Presentation on theme: "The I13L Project: Microscopic Imaging and Coherence and the CXRD capabilities at Diamond Introduction Science Considerations Project C. Rau."— Presentation transcript:
The I13L Project: Microscopic Imaging and Coherence and the CXRD capabilities at Diamond Introduction Science Considerations Project C. Rau
Introduction I13L a long beamline at DIAMOND for imaging and coherence related experiments Two branches with canted undulators: ‘Imaging’: high resolution imaging in real space ‘Coherence’: reciprocal space imaging Relation between both?
Introduction Timeline budget, etc. Project started June 2007 (with me) Technical Design Report August 2008 First user April 2011 End of budget December 2011 -> Project without delay! Budget : ~4M£ for beamline and ~2M£ for external building Personel : 1 Principal Beamline Scientist, 1 Second BLSc, 2 Support Sc (I hope) + Techn. Staff
Purpose of I13 Perform and promote high resolution imaging / tomography beyond today’s limits Techniques either in direct or reciprocal space Applications for broad user community: Bio-medical, materials science, archeology etc.
Imaging in real space: In-line phase contrast imaging (micro-Scale) Imaging in reciprocal space: Coherent Diffraction Pattern of BaTiO3 fibre, 180nm diameter Full-field microscopy (nano-Scale) 1µm1µm Photonic Crystal (hollow spheres in Ni matrix) Gerbil Cochlea Study of hearing BTO(001) BTO(002) Corresponding X-ray microscope image: sample mounted on W tip Data has potential for 5nm resolution
Scientific Applications for I13 Goal: imaging of cochlea structure and dynamics In-situ study, preservation of cochlea functionality Conventional methods lack either spatial resolution/sensitivity (NMR) or don’t preserve integrity of sample (e-microscopy) Imaging with hard X-rays is adequate Both soft tissue and strongly absorbing material present Sample amount for Classical Sectioning Bio-medical imaging: Cochlea
Instrumentation: In-line Phase contrast imaging Detector resolution: 1µm Small source, long distance coherent radiation In-line phase contrast imaging/tomography Energy range:6-12keV (at 34ID-C / APS) High quality stages: Rotation Stage air bearing (run out<20nm) z X-Rays
Light microscopy In-line phase contrast Bio-medical imaging: Slice of cochlea Hair cells transform movement into electrical signal Imaging of slice – real cochlea? Ref.: C. Rau et al., Microscopy Research and Technique, 69(8), 660-665, 2006.
Tomography: visualize Slice under real conditions Volume information but limited field of view
Full-field microscope (34ID-C APS) 53 m 53.1 m 2.5 cm Undu- lator MirrorMonoCondenser Sample Objective2-D detector 20 cm 10 cm 50-100 cm SampleFZP Camera KB -Similar to visible light microscope -KB: high efficiency -FZP: high resolution -Condenser matches aperture of objective lens
Nano Science: Photonic Crystals void 50 nm Resolution contrast ~10% 1µm1µm Hollow Spheres in Ni Materials with ‘Photonic Gap’ ‘Optical Guide’ Structure-Properties
Imaging in direct space - ‘Real space imaging’ limited by: Detector resolution X-ray optics Source size (projection microscopy) limit ~ 10nm for full-field imaging? - Reciprocal space imaging promising
Fourier Transform Coherent Diffraction from Crystals Slice court. R. Harder
H K Fourier Transform Coherent Diffraction from Crystals Slice court. R. Harder
3D Diffraction Method kfkf kiki CCD Silver Nano Cube (111) Q=k f -k i Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, Science 298 2177 (2003) Slice court. R. Harder
Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, Science 298 2177 (2003) 3D Ag Nano Cube Slice court. R. Harder
BTO(001) BTO(002) Simultaneous Full-Field Microscopy and Coherent X-Ray Diffraction of BaTiO 3 Nano-Wire Simultaneous Full-Field Microscopy and Coherent X-Ray Diffraction of BaTiO 3 Nano-Wire Ref.: R. Harder, in preparation. Orientation of sample Input for CXRD reconstruction High Resolution of CXRD data CXRD data → 5nm resolution
Particularities I13L Long straight section (8m) at I 13 -> canted undulators independent operating stations -> option for mini-beta Long beamline ; external building
Why a long beamline Reasons to build a long beamline: –Coherence length (lateral) –Scanning Microscopy with a long working distance –USAXS –XPCS –Imaging with large field of view –In addition some things become simpler with available space…
Coherence Longitudinal coherence ~Nn N : number of undulator periods n : undulator harmonic -> exotic concepts Lateral coherence lat = D/2 : source size, D:distance I13 is a long section (8m) : space for 4m undulator dedicated for coherence + 2m for imaging Concept long beamline vs. intermediate focus With distance increase lateral coherence length but total coherent flux depends only on source parameter and undulator Beam splitting [for upgrade]
CXRD High coherent photon flux Focusing on small crystals with Long working distance Stable and reliable Diffractometer Energy ~8keV Detector Multiplexing OK
How to classify proposals? ‘Coherence’: very clean parallel beam long Undulator with many periods E ~ 8keV ‘Imaging’ flux important E~ 20keV shorter Undulator* * space sharing …
Optics Keep it simple! Avoid dynamic optics ‘Coherence’: Si 111/311 Mono, LN2 cooled (alternative water?) option pink beam Flat mirrors with different coating stripes planar lenses for collimation etc. [USAXS: ‘half’ Bonse-Hart Optic with multi-bounce Si311]
Coherence branch -Horizontal deflecting mirror: suppress higher harmonics, Bremsstrahlung, branch separation -Mono (changed!) rather horizontal deflecting, close to experiment: stability, heatload density,
Optics ‘Imaging’: Si 111/Multilayer, LN2 cooled (alternative water?) option pink beam Flat mirrors with different coating stripes planar lenses for poss. Intermediate focus
Imaging branch -Horizontal deflecting mirror: suppress higher harmonics, Bremsstrahlung -Mono Si(111) and Multilayer close to source: spatial filtering -Stability with intermediate focusing?
