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Chapter 13 Leadership in Schools

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1 Chapter 13 Leadership in Schools
W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

2 Leadership Defined Bennis (1989): like beauty, (or pornography), leadership is hard to define, but you know it when you see it Chemers (1997:1): “…a process of social influence in which one person is able to enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task” Most definitions agree that leadership involves a social influence process; beyond that, scholars dispute the meaning of leadership. We define leadership broadly as a social process in which an individual or a group influences behavior toward a shared goal. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

3 Life as a School Administrator
Structured observation studies reveal similar characteristics of administrative jobs across countries and organizational settings: School administrators work long hours at a physically exhausting pace School leaders rely on verbal media, and spend much time walking through the building and talking to individuals and groups Administration requires the ability to change gears and tasks frequently Span of concentration for school administrators is short—the job is fragmented and discontinuity is prevalent How does this leave room for leadership? Look to theoretical approaches of leadership for answers. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

4 Trait Approach to Leadership
Trait approach to leadership: Key leadership traits are inherited. Aristotle thought individuals were born with the qualities that would make them good leaders Bass (1990) chronicles historical approaches to leadership qualities in the US. and underscores Stogdill’s major review of the leadership research. Stogdill’s meta-analysis casts dim view on pure trait research: impact of traits varies widely from situation to situation, so a person does not become a leader based on the possession of traits alone W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

5 Personality There are some traits and skills associated with effective leadership, which can be broken into three groups: Personality, Motivation, and Skills Personality: relatively stable dispositions to behave in a particular way--four are of particular note: Self-confident leaders: more likely to set high goals and persist Stress-tolerant leaders: make good decisions, stay calm, provide decisive directions under stress Emotionally mature leaders: have accurate awareness of strengths and weaknesses, are oriented toward self-improvement Leaders with integrity: behaviors are consistent with stated values—these leaders are seen as honest, ethical, responsible, and trustworthy W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

6 Motivational Traits Motivation: set of energetic forces from both within and beyond an individual to initiate work-related behavior and determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration Four motivational traits are key for effective leaders: Task and interpersonal needs: effective leaders have drive for the task and concern for people Power needs: effective leaders seek positions of authority and are comfortable exercising influence over others Achievement orientation: effective leaders have a desire to excel, a drive to succeed, willingness to assume responsibility High expectations for success: effective leaders believe they can do the job and will receive valued outcomes for their efforts Physical traits, such as energy and activity, allow individuals to show their competence through active engagement W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

7 Skills Yukl (2002) and Northouse (2004) note three important categories of skills for effective leadership Technical Skills: specialized knowledge about a specific type of work, activity, procedure, or technique Interpersonal Skills: understanding of feelings and attitudes of others, knowing how to work with people in individual and cooperative work relationships Conceptual Skills: ability to conceptualize, think logically, reason analytically, deductively and inductively Effective leaders need all three sets of skills. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

8 Situational Approach to Leadership
Response to trait approach: Researchers tried to identify setting characteristics that influenced leader success Possible situational determinants of leadership: Structural properties of organization—size, hierarchy, formalization, technology Role characteristics—type and difficulty of task, rules, content, performance expectations, power Subordinate characteristics—education, age, knowledge, experience, tolerance for ambiguity, responsibility, power Internal environment—climate, culture, openness, participation levels, group atmosphere, values, norms External environment—complexity, stability, uncertainty, resource dependency, institutionalization It is clear that both the situation and traits are important in effective leadership; it is not one or the other. Both are needed. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

9 Leader Behavior Early conceptualizations of leadership relied on two categories of leader behavior: Emphasis on people, interpersonal relations, groups Emphasis on production, task completion, and goals Ohio State leadership studies LBDQ (leader behavior description questionnaire) studies at OSU in 1940’s measure two dimensions of leader behavior Initiating structure: delineates relationship between leader and subordinates, establishes defined patterns of organization, procedures, channels of communication. Consideration: indicates friendship, trust, warmth, interest, and respect in the relationship between the leader and members of the work group W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

10 Major findings of OSU studies
Four major findings of LBDQ studies (Halpin, 1966) Initiating structure and consideration are fundamental dimensions of leader behavior Effective leaders exhibit frequent behaviors on both dimensions Superiors and subordinates attribute success to behaviors in opposite dimensions: superiors tend to credit initiating structure behaviors; subordinates tend to credit consideration behaviors Weak relationship between leaders’ expressed beliefs on how they should behave, and subordinates’ descriptions of how leaders do behave; Knowing how to behave and behaving that way are two different events. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

