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The I13L Project: Microscopic Imaging and Coherence and the CXRD capabilities at Diamond Introduction Science Considerations Project C. Rau.

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Presentation on theme: "The I13L Project: Microscopic Imaging and Coherence and the CXRD capabilities at Diamond Introduction Science Considerations Project C. Rau."— Presentation transcript:

1 The I13L Project: Microscopic Imaging and Coherence and the CXRD capabilities at Diamond Introduction Science Considerations Project C. Rau

2 Introduction I13L a long beamline at DIAMOND for imaging and coherence related experiments Two branches with canted undulators: ‘Imaging’: high resolution imaging in real space ‘Coherence’: reciprocal space imaging Relation between both?

3 Introduction Timeline budget, etc. Project started June 2007 (with me) Technical Design Report August 2008 First user April 2011 End of budget December > Project without delay! Budget : ~4M£ for beamline and ~2M£ for external building Personel : 1 Principal Beamline Scientist, 1 Second BLSc, 2 Support Sc (I hope) + Techn. Staff

4 Purpose of I13 Perform and promote high resolution imaging / tomography beyond today’s limits Techniques either in direct or reciprocal space Applications for broad user community: Bio-medical, materials science, archeology etc.

5 Imaging in real space: In-line phase contrast imaging (micro-Scale) Imaging in reciprocal space: Coherent Diffraction Pattern of BaTiO3 fibre, 180nm diameter Full-field microscopy (nano-Scale) 1µm1µm Photonic Crystal (hollow spheres in Ni matrix) Gerbil Cochlea Study of hearing BTO(001) BTO(002) Corresponding X-ray microscope image: sample mounted on W tip Data has potential for 5nm resolution

6 Science Science related to 1µm

7 Scientific Applications for I13 Goal: imaging of cochlea structure and dynamics In-situ study, preservation of cochlea functionality Conventional methods lack either spatial resolution/sensitivity (NMR) or don’t preserve integrity of sample (e-microscopy) Imaging with hard X-rays is adequate Both soft tissue and strongly absorbing material present Sample amount for Classical Sectioning Bio-medical imaging: Cochlea

8 Instrumentation: In-line Phase contrast imaging Detector resolution: 1µm Small source, long distance  coherent radiation In-line phase contrast imaging/tomography Energy range:6-12keV (at 34ID-C / APS) High quality stages: Rotation Stage air bearing (run out<20nm) z X-Rays

9 Light microscopy In-line phase contrast Bio-medical imaging: Slice of cochlea Hair cells transform movement into electrical signal Imaging of slice – real cochlea? Ref.: C. Rau et al., Microscopy Research and Technique, 69(8), , 2006.

10 Tomography: visualize Slice under real conditions Volume information but limited field of view

11 Science Science related to 50 nm

12 Full-field microscope (34ID-C APS) 53 m 53.1 m 2.5 cm Undu- lator MirrorMonoCondenser Sample Objective2-D detector 20 cm 10 cm cm SampleFZP Camera KB -Similar to visible light microscope -KB: high efficiency -FZP: high resolution -Condenser matches aperture of objective lens

13 Nano Science: Photonic Crystals void 50 nm Resolution contrast ~10% 1µm1µm Hollow Spheres in Ni Materials with ‘Photonic Gap’ ‘Optical Guide’ Structure-Properties

14 Imaging in direct space - ‘Real space imaging’ limited by: Detector resolution X-ray optics Source size (projection microscopy) limit ~ 10nm for full-field imaging? - Reciprocal space imaging promising

15 Science Science related to 5 nm and finer…

16 Fourier Transform Coherent Diffraction from Crystals Slice court. R. Harder

17 H K Fourier Transform Coherent Diffraction from Crystals Slice court. R. Harder

18 3D Diffraction Method kfkf kiki CCD Silver Nano Cube (111) Q=k f -k i Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, Science (2003) Slice court. R. Harder

19 Yugang Sun and Younan Xia, Science (2003) 3D Ag Nano Cube Slice court. R. Harder

20 BTO(001) BTO(002) Simultaneous Full-Field Microscopy and Coherent X-Ray Diffraction of BaTiO 3 Nano-Wire Simultaneous Full-Field Microscopy and Coherent X-Ray Diffraction of BaTiO 3 Nano-Wire Ref.: R. Harder, in preparation. Orientation of sample Input for CXRD reconstruction High Resolution of CXRD data CXRD data → 5nm resolution

21 Considerations for I13L

22 Particularities I13L Long straight section (8m) at I 13 -> canted undulators independent operating stations -> option for mini-beta Long beamline ; external building

23 Why a long beamline Reasons to build a long beamline: –Coherence length (lateral) –Scanning Microscopy with a long working distance –USAXS –XPCS –Imaging with large field of view –In addition some things become simpler with available space…

24 Coherence Longitudinal coherence ~Nn N : number of undulator periods n : undulator harmonic -> exotic concepts Lateral coherence  lat = D/2   : source size, D:distance I13 is a long section (8m) : space for 4m undulator dedicated for coherence + 2m for imaging Concept long beamline vs. intermediate focus With distance increase lateral coherence length but total coherent flux depends only on source parameter and undulator Beam splitting [for upgrade]

