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© Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible.

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Presentation on theme: "© Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible."— Presentation transcript:

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2 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Chapter 13 Basics of Electricity

3 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. “Competition is a by-product of productive work, not its goal. A creative man is motivated by the desire to achieve, not by the desire to beat others.” – Ayn Rand

4 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Objectives Define the nature of electricity and the two types of electric current. Define electrical measurements. Understand the principles of electrical equipment safety. Define the main electric modalities used in cosmetology.

5 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Describe other types of electrical equipment that cosmetologists use. Explain electromagnetic spectrum, visible spectrum of light, and invisible light. Describe the types of light therapy and their benefits. Objectives (continues)

6 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Opening Activity Divide into small groups. Discuss and record everything you did between waking up today and arriving for school. Indicate which tasks used electricity.

7 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Electricity Electricity is a form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects. It does not occupy space or have physical or chemical properties (thus, it is not matter).

8 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Electricity (continued) Electric current: flow of electricity along a conductor Conductor: substance that conducts electricity Nonconductor: does not conduct electricity –Rubber, silk, wood, glass, cement

9 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Types of Electric Current Direct current (DC): constant, even-flowing current going in one direction Alternating current (AC): rapid, interrupted current changing directions Converter: changes direct current into alternating current Rectifier: changes alternating current into direct currentRectifier:

10 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Types of Electric Current (continued)

11 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Electrical Measurements Volt: measures pressure Ampere: measures strengthAmpere Milliampere: 1/1,000th of an ampereMilliampere Ohm: measures resistanceOhm Watt: measures energy used in 1 second Kilowatt: equals 1,000 watts

12 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Electrical Measurements (continued)

13 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Safety Devices Fuse Circuit breaker

14 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Electrical Equipment Safety Inspect regularly. Don’t overload circuits. Check for UL approval. Ensure that appliances are grounded.

15 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Hints for Safety Ensure UL certification. Read instructions. Disconnect when not in use. Inspect equipment regularly. Keep wires, plugs, equipment in good repair. Use one plug per outlet.

16 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. One Plug Per Outlet

17 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Avoid contact with water or metal while using appliances. Don’t leave client when connected to electrical devices. Keep cords off floor. Don’t clean area when appliances plugged in. Don’t touch two metallic objects if either is connected to current. Hints for Safety

18 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Don’t step on or set objects on cords. Don’t let cords become twisted or bent. Pull plug, not cord. Don’t repair unless qualified. Hints for Safety (continued)

19 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Electrotherapy Electronic facial treatments –Modalities: produce different effects on skin –Electrodes: also known as probes

20 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Polarity Positive pole (anode, red): marked with a P and a plus (+) sign Negative pole (cathode, black): marked with an N or a minus (-) sign

21 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Galvanic Current Constant, direct current having a positive and negative pole and producing chemical changes when it passes through the tissues and fluids of the body. Produces two actions: –Active electrode: used on area to be treated –Inactive electrode: opposite from active electrode

22 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Iontophoresis Cataphoresis: forces acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from positive toward negative poleCataphoresis Anaphoresis: forces liquids into tissues from negative toward positive poleAnaphoresis Desincrustation: used to soften and emulsify great deposits in hair follicles and poresDesincrustation

23 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Microcurrent An extremely low level of electricity that mirrors the body’s natural electrical impulses

24 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Microcurrent Benefits Improves blood and lymph circulation Produces acidic and alkaline reactions Opens and closes hair follicles and pores Increases muscle tone Restores elasticity

25 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Reduces redness and inflammation Minimizes healing time for acne lesions Improves natural protective barrier of skin Increases metabolism Microcurrent Benefits (continued)

26 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Tesla High-Frequency Current Characterized by high rate of oscillation or vibration and commonly called violet ray Used for scalp and facial treatments Used to treat thinning hair, itchy scalp, and excessively oily or dry skin and scalp Primarily heat producing Stimulating and soothing Usually made from glass or metal

27 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Tesla Current Benefits Stimulates circulation of blood Aids in elimination and absorption Increases skin metabolism Improves germicidal actions Relieves skin congestion

28 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Other Electrical Equipment Hood dryers and heat lamps Ionic hair dryers and irons Curling and flat irons Heating caps Processing and accelerating machines Steamers and vaporizers Light-therapy equipment

