Leadership Defined Bennis (1989): like beauty, (or pornography), leadership is hard to define, but you know it when you see it Chemers (1997:1): “ …a process of social influence in which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task ” Most definitions agree that leadership involves a social influence process; beyond that, scholars dispute the meaning of leadership. We define leadership broadly as a social process in which an individual or a group influences behavior toward a shared goal.
Skills Yukl (2002) and Northouse (2004) note three important categories of skills for effective leadership – Technical Skills: specialized knowledge about a specific type of work, activity, procedure, or technique – Interpersonal Skills: understanding of feelings and attitudes of others, knowing how to work with people in individual and cooperative work relationships – Conceptual Skills: ability to conceptualize, think logically, reason analytically, deductively and inductively Effective leaders need all three sets of skills.
Instructional Leadership: Alig & Hoy The effectiveness of the principal’s instructional leadership is contingent upon a climate of academic emphasis. Instructional Leadership Model postulates that effective instructional leaders perform three functions: Define and communicate goals Monitor and provide constructive feedback on teaching Promote and emphasize professional developmen t. However, such leadership will not lead to high student achievement (effectiveness) unless there is also a climate, which emphasizes academic success.
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory Fiedler (1967): First major theory to propose specific contingency relationships Situational control: power and influence leaders have to implement plans, decisions, and strategies is the situational variable – Determined by three factors: Position power Task structure Leader-member relations Effectiveness: extent to which group accomplishes primary goal Leadership Style: Task-oriented or Relations-oriented