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1 Expeditionary Operations in the 21 st Century Jim Strock Director, Seabasing Integration Division Capabilities Development Directorate Marine Corps Combat.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Expeditionary Operations in the 21 st Century Jim Strock Director, Seabasing Integration Division Capabilities Development Directorate Marine Corps Combat."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Expeditionary Operations in the 21 st Century Jim Strock Director, Seabasing Integration Division Capabilities Development Directorate Marine Corps Combat Development Command Quantico, Virginia

2 2 B.L.U.F.  We are in a Long War with an adaptive enemy  We are continuously evolving with changing character of war:  Meeting guidance from QDR—shifting focus to both IW and maintaining conventional competencies  Learning from ongoing operations  Anticipating who, where and how we will fight in the future  Future naval capabilities will provide CoCom’s with flexible capabilities via innovative concepts  Exploiting operational maneuver from global commons  Phase 0: Contributing to maritime security and cooperation  Phases 3 and 4: Decisive Ops and SASO  Industry input vital to bring these capabilities to fruition ASAP and at reasonable costs

3 3 Understanding the Future How to keep our Naval forces relevant and able to  Threaten an asymmetrical enemy  While maintaining dominance for the conventional fight Phase 0 requirements  CONPLAN GWOT demands  Naval emphasis in area denial and anti access environments  Temporal nature of the battlespace World-wide deployment support structure is on the decline  Forward Staging Bases: 38 to 12  Strat Airlift: declining fleet numbers: 160 fewer than 1989; projected down to 250 by 2010 Flexible, adaptable, self-sufficient, DO capable, seabased forces a must

4 4 Strategic Guidance Naval forces need to establish steady state capability: Active Partnering and Tailored Shaping Must contribute to Long War & transnational/ regional deterrence Build Partner Capacity Deter or Prevail in Conventional Campaigns

5 5 “Working closely with our Navy and Coast Guard partners, we will advance the amphibious and expeditionary capabilities the Combatant Commanders rely upon to meet their emerging challenges.” CMC Planning Guidance

6 6 Naval in character “Packaged” command, ground combat, aviation, CSS capabilities in any size (not just ARG/MEUs) Commander designation is mission dependent Joint, Coalition, Interagency friendly in composition Comfortable and adaptable on non-traditional platforms Motherships can lighten the maneuver element –Add or subtract “specialists” based on the mission –Aviation and Combat Service Support lily-pad as far forward as required on all ships/crafts afloat Traditional Naval Ethos Well Tailored for Non-Traditional Missions

7 7 Adjusting Our Aim Rebalanced Capabilities  Irregular & Traditional  Phase 0  Naval emphasis  Temporal nature  Requires self- sufficiency early on Rebalanced Capabilities  Irregular & Traditional  Phase 0  Naval emphasis  Temporal nature  Requires self- sufficiency early on “ …our national strategy calls for more widely dispersed forces to provide increased forward presence, security cooperation, and global response to crises…” The Naval Operations Concept, 2006 Disruptive Catastrophic Irregular Traditional

8 8 The Naval Security Environment Across the Entire Range of National Security Strategy “Arc of Instability” “Islamic Caliphate” “Islamic Caliphate” Naval Operations (15X) Naval Operations (40X) Naval Operations (21X) 76 Amphibious Operations in 23 Years 21 Forcible Entry Operations 10 Noncombatant Evacuation Operations 6 Amphibious Assaults 3 Amphibious Raids 2 Peace Operations 21 Forcible Entry Operations 10 Noncombatant Evacuation Operations 6 Amphibious Assaults 3 Amphibious Raids 2 Peace Operations