29 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Light Energy and Light Therapy Electromagnetic spectrum: the name given to all forms of energy. It is made up of radio waves, microwaves, light waves, S-rays, and gamma rays. Waves: energy moves through space on waves –Long wavelengths: have a low frequency –Short wavelengths: have a higher frequency

30 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Waveform The measurement of the distance between two wavelengths

31 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Visible Spectrum of Light Ultraviolet and infrared rays: invisible because their wavelengths are beyond the visible spectrum of light Invisible rays: make up 65 percent of natural sunlight

32 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Visible Spectrum of Light (continued) Violet has shortest wavelength. Red has longest wavelength. Infrared is just below red; ultraviolet is just above violet. Infrared and ultraviolet are not light; they are invisible wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.

33 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Visible Spectrum of Light (continued)

34 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Natural Sunlight Visible light = 35 percent Invisible infrared light = 60 percent Invisible ultraviolet light = 5 percent

35 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Invisible Light The light at either end of the visible spectrum of light that is invisible to the naked eye Before the visible violet light of the spectrum is ultraviolet, the shortest and least penetrating light of the spectrum. Beyond visible red light is infrared, which produces heat.

36 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Ultraviolet (UV) Light Invisible Has short wavelength for higher energy Less penetrating than visible light Accelerates chemical reactions Produces less heat than visible light Kills germs and prompts skin to produce Vitamin D Overexposure to causes premature aging

37 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Types of UV Light UVA: has the longest wavelength of the UV light spectrum and penetrates dermis; damages collagen and elastin UVB: often called the burning light; frequently associated with sunburns; can cause skin cancers UVC: blocked by the ozone layer

38 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Infrared Light Used mainly for hair conditioning treatments and to process color Has longer wavelengths Penetrates deeply Makes up 60 percent of natural sunlight Used to warm muscles Can diminish signs of aging

39 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Light Versus Heat and Energy Catalysts: used to speed up chemical reactions; some use heat and absorb energy like a battery; they pass energy to an initiator and reaction begins Light therapy: also known as phototherapy; the application of light rays to skin for hair removal or treatment of wrinkles, capillaries, or pigmentation.

40 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Lasers Acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Photothermolysis: turns light from laser into heatPhotothermolysis Can remove blood vessels and tattoos Can disable hair follicles Can eliminate some wrinkles

41 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. How Lasers Work By means of a medium (solid, liquid, gas) Medium emits light when stimulated by power. Reflective surfaces in chamber create light. Light passes back and forth and gains energy.

42 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Laser Hair Removal

43 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Light-Emitting Diode (LED) A medical device used to reduce acne, increase skin circulation, and improve collagen content in the skin

44 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. LED Effects Releases light onto skin Stimulates specific responses at precise depths of skin tissues Seeks chromophore (color component within skin such as blood or melanin)chromophore Tissue depth triggers reaction

45 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Red light LED increases circulation and improves collagen and elastin production. Yellow light LED reduces swelling and inflammation. Green light LED reduces hyperpigmentation. Blue light LED reduces acne and bacteria. LED Effects (continued)

46 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Beneficial Effects of LED Therapy

47 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Light Therapy Contraindications Light sensitivities Phototoxic reactions Taking antibiotics Has cancer or epilepsy Pregnancy Under physician’s care

48 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Intense Pulse Light Device that uses multiple colors and wavelengths (broad spectrum) of focused light to treat spider veins, hyperpigmentation, rosacea and redness, wrinkles, enlarged hair follicles and pores, and excessive hair Treatments are provided under the supervision of a physician.

49 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Summary and Review Define electric current. Explain the difference between a conductor and a nonconductor (insulator). Describe the two types of electric current and give examples of each. Explain the difference between a volt and an amp.

50 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Define ohm. Define watt and kilowatt. Explain the function of a fuse. What is the purpose of a circuit breaker? What is the purpose of grounding? Summary and Review (continued)

51 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. List at least five steps to take for electrical safety. List and describe the two main electric modalities (currents) used in cosmetology. Summary and Review (continued)

52 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. What are electromagnetic radiation, visible light, and white light? List and describe the two main types of light therapy. Name two important precautions to observe when using light therapy. Summary and Review (continued)

53 © Copyright 2012 Milady, a part of Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied, or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Congratulations! You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.


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