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Chapter 13 Basics of Electricity

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1 Chapter 13 Basics of Electricity

2 “Competition is a by-product of productive work, not its goal
“Competition is a by-product of productive work, not its goal. A creative man is motivated by the desire to achieve, not by the desire to beat others.” – Ayn Rand LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?) As a professional in the beauty enhancement industry, you must know how electricity works in order to maintain a safe environment for yourself, your coworkers, and your clients. Electricity is the primary source of energy and is needed, literally, to run the world. Electricity is necessary to control and maintain the professional environment of our schools and salons. It is responsible for lighting, ventilation, temperature, and often even the hot water we use. It must be used intelligently and safely. Electricity is also necessary in the salon to power blow-dryers, curling irons, lotion heaters, wax heaters, facial equipment, cash registers, telephones, computers, manicure drills, and so much more. While it is not necessary for a cosmetologist to be an electrical engineer, it is important to have a working knowledge of how electricity is created and how to use it safely in the salon.

3 Objectives Define the nature of electricity and the two types of electric current. Define electrical measurements. Understand the principles of electrical equipment safety. Define the main electric modalities used in cosmetology.

4 Objectives (continues)
Describe other types of electrical equipment that cosmetologists use. Explain electromagnetic spectrum, visible spectrum of light, and invisible light. Describe the types of light therapy and their benefits.

5 Opening Activity Divide into small groups.
Discuss and record everything you did between waking up today and arriving for school. Indicate which tasks used electricity. OPENING ACTIVITY: Explain to the students that you are continuing the unit of study of cosmetology sciences and that you will be covering electricity in detail in the next few lessons. Divide students into small groups. Ask them to discuss and record everything they did between waking up this morning and arriving for school, beginning with the alarm clock going off. After they have completed their list, have them indicate which tasks or events used electricity. For example, alarm went off — electricity (unless battery-powered alarm clock); took shower — electricity (if hot water heater is electric). After they have completed their group assignment, conduct a discussion about how, during their first two hours or so of being awake today, nearly every aspect of their lives was affected by electricity.

6 Electricity Electricity is a form of energy that, when in motion, exhibits magnetic, chemical, or thermal effects. It does not occupy space or have physical or chemical properties (thus, it is not matter).

7 Electricity (continued)
Electric current: flow of electricity along a conductor Conductor: substance that conducts electricity Nonconductor: does not conduct electricity Rubber, silk, wood, glass, cement ELECTRIC CURRENT: The flow of electricity along a conductor. All substances can be classified as either conductors or insulators, depending on the ease with which a current can be transmitted through them. CONDUCTOR: Any substance, material, or medium that conducts electricity. Most metals are good conductors, including copper, which is used in electric wiring and electric motors. Pure water does not conduct electricity, but the ions in ordinary water make it a good conductor. NONCONDUCTOR: Also known as an insulator. It does not easily transmit electricity.

8 Types of Electric Current
Direct current (DC): constant, even-flowing current going in one direction Alternating current (AC): rapid, interrupted current changing directions Converter: changes direct current into alternating current Rectifier: changes alternating current into direct current TYPES OF ELECTRIC CURRENT DIRECT CURRENT (DC): Constant, even-flowing current, traveling in one direction. It produces a chemical reaction. Batteries use direct current. ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC): Rapid, interrupted current flowing in one direction then another. It produces a mechanical action. Appliances plugged into the wall use an alternating current. CONVERTER: Apparatus used to change direct current into alternating current. RECTIFIER: Apparatus used to change alternating current into direct current.

