CategoryTotal investment (TI) Minimum registered capital 1Up to $3 millionAt least 70% of the TI 2 From $3 million to $4.2 million At least $2.1 million 3$4.2 million to $10 millionAt least 50% of the TI 4$10 million to $12.5 millionAt least $5 million 5$12.5 million to $30 millionAt least 40% of the TI 6$30 million to $36 millionAt least $12 million 7More than $36 million At least 33.33% of the TI Note: The foreign investment in the total project must be at least 25%. No minimum investment is set for the Chinese partner. Table 13.1 Categories of total foreign investment and investment-capital ratios
13.2 Inflow of foreign direct investment 13.2.1 Sectoral distribution 13.2.2 Regional distribution 13.2.3 Contributions to the Chinese economy
YearProjectsUtilized FDI YearNumberGrowth (%)(US$ billion)Growth (%) 200126,14017.046.915.1 200234,17130.752.712.5 200341,08188.8.131.52 200443,6646.360.613.3 200544,0010.860.3-0.5 200641,485-5.769.54.5 200737,871-8.774.818.6 200827,514-27.392.423.6 200923,435-14.890.0-2.6 201027,40616.9105.717.4 Source: NBS (2011). Table 13.1 Categories of total foreign investment and investment-capital ratios
Source: UNCTAD (2011). Notes: (1) Figures are measured in US Dollars at current prices and current exchange rates in millions. (2) The UNCTAD figures include only non-financial FDI. Figure 13.1 Annual inward foreign direct investment flows to China, 1980-2010
Figure 13.2 The structural changes of the FDI in China (2000 and 2010)
The FDI’s Contributions to the Chinese economy: Increase trade growth and participation in the international segmentation of production Build dynamic specialization Increase export competitiveness Become important source of capital Create jobs, upgrade skills and raise wages of employees Raise factor productivity and increased technology transfer Upgrade China‘s industrial structure Increase domestic competition Increase industrial performance
13.3 Outward direct investment 13.3.1 Historical evolution 13.3.2 China’s “Going Out” strategy 13.3.3 Characteristics and directions
Historical evolution Stage I (1979-85) Stage II (1986-91) Stage III (1992-98) Stage IV (1999-present)
China’s “Going Out” strategy: Avoid intensified competition in the domestic market Easy access to overseas sources of raw materials and energy Acquisition of technology, brands and know-how Avoid or overcome international barriers to trade
Source: UNCTAD (2011). Notes: (1) Figures are measured in US Dollars at current prices and current exchange rates in millions. (2) The UNCTAD figures include only non-financial FDI. Figure 13.3 China’s outward foreign direct investment flows, 1980-2010
Source: MOFCOM (2010). Figure 13.4 Chinese outward direct investment (ODI) by region, stock
Source: MOFCOM (2010). Figure 13.5 China’s outward direct investment (ODI) in 2009 (stock) by sector
DestinationAmount (million US$)Share (%) Hong Kong164,498.9466.94 British Virgin Islands15,060.696.13 Cayman Islands13,577.075.52 Australia5,863.102.39 Singapore4,857.321.98 United States3,338.421.36 South Africa2,306.860.94 Luxembourg2,484.381.01 Russia2,220.370.90 Macau1,837.230.75 Canada1,670.340.68 Kazakhstan1,516.210.62 Pakistan1,458.090.59 Mongolia1,241.660.51 South Korea1,217.800.50 Germany1,082.240.44 UK1,028.280.42 Nigeria1,025.960.42 Myanmar929.880.38 Zambia843.970.34 Others17,696.577.20 World Total245,755.38100.00 Source: MOFCOM (2010). Table 13.3 Top destinations for China’s ODI in 2009 (stock)
Country Reserves bn bb (oil )/ tcm (gas) Project nameProject type Date signed CompanyInvestment Saudi Arabia 264 / 7.2Section B (gas) Exploration & production 2004Sinopec
"name": "Country Reserves bn bb (oil )/ tcm (gas) Project nameProject type Date signed CompanyInvestment Saudi Arabia 264 / 7.2Section B (gas) Exploration & production 2004Sinopec