11 Recent Perspectives on Leader Behavior
Same style of leader behavior is not optimal across all situations: The appropriate style depends on the situation. Yukl (2002) proposes three basic dimension to leadership: Task-oriented behaviors: clarifying roles, planning and organizing operations, monitoring organizational functions Relations-oriented behaviors: supporting, developing, recognizing, consulting, and managing conflict Change-oriented behaviors: scanning and interpreting external events, articulating an attractive vision, proposing innovative programs, appealing for change, creating a coalition to support and implement changes Leaders typically engage in all three types of behavior The particular situation plays an important role in determining best mix. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

12 Leadership Effectiveness
Both objective and subjective dimensions are used to assess leadership effectiveness Accomplishment of organizational goals ,e.g. student achievement (objective) Self-assessments(subjective) Reputation (subjective) Perceptual evaluations by significant reference groups (subjective) Overall job satisfaction of subordinates (subjective) W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

13 Contingency Models of Leadership
Contingency theory postulates that effectiveness of the leader is contingent upon the appropriate match of the leadership traits and skills with the situation. Some examples of Contingency Models: Instructional Leadership Fielder’s Contingency Model of Leadership Substitutes for Leadership Distributed Leadership W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

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15 Instructional Leadership: Alig & Hoy
The effectiveness of the principal’s instructional leadership is contingent upon a climate of academic emphasis. Instructional Leadership Model postulates that effective instructional leaders perform three functions: Define and communicate goals Monitor and provide constructive feedback on teaching Promote and emphasize professional development. However, such leadership will not lead to high student achievement (effectiveness) unless there is also a climate, which emphasizes academic success. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

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17 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory
Fiedler (1967): First major theory to propose specific contingency relationships Situational control: power and influence leaders have to implement plans, decisions, and strategies is the situational variable Determined by three factors: Position power Task structure Leader-member relations Effectiveness: extent to which group accomplishes primary goal Leadership Style: Task-oriented or Relations-oriented W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

18 Fiedler’s Three Propositions
1. In high-control situations, task-oriented leaders are more effective than relationship-oriented leaders 2. In moderate-control situations, relationship-oriented leaders are more effective than task-oriented leaders 3. In low-control situations, task-oriented leaders are more effective than relationship-oriented leaders Model tested rigorously, with mixed, but mainly supportive results Criticisms: LPC has been a moving target: first measured emotional reaction to difficult subordinates, then relationship orientation, then the leader’s motivational hierarchy W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

19 Substitutes for Leadership Model
Kerr and Jermier (1977) question basic assumption that formal leadership is necessary; their model is their alternative Substitutes: situational elements that replace or reduce a leader’s ability to influence attitudes, perceptions, or behaviors of followers Neutralizers: situational factors that prevent leader from acting in a particular way or that nullify effect of leader’s actions Three categories of situational variables have these influences: Characteristics of subordinates: abilities, training, experience, and knowledge, professional orientation, and indifference toward rewards Task characteristics: structured routine tasks, intrinsically satisfying tasks, and feedback Organizational characteristics: formalization of roles and procedures, flexibility of rules and policies, work group cohesiveness, spatial distance between administrator and followers Leadership behavior and effective performance is moderated by subordinate, task, and organizational characteristics. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

20 Distributed leadership
Distributed leadership models challenge the assumption that one person has to be in charge to make change happen; in this model leadership is an organizational quality. Distributed leadership embraces leadership by teams and groups. Spillane et al (2001, 2003):Define leadership around the technical core-- “the identification, acquisition, allocation, coordination, and use of social, material, cultural resources necessary to establish the conditions for…teaching and learning” The distribution and quality of leadership vary across a variety of situational factors; hence effective distributed leadership depends upon matching leadership teams with the appropriate situation. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

21 Transformational Leadership
Pioneers: Burns (1978), Bass (1985): Three main types of leadership Laissez-Faire leadership: absence of transactions with followers. These leaders avoid expressing views or taking action, avoid or delay decisions, ignore responsibility, provide little feedback. Most passive, least effective of three types. Transactional leadership: motivate followers by exchanging rewards for services. Leaders identify what followers want and try to provide it as reward for effort. Respond to followers’ immediate self-interest. Exchanges are economic: pursued on basis of cost-benefit. Contingent reward leadership: leader behaviors focus on role and task requirements; provide rewards contingent on performance. Active management-by-exception: leaders maintain high levels of vigilance to ensure standards are met; take corrective action quickly. Passive management-by-exception: leaders fail to intervene until problems are serious. Transformational leadership: leadership is expanded to go beyond simple exchanges and agreement. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

22 Transformational Leadership
Transformational leadership posits four main dimensions (the 4 I’s): Idealized Influence Inspirational motivation Intellectual motivation Individualized consideration W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