9 Types of Electric Current (continued)

10 Electrical Measurements
Volt: measures pressure Ampere: measures strength Milliampere: 1/1,000th of an ampere Ohm: measures resistance Watt: measures energy used in 1 second Kilowatt: equals 1,000 watts ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS VOLT (V): Measures the pressure that forces electric current forward. Higher voltage increases strength of current because more electrons are moving; lower voltage is weaker. (Example: An air conditioner uses a great deal more power than a table fan.) AMPERE (A): Also called amp. Measures the strength of notes (the number of electrons) flowing through a wire. The amp capability of the cord must be compatible with the amps put out by the appliance. If the current is too strong for the cord, the appliance can be ruined. MILLIAMPERE: 1/1,000th of an ampere. Used for facials and scalp treatments; amps would be too strong. OHM (O): Measures resistance of an electric current. The force or voltage must be stronger than the resistance of ohms for electricity to flow through a wire. WATT (W): Measures how much electric energy is used in one second. (Example: A 60-watt light bulb uses 60 watts of energy per second.) KILOWATT (K): Equals 1,000 watts. Electric bills are measured in kilowatt hours (KWH).

11 Electrical Measurements (continued)

12 Safety Devices Fuse Circuit breaker SAFETY DEVICES
FUSE: Prevents the overheating of electric wires. ACTIVITY: Take students to the fuse box in the school (if there is one) and explain to them what happens when a fuse blows out. Explain the cause and procedure to reestablish the circuit. Have one student actually change a fuse. CIRCUIT BREAKER: Has largely replaced the use of fuses. Doesn’t require replacement every time a switch is thrown but shuts down with the first indication of overheating or circuit trouble. Once the problem has been corrected (such as turning off one of many electrical appliances that are running), the switch can be reset with all safety factors in place again. ACTIVITY: Take students to the circuit breaker in the school. If all breakers are not marked, have students determine which switches relate to which areas of the facility and label them properly. Demonstrate how a breaker can be thrown and reset.

13 Electrical Equipment Safety
Inspect regularly. Don’t overload circuits. Check for UL approval. Ensure that appliances are grounded. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SAFETY Inspect regularly to determine safe working order. Never overload circuits, which could cause electrical shock, burn, or fire. Check for UL approval. The Underwriters Laboratory certifies the safety of electrical appliances. ACTIVITY: Have students inspect their kit items such as curling irons, blow-dryers, and other equipment in the classroom for UL approval. Ensure that appliances are grounded. All electrical appliances should have at least two electrical connections: one “live” one to supply current to the circuit and a second “ground” connection that completes the circuit and carries the current safely away to the ground. Three-pronged plugs are even safer than those with two prongs. The third, round prong is an extra ground to guarantee the safe path of electricity if the first ground fails or is improperly connected.

14 Hints for Safety Ensure UL certification. Read instructions.
Disconnect when not in use. Inspect equipment regularly. Keep wires, plugs, equipment in good repair. Use one plug per outlet.

15 One Plug Per Outlet

16 Hints for Safety Avoid contact with water or metal while using appliances. Don’t leave client when connected to electrical devices. Keep cords off floor. Don’t clean area when appliances plugged in. Don’t touch two metallic objects if either is connected to current.

17 Hints for Safety (continued)
Don’t step on or set objects on cords. Don’t let cords become twisted or bent. Pull plug, not cord. Don’t repair unless qualified.

18 Electrotherapy Electronic facial treatments
–Modalities: produce different effects on skin –Electrodes: also known as probes ELECTROTHERAPY: Electronic facial treatments. Modalities: The currents that produce different effects on the skin. Cosmetologists are concerned primarily with galvanic, sinusoidal, faradic, and tesla high-frequency currents. Electrodes: Conduct the electric current from the machine to the client’s skin. Usually made of carbon, glass, or metal. Each modality requires two electrodes (one negative and one positive), except for the tesla high-frequency current.

19 Polarity Positive pole (anode, red): marked with a P and a plus (+) sign Negative pole (cathode, black): marked with an N or a minus (-) sign POLARITY: The positive or negative state of an electric current. Electrotherapy equipment has a negatively charged pole and a positively charged pole.