9 9 Crises and Conflicts Sunni Insurgency Micro-nationalist Insurgencies Shia Insurgency #3 #2 #1 Piracy #X  Stability and Support Operations  Small Wars and Counterinsurgency  Humanitarian Assistance, Disaster Relief and Nation Building  Peace Operations  Combating Terrorism  Counter-Proliferation  Combating Drug Trafficking and Crime  Noncombatant Evacuation Operations  Stability and Support Operations  Small Wars and Counterinsurgency  Humanitarian Assistance, Disaster Relief and Nation Building  Peace Operations  Combating Terrorism  Counter-Proliferation  Combating Drug Trafficking and Crime  Noncombatant Evacuation Operations

10 10 Contributors To Crises >20% Population Undernourished >35% Population Undernourished <50% Population Have Access to Clean Water High Earthquake Risk Top Ten Proven Oil Reserves 2004 ? ? ? Known Reserves Significant Drug Regions ? ? Nuclear Armed States Crises Are Certain

11 11. DateUnitLocationMission Dec 0115 th & 26 th MEUsAfghanistanOperation Enduring Freedom Fall 0422 nd MEUAfghanistanCOIN ops Dec 04/Jan 0515 th MEUSri Lanka/ Indonesia Tsunami relief June 0524th MEUNew Orleans, LAHurricane Katrina relief July 0624 th MEUBeirut, LebanonNEO Recent Examples

12 12 Naval Response Patterns Number of Responses Source: CNA Study, US Naval Response to Situations , Dec (By platform type and by decade) If anything, this demand signal for versatile, expeditionary response has been extended even greater since 2001

13 13 Increasing Forward Presence Well Beyond Today’s ESGs and MEUs SPMAGTF ESG Distributed Ops ESG Distributed Ops SPMAGTF

14 14 What Do We Need to Do? GWOT Operational Tasks  Conduct Expeditionary Ops  Conduct NEO  Conduct Information Ops  Conduct ISR  Conduct Maritime Interdiction  Conduct Maritime Security Ops  Conduct Strike/Power Projection  Conduct Special Ops  Conduct Command And Control  Maintain SLOCs  Provide Consequence Management  Provide Force Protection  Provide Log/CSS/Facilities Maint  Provide Operational Air and Missile Defense  Conduct Civil Affairs  Provide Law Enforcement and prisoner handling  Provide staging for joint and combined forces  Conduct coalition, interagency and NGO coordination and support  Provide Humanitarian Aid  Conduct Maritime Domain Awareness  Share intelligence information  Provide support for Homeland Security  Support Proliferation Security Initiative “21st Century UNITAS”

15 15 The Anti-Access Challenge… OIF I Turkey: Access Not Granted, Even with $26B Offer

16 16 Enhancing Phase 0-1 Capabilities Via Expanded Naval Missions Sized, shaped, and globally postured for: Forward Naval Presence Security Cooperation Counterinsurgency (COIN) Counterterrorism Civil-Military Operations Counter-proliferation Maritime Security Operations Crisis Response Deterrence Sea Control Air and Missile Defense Expeditionary Power Projection Global Fleet Station Distributed Globally Networked Adaptive force packaging Aggregate, disaggregate & re-aggregate Culturally aware Task focused Build partner capacity Cross Fleet Standardization

17 17 Enhancing Phase 0-2 Capabilities Via Distributed Ops Capable SPMAGTFs ESG/MEU(SOC) Employed from platforms like LCS, riverine craft, destroyers… …While supported by Amphib motherships Counter- terrorism Counter- proliferation Security Cooperation Civil – Military Operations Deterrence Air & Missile Defense Crisis Response Maritime Security COIN Security Cooperation at Sea Forward Presence

18 18 Enhancing Phase 2-3 Capabilities By Re-aggregating Naval Forces Power Projection Sea Control Forward Postured CONUS Based