Notes: CNPC= China National Petroleum Corporation; NOC= national oil companies; Sinopec= China Petrochemical Corporation Group. Sources: Andrew-Speed (2009, p. 19) and Scissors (2011). UAE 98 / 6.1Uraq&Zora (gas)Acquisition2003Sinochem Oman 5.6 / 0.7 Blocks 36&38 Exploration & production 2004Sinopec Blocks 17&40Acquisition2003Sinochem Blocks 5 (oil) Exploration & production CNPC Yemen 2.8 / 0.5 Block S22001CNPC Block 69&712005Sinopec Syria 2.5 / 0.3 Qubibe (oil)Development2004CNPC Al Furat Prod Co (oil)Acquisition2005CNPC US$570m Al Zour (oil)Refinery2008CNPC US$2bn Block 10 (oil)Acquisition2008Sinochem Acquisition2010CNPC US$1,500m Country Reserves oil (bn bb)/gas (tcm) Project nameProject type Date signed CompanyInvestment Table 13.4 (cont’d)
Chapter conclusion: Foreign investment has played an increasing role in the Chinese economy. What is more important, the foreign enterprises have promoted the importation of advanced technology, equipment, and management and, above all, competition mechanisms from the advanced economies. Although China’s outward direct investment (ODI) is still smaller than its massive inward FDI, China’s overseas companies have been gaining momentum in moving international capital, investing across a broad spectrum of sectors ranging from natural resources to manufacturing to telecommunications and many others. As China’s economy continues to grow, China faces shortages in many raw materials (particularly oil, iron ore, aluminum, and uranium), and it must therefore build trade linkages with resource-rich countries (such as Australia, Russia, Brazil and the Middle East countries) to secure supplies.
Suggested reading Alden, Chris and Christopher R. Hughes (2009). “Harmony and Discord in China's Africa Strategy: Some Implications for Foreign Policy,” The China Quarterly, Volume 199, pp. 563 - 584. Awokuse, Titus O., Hong Yin (2010). “Intellectual property rights protection and the surge in FDI in China,” Journal of Comparative Economics, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp. 217-224. Bräutigam, Deborah A. and Tang Xiaoyang (2009). “China's Engagement in African Agriculture: ‘Down to the Countryside’,” The China Quarterly, Volume 199, pp. 686 - 706. Chen, Shaofeng (2011). “Has China's Foreign Energy Quest Enhanced Its Energy Security?” The China Quarterly, Volume 207, pp. 600 - 625. Haglund, Dan (2009). “In It for the Long Term? Governance and Learning among Chinese Investors in Zambia's Copper Sector,” The China Quarterly, Volume 199, pp. 627 – 646. Hong, Eunsuk and Laixiang Sun (2006). “Dynamics of Internationalization and Outward Investment: Chinese Corporations' Strategies,” The China Quarterly, Volume 187, pp. 610 - 634.
Suggested reading Huang, Y. (2001). “Why More is Actually Less: New Interpretations of China's Labor-Intensive FDI”, William Davidson Institute (WDI) Working Papers No. 375. Jiang, Wenran (2009). “Fuelling the Dragon: China's Rise and Its Energy and Resources Extraction in Africa,” The China Quarterly, Volume 199, pp. 585 - 609. Kim, Joon-Kyung, Yangseon Kim and Chung H. Lee (2006). “Trade, Investment and Economic Interdependence between South Korea and China,” Asian Economic Journal, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp. 379–392. Qin, Julia Ya (2007). “Trade, Investment and Beyond: The Impact of WTO Accession on China's Legal System,” The China Quarterly, Volume 191, pp. 720 - 741. Sun, Sizhong (2010). “Heterogeneity of FDI Export Spillovers and Its Policy Implications: The Experience of China,” Asian Economic Journal, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp. 289–303. Williamson, Peter J., and Anand P. Raman (2011). “How China Reset Its Global Acquisition Agenda,” Harvard Business Review, Apr 1. Xing, Y. (2006). “Why is China so attractive for FDI? The role of exchange rates,” China Economic Review, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp. 198- 209.