25 CXRD High coherent photon flux Focusing on small crystals with Long working distance Stable and reliable Diffractometer Energy ~8keV Detector Multiplexing OK

26 How to classify proposals? ‘Coherence’: very clean parallel beam long Undulator with many periods E ~ 8keV ‘Imaging’ flux important E~ 20keV shorter Undulator* * space sharing …

27 Project

28 OverviewExperimental Stations Mono may be close to experimental hutch

29 Upgrade Options Beam splitting coherence branch for dedicated USAXS

30 I13 beamline

31

32

33 Optics Keep it simple! Avoid dynamic optics ‘Coherence’: Si 111/311 Mono, LN2 cooled (alternative water?) option pink beam Flat mirrors with different coating stripes planar lenses for collimation etc. [USAXS: ‘half’ Bonse-Hart Optic with multi-bounce Si311]

34 Coherence branch -Horizontal deflecting mirror: suppress higher harmonics, Bremsstrahlung, branch separation -Mono (changed!) rather horizontal deflecting, close to experiment: stability, heatload density,

35 Optics ‘Imaging’: Si 111/Multilayer, LN2 cooled (alternative water?) option pink beam Flat mirrors with different coating stripes planar lenses for poss. Intermediate focus

36 Imaging branch -Horizontal deflecting mirror: suppress higher harmonics, Bremsstrahlung -Mono Si(111) and Multilayer close to source: spatial filtering -Stability with intermediate focusing?

37 Mini-beta Long straight divided into two ‘mini-beta’ B. Singh, R. Bartolini, R. Walker -Small betax ->close gap, high E -Slope of betax: Beam in first (‘left’) section focus in ‘A’ -Focus may be close to FE -Matching coherence lengths A

38 Mini-beta Mini – betaLong straight simulations by U. Wagner - ‘Astigmat’ source - Matching of coherence lengths - higher divergence - Smaller Undulator Gap  x =180  m ;  x ’=18  rad  y = 13  m ;  y ’= 3  rad  x min = 90  m ;  x ’= 32  rad  y min = 7  m ;  y ’= 5-6  rad

39 Undulator U20 Undulator with 5mm (blue) and 7mm(red) gap

40 Branches Coherence Branch Energy (wavelength) range: 6-20 keV Band-pass (  E/E): (mono) or (pink) Beam size at sample: 1.5x8.6mm 2 Photon flux: 7x10 14 Ph/s/0.1%BW at 8keV Imaging Branch Energy (wavelength) range: 8-30 keV Band-pass (  E/E): (mono) or (pink) Beam size at sample: 1.5x6.4mm 2 Photon flux: Ph/s/0.1%BW at 20keV

41 Control Cabin X-rays Floorplan internal - overview Optics for two branches and space for later upgrades Drawing provided by A. Peach

42 Floorplan external building - Stability and space: long hutches on piles - Concrete Hutches built together building -> costs - Second floor: Offices and ‘Open access’ area Drawing provided by A. Peach Imaging Coherence X-Rays CCs Mono Detector Infrastructure Labs 5m

43 Imaging hutch Full-field imaging with different spatial resolution In-line phase contrast -µm resolution -easy to use -large field of view Cone-beam imaging -sub-µm resolution -dose efficient -sub-100nm source -elaborate data reconstruction Full-field microscope - 50nm resolution - imaging of phase objects 2µm2µm 2µm2µm 6µm6µm In-line phase contrast -µm resolution -easy to use -large field of view Cone-beam imaging -sub-µm resolution -dose efficient -sub-100nm source -elaborate data reconstruction Full-field microscope - 50nm resolution - imaging of phase objects - combined methods 2µm 6µm

44 Coherence hutch -Beside CXRD: -XPCS -Coherent Diffraction Imaging techniques - similar setup (Det. in transm.) - user community - scientific life - laser facility at Harwell Site Graphs courtesy I. McNulty CDI with collimated beam CDI with focused beam

45 Detectors Direct space/ Imaging CCD coupled via microscope optics to a scintillation screen Key elements: scintillation screens & detector Option FreLoN camera Reciprocal space / Coherence Direct detection Speed Dynamic range ‘Intelligent’ design (e.g. integrated auto-correlator) DIAMOND is likely to join MEDIPIX/MAXIPIX program other solutions

46 Acknowledgements DIAMOND: U. Wagner : Optics & Discussions A. Peach: Drawings M. Launchbury & M. Smith : Project Management I.Robinson : Discussions ALL people from UWG for discussions!

47 Full-field Microscopy/Imaging Flux Reasonable divergence –Full-field microscopy: ‘Köhler’ divergence –In-line phase contrast : reasonable divergent source –Option: secondary source Energy ~20keV Temperature stability of hutch Short distances OK Long distance to increase field of view

48 Concept long beamline vs intermediate focus Both are valid Long BL:Short BL no optics/simplicity Microscope: long WD&stable Lat. Coherence length really more expensive? More real estate + & who knows? Independent of beam stability long WD too Lat. Coherence: optics & depends on exp. Pb. Small pinholes Cheap? Compact DISCUSSION

49 Concept long beamline vs intermediate focus Conlusion: “Coherence only” experiments -> long BL+ “long” undulator + splitting “Some/partial” coherence ->short BL + intermediate foc. + “short” undulator In addition I believe nobody has the ultimate answer… DISCUSSION


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