19 19 Marine Corps Amphib & MPF(F) Shipbuilding Requirements Shipbuilding Requirements Amphibious Warfare Ships 2.0 MEB AE per Strategic Planning Guidance; 15 Ao Ships per MEB AE Total 30 operationally available ships –10 LHD/LHA(R) –10 LPD-17 –10 LSD-41/49 (or equivalent replacement) –Average availability is 85% (for planning purposes) –Minimum 11/11/11 ships to meet 30 Ao requirement Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future) One squadron (per May 2005 Acting SecNav/CNO/CMC decision) Legacy Maritime Prepositioning Squadrons Retain two squadrons to maintain afloat prepositioned war reserve capacity Capabilities Amphibious Warfare Ships Inherent survivability, self-defense, and Navy crewing Maritime forcible entry operations Forward presence, deterrence Maritime Prepositioning Force (Future) (MPF(F)) Capable of at-sea arrival and assembly of forces Selective offload of equipment sets to meet Seabasing mission requirements Supports forward engagement and forcible entry MPF(F) by design is not assault echelon shipping; therefore, MPF(F) forces are not forcible entry capable Notional 15-Ship ATF Five LHD-1 (Wasp Class) Five LPD-17 (San Antonio Class) Five LSD-41 (Whidbey Island Class) 2 LHA(R) 1 LHD 3 T-AKR 3 T-AKE 3 MLP 2 Legacy T-AK MPF(F) Squadron Composition

20 20 Marine Corps JHSV Shipbuilding Requirements JHSV Quantity and Basing 8 JHSVs funded (5 Army, 3 Navy) Quantity funded does not equal quantity required Acquisition objective TBD by MS B (Mar ’08) – PACOM, AoA, MCCDC studies suggest 16 JHSVs needed across DOD 7 JHSV equivalents meet USMC requirements – Based on MARFOR TSCP, GWOT, intra-theater lift requirements – Requirement quantified in “vessel days per year” v. specific # of JHSVs – Assumes 180 days operational availability (Ao) per year per JHSV – Does not explore overlap between USN, USMC requirements Notional basing scheme (JHSVs swing between theaters as needed) – PACOM = 3 (Hawaii, Guam, Okinawa) – CENTCOM = 2 (Bahrain) – EUCOM = 1 (Rota) – CONUS = 1 (Norfolk) JHSV Capabilities & Characteristics Shallow draft ( 35 kts loaded) – Ability to enter small, austere/degraded ports unassisted Self-deploying between theaters ST payload, 1200 NM range, 35 kts, Sea State 3 – Smaller payloads = greater range, larger payloads = less range Seating for 312 Marines (Co (rein)); berthing for 104 Marines 20-22,000 sqft mission deck/cargo bay (M1A2, MTVR compatible) Slewing ramp (astern to 40 degrees forward) Level I, Class 2 flight deck for H-60s, H-46s, UH-/AH-1 helicopters – Fuel only, no services 20 ST crane for TEU movement, small boat launch & recovery Net Ready C4 system (plug and play) JHSV is not a combatant, operates in a permissive environment – MSC standard for ATFP capabilities Possible JHSV Candidates USMC JHSV CONOPS (The “Intra-Theater Connector”) TSCP COBRA GOLD BALIKITAN Seabasing Support Sea Base Self-deploy Adv Base FIE ESG MPF HA/DR NSE Austal 126 TSL Austal 105 INCAT 112 MDV-300

21 21 At-Sea Arrival, Assembly, Employment, Sustainment Seabasing Research and Development Skin-to-Skin Transfer Stabilized Cranes Mobile Landing Platform Interface High Capacity UNREP Selective Offload Automated Cargo Handling Joint Modular Intermodal Container (JMIC)

22 22 Other Research and Development Opportunities  Cultural Awareness and Tactical Language Training  Responsive Naval and Joint Fires suitable for Restricted ROE  C4ISR Interoperability and Intel Fusion Support Technology  Key Equipment Characteristics  Weight  Mobility  Armor  Power

23 23 Conclusions  Evolving security environment expands challenges we face  Blurring character of war generates premium for agile forces with adaptive ethos  Security context calls for greater maritime cooperation and interoperability  International and interagency

24 24 Questions?


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