23 Idealized Influence Idealized influence: builds trust, respect in followers, thus forming basis for acceptance of big changes. Leaders display conviction and high standards of conduct, share risks, consider needs of others first, and never use power for personal gain. Followers admire and trust leader and thus buy into mission, even if it requires radical changes in the organization. Attributed idealized influence: followers perceive leader as being charismatic, confident, powerful, and focused on higher-order ideals. Idealized influence as behavior: charismatic actions of leaders that focus on values, beliefs, and sense of mission W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

24 Inspirational Motivation
Inspirational motivation: changes expectations of group members: problems CAN be solved Develops appealing vision to guide development of organizational goals and operating procedures Leader behaviors provide meaning, challenge for followers Project attractive and optimistic future Emphasize ambitious goals Create idealized visions for organizations Clearly communicate that vision is obtainable Results: team spirit, enthusiasm, optimism, goal commitment, shared vision within the work group W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

25 Intellectual Stimulation
Intellectual stimulation: encourage followers’ creativity—question old assumptions, traditions and beliefs, reframe problems Encourage followers to design new procedures and programs and solve problems Encourage unlearning—eliminate fixation on “way we’ve always done it” Insist on constant open examination of procedures, receptivity to change Nothing is sacred: any procedure, policy, or operation can be contested on the merits W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

26 Individualized Consideration
Individualized consideration: leaders pay particular attention to each individual’s needs for growth and achievement Leaders act as mentors—help followers and colleagues develop potential and take responsibility for own development Create new learning opportunities in supportive climate Recognize and accept individual differences in needs and values Use two-way communication, and interact personally with others W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

27 Research findings Research on transformational leadership clarifies three generalizations: Idealized influence and inspirational leadership most satisfying and effective (Avolio, 1999; Bass, 1990) Transformational leaders receive higher ratings, are perceived to lead more effective organizations, and have subordinates that exert greater effort than transactional leaders (Yukl, 1998; Bass, 1998) Transformational leadership in schools directly influences teacher perceptions of student goal achievement and student grades (Leithwood, 1994) Influences three psychological characteristics of staff: perception of school characteristics, commitment to change, and organizational learning Depends upon attending to all four “I’s”, with individualized consideration as a base Support for Leithwood’s claims from other studies: Silins (1992), Marks & Printy (2003) W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

28 Servant Leadership Servant leadership is behavior that nurtures individual development in the organization through listening, empathy, stewardship, and an awareness to develop followers who think ethically and foster sound interpersonal relations with their colleagues. The servant leader attends to individual growth, to realizing the organization’s goals, and to the ethical and moral effects on the broader community Servant leadership inverts the power pyramid to show the relative placement of leaders: The leader supports the organization and the responsibility for action is dispersed across the organization. Servant leadership stands on “seven pillars:” personal character, people first, skilled communication, compassionate collaboration, foresight, systems thinking, and moral authority W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

29 Evolutionary Leadership Theory (ELT)
The basic premise ELT is that leadership and followership emerged during the course of human evolution. Leadership and followership are psychological adaptations that have been sculpted into our brain; they are instinctive and universal and have become the natural order of things. We are programmed to live in groups, to be led, and to be obedient most of the time. ELT also postulates the particular traits associated with initiative taking and intelligence are largely inherited and propel people to power positions. Leadership has three important functions: it binds groups; it helps the group learn new things; and it teaches others how to lead. We have evolved to follow authority and we have developed an innate “follow the majority rule;” in fact, the desire to conform overwhelms the desire to be correct. The instincts of reciprocity, fairness, and hierarchy are hard wired into our psyches. ELT emphasizes followers as a vital component of leadership. Increasingly leaders need to learn how to shift their pattern of leadership as they as they interact with followers up the ladder of commitment from subordinates to supporters to loyalists to apprentices to disciples. Leaders need to be a source of inspiration for disciples, a teacher for apprentices, a defender for loyalists, a figurehead for supporters, and a provider for subordinates. W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011

30 Practical Imperatives
Know your leadership style and be flexible: There is no one best style. Match your leadership style to the situation: Effectiveness depends on the appropriate matching. “Mission first, people always:” Task achievement and supportive social relations are essential for success. Strive to be broadly effective: Your reputation, subordinate satisfaction, and goal achievement are all important aspects of effectiveness. Be both an instructional and organizational leader: Effective instructional leadership depends on a school climate of academic emphasis. Delegate and distribute leadership widely: Expertise drives success. Be inspirational, intellectual, idealistic, and tailor you leadership to your subordinates: Transformative change requires it. Lead by serving: Servant leadership creates moral authority. Make informality a virtue: Formal structures often interfere with authentic action. Be just: Favoritism and nepotism erode fairness. Avoid the Dark Triad: Narcissism, Machiavellianism, and a Psychopathy.  W. K. Hoy © 2003, 2008, 2011


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