Mini-beta Long straight divided into two ‘mini-beta’ B. Singh, R. Bartolini, R. Walker -Small betax ->close gap, high E -Slope of betax: Beam in first (‘left’) section focus in ‘A’ -Focus may be close to FE -Matching coherence lengths A
Mini-beta Mini – betaLong straight simulations by U. Wagner - ‘Astigmat’ source - Matching of coherence lengths - higher divergence - Smaller Undulator Gap x =180 m ; x ’=18 rad y = 13 m ; y ’= 3 rad x min = 90 m ; x ’= 32 rad y min = 7 m ; y ’= 5-6 rad
Undulator U20 Undulator with 5mm (blue) and 7mm(red) gap
Branches Coherence Branch Energy (wavelength) range: 6-20 keV Band-pass ( E/E): 10 -4 (mono) or 10 -2 (pink) Beam size at sample: 1.5x8.6mm 2 Photon flux: 7x10 14 Ph/s/0.1%BW at 8keV Imaging Branch Energy (wavelength) range: 8-30 keV Band-pass ( E/E): 10 -4 (mono) or 10 -2 (pink) Beam size at sample: 1.5x6.4mm 2 Photon flux: 10 14 Ph/s/0.1%BW at 20keV
Control Cabin X-rays Floorplan internal - overview Optics for two branches and space for later upgrades Drawing provided by A. Peach
Floorplan external building - Stability and space: long hutches on piles - Concrete Hutches built together building -> costs - Second floor: Offices and ‘Open access’ area Drawing provided by A. Peach Imaging Coherence X-Rays CCs Mono Detector Infrastructure Labs 5m
Imaging hutch Full-field imaging with different spatial resolution In-line phase contrast -µm resolution -easy to use -large field of view Cone-beam imaging -sub-µm resolution -dose efficient -sub-100nm source -elaborate data reconstruction Full-field microscope - 50nm resolution - imaging of phase objects 2µm2µm 2µm2µm 6µm6µm In-line phase contrast -µm resolution -easy to use -large field of view Cone-beam imaging -sub-µm resolution -dose efficient -sub-100nm source -elaborate data reconstruction Full-field microscope - 50nm resolution - imaging of phase objects - combined methods 2µm 6µm
Coherence hutch -Beside CXRD: -XPCS -Coherent Diffraction Imaging techniques - similar setup (Det. in transm.) - user community - scientific life - laser facility at Harwell Site Graphs courtesy I. McNulty CDI with collimated beam CDI with focused beam
Detectors Direct space/ Imaging CCD coupled via microscope optics to a scintillation screen Key elements: scintillation screens & detector Option FreLoN camera Reciprocal space / Coherence Direct detection Speed Dynamic range ‘Intelligent’ design (e.g. integrated auto-correlator) DIAMOND is likely to join MEDIPIX/MAXIPIX program other solutions
Acknowledgements DIAMOND: U. Wagner : Optics & Discussions A. Peach: Drawings M. Launchbury & M. Smith : Project Management I.Robinson : Discussions ALL people from UWG for discussions!
Full-field Microscopy/Imaging Flux Reasonable divergence –Full-field microscopy: ‘Köhler’ divergence –In-line phase contrast : reasonable divergent source –Option: secondary source Energy ~20keV Temperature stability of hutch Short distances OK Long distance to increase field of view
Concept long beamline vs intermediate focus Both are valid Long BL:Short BL no optics/simplicity Microscope: long WD&stable Lat. Coherence length really more expensive? More real estate + & who knows? Independent of beam stability long WD too Lat. Coherence: optics & depends on exp. Pb. Small pinholes Cheap? Compact DISCUSSION
Concept long beamline vs intermediate focus Conlusion: “Coherence only” experiments -> long BL+ “long” undulator + splitting “Some/partial” coherence ->short BL + intermediate foc. + “short” undulator In addition I believe nobody has the ultimate answer… DISCUSSION