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Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Chapter 13 Women and Crime “We feel compelled to break the historical silence surrounding women offenders.” Adelburg and Currie, ’87
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Learning Objectives Appreciate the history of the study of women and crime. Appreciate the history of the study of women and crime. Identify the most important gender issues in criminology. Identify the most important gender issues in criminology. Appreciate the need to see female crime not only as a social construct but also as a biosocial disorder. Appreciate the need to see female crime not only as a social construct but also as a biosocial disorder. Identify the characteristics of female offenders. Identify the characteristics of female offenders. Understand the main explanations of female crime. Understand the main explanations of female crime.
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Introduction Historically a lack of attention to the female offender vs. female victim, why? – –Pedestal effect – –Chivalry hypothesis Feminist theories in response to the gap Feminist theories in response to the gap Females rates increasing over past decades – Why? Females rates increasing over past decades – Why?
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc History Lombroso: prostitution an atavistic phenomenon Lombroso: prostitution an atavistic phenomenon Pollak: family structure Pollak: family structure Adler & Simon: liberation movement Adler & Simon: liberation movement One of the 1 st Canadian studies – 1969 ’86 Feminist Review of Criminal Law ‘70’s female offender gaining attention
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Herstory Elizabeth Fry Society Elizabeth Fry Society Haslem: “female offenders not any more difficult to work with than male offenders but with different needs.” Haslem: “female offenders not any more difficult to work with than male offenders but with different needs.” Lashing inward vs. lashing outward Lashing inward vs. lashing outward Economic crimes – liberation & access Economic crimes – liberation & access Social forces – exclusion, abuse (individual & societal), economics & psychology Social forces – exclusion, abuse (individual & societal), economics & psychology
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Gender Differences Maccoby & Jacklin: 4 major differences Maccoby & Jacklin: 4 major differences Social forces vs. biological determinants “battered wife syndrome” Morally ‘bad’? – –Socially prescribed or proscribed? –Lisa Neve vs. Karla Holmolka html html html html
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc A Growing Concern… Violent and property crime rates – –Relationship between victim & offender History of physical and sexual abuse Less likely to have previous criminal history but more likely than males to have a partner with criminal history Less likely to have previous criminal history but more likely than males to have a partner with criminal history Personal difficulties & substance abuse Personal difficulties & substance abuse Interdisciplinary approach Interdisciplinary approach
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Female Serial Killers Killed 3 or more victims over time ~10-15% of serial killers are women – –Modus operandi – –Mann: average 9.2yrs of killing and 8-14 victims before being caught – ) –The “Spiderwoman” of Florida ( Aileen Carol Wuornos) – –But why fewer violent crimes than males?
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Aboriginal Women Overrepresented – –36% of correctional admissions (federal & provincial) – –58% charged with minor assaults yet 50% classified as maximum-security prisoners “out of protection”? Product of: – –Historical – –socio-economic forces – –Familial & abusive backgrounds
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Property & White Collar Crime Theft Theft Young and poor Young and poor Lack education Lack education Changing social opportunities Changing social opportunities Changing social roles Changing social roles Embezzlement Embezzlement Entering the work force Entering the work force But respond differently than men to opportunities But respond differently than men to opportunities
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Explanations Biological Positivism and Determinism Need to give and receive more love? Impaired health? Cognitive differences Environmental interaction Psychological Greater need for love and affection? 2/3 of women seek psychological help vs. 1/3 men 2/3 of women seek psychological help vs. 1/3 men –Social, patriarchal system or “flawed” Konopka: Gender instability?
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Explanations Socialization Liberation hypothesis Convergence of gender role expectations Middle class value Linkages were weak Feminist Criminology Power control theory – –Double standard – –Gender-based Female offenders ARE different from male In certain crimes females are disproportionate victims Post-critical criminology
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc SUMMARY Only recently garnering attention Shift from “bad” and “sick” to social and integrated approaches Female criminality appears to be increasing Theoretical explanations diverse and varied Emergence of special academic journals Needs more research!
Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education Canada Inc Chapter 11 Crimes Against Public Order I see there is a people risen and come up that I cannot win.
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