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A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 4-Polling QuestionSection 4-Polling Question How interested are you in owning your own business someday? A.Very interested B.Somewhat interested C.Somewhat uninterested D.Very uninterested
Chapter 13 North and South (1820-1860) Section 4 The South’s People
Essential QuestionEssential Question How did unique elements of culture develop among enslaved African Americans in the South?
Farms and Plantations The Southern economy was based on agriculture Most believed the South was full of wealthy white slaveholders In reality, most white Southerners did not have any slaves or only a few Most white Southerners fit into 4 categories Yeoman, tenant farmers, the rural poor, or plantation owners
Small Farmers and the Rural Poor YeomenYeomen (Farmers without slaves) made up the largest group of whites in the South Yeomen grew crops for their own use and to sell Yeomen lived in the Upper South and in the hilly areas of the Deep South tenant farmersSome white Southerners worked as tenant farmers Worked the land for landlords
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 4Section 4 What group made up the largest number of whites in the South? A.Tenant farmers B.The rural poor C.Enslaved workers D.Yeomen
Small Farmers and the Rural Poor Continued Most Southern whites lived in simple homes The rural poor lived in crude cabins in wooded areas Rural poor were looked down upon by other whites Stubbornly independent Proud of being self- sufficient Often avoided jobs that were normally done by enslaved people
Plantations A large plantation (big farm) might have several thousand acres Owners measured how rich they were by how many slaves they had Only 4% of plantation owners owned 20 or more slaves Most had less than 10 A few free African Americans also held enslaved workers Some free African Americans purchased members of their own families to free them
Plantations Continued The goal of plantations were to earn profits Cotton prices varied from season to season Cotton was sold to and held by agents Agents then sold cotton when prices rose Only when the cotton sold were planters paid This kept the planters in debt
Plantation Wives Plantation wives took charge of their household They watched over the house slaves and took care of them when they became sick Wives might be in charge of financial records Often a lonely and difficult life Planters often absent, dealing with cotton agents Wives spent long periods alone
Life Under Slavery Enslaved African Americans suffered hardships and misery They worked hard- for no money Had little hope of freedom Often sold from planter to planter and taken from their loved ones Often they resisted slavery
Family Life American laws did not protect enslaved families in the early 1800s A slaveholders death could lead to a breakup of an enslaved family Family members could be sold Although not recognized by law, marriages between enslaved people occurred The vows included “until death or separation do us part” Extended families became a vital feature of African American culture
African American Culture legal1808- Congress outlawed the slave trade, but slavery remained legal No new enslaved people could enter the US By 1860- almost all slaves in the South were born there African traditions of music, dance, and folk stories remained Often slaves accepted Christianity, but kept religious beliefs and practices of their African ancestors as well
African American Christianity Christianity became a religion of hope and resistance for many enslaved people They prayed for their freedom spiritualThe passionate beliefs of the enslaved Southerners found expression in the spiritual (African American folk song) “Didn’t my Lord deliver Daniel” Spirituals also enabled enslaved people to communicate secretly among themselves Often combined the Christian faith with their earthly suffering
Slave Codes slave codesBetween 1830 and 1860- slave codes were passed to control slaves Slave codes existed since the 1700s One purpose was to prevent a slave rebellion Slave codes prohibited slaves from assembling in large groups Also had to have passes before leaving the slaveholders property Slave codes made it a crime to teach a slave to read or write White Southerners feared that an educated slave might lead a revolt
A.A B.B C.C D.D Sec tion 4 Which of the following was not a part of the slave codes? A.Enslaved people were prohibited from assembling in large groups. B.It was a crime to teach enslaved people to read or write. C.An enslaved person must have a written pass before leaving the slaveholder’s property. D.Engaging in slave trade was made illegal.
Resistance to Slavery- Nat Turner Some slaves rebelled against their owners Nat Turner, a religious leader,Nat Turner, a religious leader, taught himself to read and write briefTurner led his followers on a brief violent rampage in Southhampton County, Virginia Before he was captured, Turner and his followers killed at least 55 whites Nat Turner was hanged Nat Turner’s Rebellion led to more severe slave codes
Resistance to Slavery Armed revolts were rare Most resistance by slaves was working slowly or pretending to be ill Sometimes slaves would set fire to a plantation building or break tools This helped slaves tolerate their lack of freedom Resistance also set boundaries that slaveholders would respect
Escaping Slavery Some slaves tried to escape to the North Harriet Tubman Frederick DouglassHarriet Tubman and Frederick Douglass fled to the North Getting to the North was difficult for slaves and they often got aid from a secret network called… Underground RailroadThe Underground Railroad Safe houses along the way owned by those that opposed slavery. Most runaways were caught and returned Discipline was severe- whipping was most common
Life in Southern Cities The 10 largest cities in the South were either seaports or river ports (Baltimore and New Orleans) Cities at crossroads of the railways began to grow (Atlanta) Whites, slaves, and free African Americans lived in these cities Free African Americans’ lives were not secure Their rights were limited Most states would not allow them to move state to state Free African Americans were denied an equal share in economic and political life
A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 4Section 4 Which of the following was not a large Southern city in the mid-1800s? A.Baltimore B.New Orleans C.Pittsburgh D.Atlanta
Education There were no public schools, if you wanted to be educated you would have to go to a private school Mid 1800s- North Carolina and Kentucky set up and ran public schools literacyThe South was behind other sections of the country in literacy One reason was because the South’s geography The South had few people per square mile Would have to travel great distances to send their children to school Many Southerners also believed that education was a private matter, not a state function
Essential QuestionEssential Question How did unique elements of culture develop among enslaved African Americans in the South? -The possibility of family separation led to large, close knit extended families -Christianity and African religious beliefs were practiced simultaneously and blended -Christianity stressed hope for freedom and resistance to bondage, and out of it came the spiritual, which evolved as a secret communication methods
All Southerners owned land, even if it was only a small amount. A.True B.False
Plantation owners with many enslaved workers were considered very wealthy. A.True B.False
Plantation wives often worked in the fields with the enslaved workers. A.True B.False
Enslaved African Americans often were separated from their families. A.True B.False
The largest group of whites in the South was made up of A.yeomen. B.plantation owners. C.tenant farmers. D.rural poor.
The main goal of large plantation owners was to A.enslave people. B.produce more cotton. C.earn a profit. D.build a larger plantation.
Who was the religious leader who led a slave revolt in 1831? A.Harriet Tubman B.Nat Turner C.Frederick Douglass D.Eli Whitney
African American folk songs that expressed the passionate beliefs of the South's enslaved workers were called A.overseers. B.yeomen. C.slave codes. D.spirituals.
What was the network of safe houses that assisted runaway enslaved persons? A.slave houses B.runaway houses C.Underground Railroad D.slave codes