20 Galvanic Current Constant, direct current having a positive and negative pole and producing chemical changes when it passes through the tissues and fluids of the body. Produces two actions: Active electrode: used on area to be treated Inactive electrode: opposite from active electrode

21 Iontophoresis Cataphoresis: forces acidic substances into deeper tissues using galvanic current from positive toward negative pole Anaphoresis: forces liquids into tissues from negative toward positive pole Desincrustation: used to soften and emulsify great deposits in hair follicles and pores IONTOPHORESIS: The process of introducing water-soluble products in the skin with the use of electric current, such as the positive and negative poles of a galvanic machine.

22 Microcurrent An extremely low level of electricity that mirrors the body’s natural electrical impulses

23 Microcurrent Benefits
Improves blood and lymph circulation Produces acidic and alkaline reactions Opens and closes hair follicles and pores Increases muscle tone Restores elasticity

24 Microcurrent Benefits (continued)
Reduces redness and inflammation Minimizes healing time for acne lesions Improves natural protective barrier of skin Increases metabolism

25 Tesla High-Frequency Current
Characterized by high rate of oscillation or vibration and commonly called violet ray Used for scalp and facial treatments Used to treat thinning hair, itchy scalp, and excessively oily or dry skin and scalp Primarily heat producing Stimulating and soothing Usually made from glass or metal

26 Tesla Current Benefits
Stimulates circulation of blood Aids in elimination and absorption Increases skin metabolism Improves germicidal actions Relieves skin congestion CAUTION: Never use tesla high-frequency current on clients who are pregnant, epileptic, or asthmatic; or who have high blood pressure, excessive fillings in the teeth, sinus blockage, a pacemaker, or metal implants.

27 Other Electrical Equipment
Hood dryers and heat lamps Ionic hair dryers and irons Curling and flat irons Heating caps Processing and accelerating machines Steamers and vaporizers Light-therapy equipment OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Hood dryers and heat lamps: Used to dry hair or shorten chemical-processing time. When used for chemical processing, hair is covered with aerated plastic cap. Ionic hair dryers and irons: Effective at combating static electricity. Curling and flat irons: Available in many types and sizes. Heating caps: Electrical devices that provide uniform heat when placed on head. Mainly used for corrective hair and scalp treatments. Processing and accelerating machines: Shorten the time it takes to process chemical hair services. They dispense a hot-water vapor inside hood. Haircolor processed at 90 degrees F will process twice as fast as at room temperature of 72 degrees. Steamers and vaporizers: Produce moist, uniform heat that can be applied to head and face. Light-therapy equipment: Includes lasers, light-emitting diodes (LED), and intense pulse light. NOTE: Display and demonstrate each electrical implement. Pass them around the room; let students handle them.

28 Light Energy and Light Therapy
Electromagnetic spectrum: the name given to all forms of energy. It is made up of radio waves, microwaves, light waves, S-rays, and gamma rays. Waves: energy moves through space on waves Long wavelengths: have a low frequency Short wavelengths: have a higher frequency

29 Waveform The measurement of the distance between two wavelengths

30 Visible Spectrum of Light
Ultraviolet and infrared rays: invisible because their wavelengths are beyond the visible spectrum of light Invisible rays: make up 65 percent of natural sunlight Visible light makes up 35 percent of natural sunlight.

31 Visible Spectrum of Light (continued)
Violet has shortest wavelength. Red has longest wavelength. Infrared is just below red; ultraviolet is just above violet. Infrared and ultraviolet are not light; they are invisible wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation.

32 Visible Spectrum of Light (continued)

33 Natural Sunlight Visible light = 35 percent
Invisible infrared light = 60 percent Invisible ultraviolet light = 5 percent

34 Invisible Light The light at either end of the visible spectrum of light that is invisible to the naked eye Before the visible violet light of the spectrum is ultraviolet, the shortest and least penetrating light of the spectrum. Beyond visible red light is infrared, which produces heat.

