OF LATIN AMERICAN ORIGIN CANADA LONG ISLAND


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