35 Ultraviolet (UV) Light
Invisible Has short wavelength for higher energy Less penetrating than visible light Accelerates chemical reactions Produces less heat than visible light Kills germs and prompts skin to produce Vitamin D Overexposure to causes premature aging

36 Types of UV Light UVA: has the longest wavelength of the UV light spectrum and penetrates dermis; damages collagen and elastin UVB: often called the burning light; frequently associated with sunburns; can cause skin cancers UVC: blocked by the ozone layer

37 Infrared Light Used mainly for hair conditioning treatments and to process color Has longer wavelengths Penetrates deeply Makes up 60 percent of natural sunlight Used to warm muscles Can diminish signs of aging

38 Light Versus Heat and Energy
Catalysts: used to speed up chemical reactions; some use heat and absorb energy like a battery; they pass energy to an initiator and reaction begins Light therapy: also known as phototherapy; the application of light rays to skin for hair removal or treatment of wrinkles, capillaries, or pigmentation.

39 Lasers Acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Photothermolysis: turns light from laser into heat Can remove blood vessels and tattoos Can disable hair follicles Can eliminate some wrinkles

40 How Lasers Work By means of a medium (solid, liquid, gas)
Medium emits light when stimulated by power. Reflective surfaces in chamber create light. Light passes back and forth and gains energy. Most lasers are classified as Level II or above, which means the practitioner should be working under the supervision of a qualified physician.

41 Laser Hair Removal

42 Light-Emitting Diode (LED)
A medical device used to reduce acne, increase skin circulation, and improve collagen content in the skin

43 LED Effects Releases light onto skin
Stimulates specific responses at precise depths of skin tissues Seeks chromophore (color component within skin such as blood or melanin) Tissue depth triggers reaction

44 LED Effects (continued)
Red light LED increases circulation and improves collagen and elastin production. Yellow light LED reduces swelling and inflammation. Green light LED reduces hyperpigmentation. Blue light LED reduces acne and bacteria.

45 Beneficial Effects of LED Therapy

46 Light Therapy Contraindications
Light sensitivities Phototoxic reactions Taking antibiotics Has cancer or epilepsy Pregnancy Under physician’s care

47 Intense Pulse Light Device that uses multiple colors and wavelengths (broad spectrum) of focused light to treat spider veins, hyperpigmentation, rosacea and redness, wrinkles, enlarged hair follicles and pores, and excessive hair Treatments are provided under the supervision of a physician.

48 Summary and Review Define electric current.
Explain the difference between a conductor and a nonconductor (insulator). Describe the two types of electric current and give examples of each. Explain the difference between a volt and an amp. SUMMARY AND REVIEW Electricity plays a huge role in the everyday operation of a cosmetology salon. A general understanding of the basics of electricity and the various currents is very important because many of the devices and pieces of equipment used in beauty services are electrical. Cosmetologists cannot perform various skin care services safely and effectively without understanding which form of electrical current will give the best results for the desired service. 1. Define electric current. Answer: Electric current is the flow of electricity along a conductor. 2. Explain the difference between a conductor and a nonconductor (insulator). Answer: A conductor is any substance that conducts electricity, such as metal, copper, or ordinary water. A nonconductor, or insulator, is a material that does not transmit electricity easily, such as rubber, silk, wood, glass, and cement. 3. Describe the two types of electric current and give examples of each. Answer: Direct current (DC) is a constant, even-flowing current that travels in one direction only. Examples are flashlights, mobile telephones, and cordless hairstyling tools. All use batteries. Alternating current (AC) is a rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Examples are corded hair dryers, curling irons, electric files, and table lamps. All plug into a wall outlet. 4. Explain the difference between a volt and an amp. Answer: A volt is the unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes electricity through a conductor. An amp is the unit that measures the strength of an electric current.

49 Summary and Review (continued)
Define ohm. Define watt and kilowatt. Explain the function of a fuse. What is the purpose of a circuit breaker? What is the purpose of grounding? 5. Define ohm. Answer: An ohm is a unit that measures the resistance of an electric current. Current will not flow through a conductor unless the force (volts) is stronger than the resistance (ohms). 6. Define watt and kilowatt. Answer: A watt is a measurement of how much electric energy is being used in one second. A kilowatt (K) is 1,000 watts. 7. Explain the function of a fuse. Answer: A fuse prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit. It is designed to blow out or melt when the wire becomes too hot from overloading the circuit with too much current, such as when too many appliances or faulty equipment are connected to an electricity source. 8. What is the purpose of a circuit breaker? Answer: A circuit breaker is a switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of an overload. Circuit breakers have replaced fuses in modern electric circuits. They have all the safety features of fuses but do not require replacement and can simply be reset. 9. What is the purpose of grounding? Answer: The purpose of grounding is to complete an electric circuit and carry the current safely away.

50 Summary and Review (continued)
List at least five steps to take for electrical safety. List and describe the two main electric modalities (currents) used in cosmetology. 10. List at least five steps to take for electrical safety. Answer: All the electrical appliances you use should be UL certified. Read all instructions carefully before using any piece of electrical equipment. Disconnect all appliances when not in use. Inspect all electrical equipment regularly. Keep all wires, plugs, and electrical equipment in good repair. Use only one plug for each outlet; overloading may cause the circuit breaker to pop. If more than one plug is needed in an area, use a power strip with a surge protector. Avoid contact, for both you and your client, with water and metal surfaces when using electricity, and do not handle electrical equipment with wet hands. Do not leave your client unattended while connected to an electrical device. Keep electrical cords off the floor and away from people’s feet; getting tangled in a cord could cause you or your client to trip. Do not attempt to clean around electric outlets while equipment is plugged in. Do not touch two metal objects at the same time if either is connected to an electric current. Do not step on or place objects on electrical cords. Do not allow electrical cords to become twisted; this can cause a short circuit. Disconnect appliances by pulling on the plug, not the cord. Do not attempt to repair electrical appliances unless you are qualified. 11. List and describe the two main electric modalities (currents) used in cosmetology. Answer: The two main electric modalities (currents) used in cosmetology are: Galvanic current: A constant and direct current. It has a positive and negative pole and produces chemical changes when it passes through the tissues and fluids of the body. Tesla high-frequency current: A thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration. It is commonly called violet ray and is used for scalp and facial treatments. It does not produce muscle contractions. The effects of this type of current can be either stimulating or soothing, depending on the method of application.

51 Summary and Review (continued)
What are electromagnetic radiation, visible light, and white light? List and describe the two main types of light therapy. Name two important precautions to observe when using light therapy. 12. What are electromagnetic radiation, visible light, and white light? Answer: Electromagnetic radiation: Also known as visible light and radiant energy. It carries, or radiates, energy through space on waves. These waves are similar to those caused when a stone is dropped on the surface of water. Visible light: Also known as electromagnetic radiation. It is the primary source of light used in facial and scalp treatments. It can be seen. Visible light makes up 35 percent of natural sunlight. White light: Referred to as combination light because it is a combination of all the visible lights of the spectrum. It also has the benefits of all the lights of the visible spectrum. 13. List and describe the two main types of light therapy. Answer: The two main types of light therapy are: Infrared light: Makes up 60 percent of natural sunlight. It has longer wavelengths, penetrates the deepest, has less energy, and produces more heat than visible light. Ultraviolet (UV) light: Also referred to as cold light or actinic light and makes up 5 percent of natural sunlight. UV light is the least penetrating, produces chemical effects, kill germs, and prompts skin to produce Vitamin D. 14. Name two important precautions to observe when using light therapy. Answer: Two important precautions to observe when using light therapy are: Always protect the client’s eyes. The cosmetologist should wear safety goggles. Avoid overexposure to UV rays. It can produce painful burns and blistering, increase risk of skin cancer, and cause premature aging. 51

52 You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.
Congratulations! You have completed one unit of study toward course completion.

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