Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Sociology: Chapter 13 - Family and Religion Roderick Graham."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Sociology: Chapter 13 - Family and Religion Roderick Graham
Family A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children Kinship A social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption Marriage A legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation as well as sexual activity and childbearing
Family: Global Variations Extended Family A family composed of parents and children as well as other kin Includes everyone with “shared blood” Nuclear Family A family composed of one or two parents and their children The nuclear family is the type we see on television and is considered the middle class ideal
Marriage Patterns Endogamy Marriage between people of the same social category Limits marriage prospects Exogamy Marriage between people of different social categories Monogamy Marriage that unites two partners Permitted by law in higher-income nations Polygamy Marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses Permitted by many lower-income nations
Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Analysis “One way of thinking about marriage and family…” The Social-Exchange Approach Describes courtship and marriage as forms of negotiation Dating allows the assessment of advantages and disadvantages of a potential spouse Terms of exchange are converging for men and women
Several distinct stages of family life across the life course Courtship and romantic love Ideal and real marriage Child rearing Family in later life
Courtship and Romantic Love Arranged Marriages Alliances between two extended families of similar social standing and usually involve an exchange not just of children but also of wealth and favors Romantic Love Affection and sexual passion toward another person Homogamy Marriage between people with the same social characteristics
Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage American culture gives idealized picture of marriage Sexuality also a source of disappointment Frequency of marital sex declines over time Infidelity Sexual activity outside marriage Another area where reality does not match the ideal
Child Rearing Big families pay off in preindustrial societies Children supplied labor High death rate Industrialization transformed children from asset to liability Parenting is expensive, lifelong commitment
Family in Later Life Increasing life expectancy in U.S. Couples who stay married do so for a longer time “Empty Nest” Requires adjustments Less sexual passion, more understanding and commitment Adults in midlife now provide more care for aging parents
“Baby Boomers” in their 60s are the “sandwich generation” Many, especially women, spend many years caring for aging parents as they did for their children Final and most difficult transition in married life Death of a spouse Wives typically outlive husbands because of greater life expectancy Challenge greater for men Fewer friends than widows Lack housekeeping skills
After marriage couples have to make the transition from “ideal” to “real” marriage. There can be problems during this transition Many times couples decide to divorce The family is the most violent group in society with the exception of the police and the military
Divorce Causes of Divorce Individualism is on the rise Romantic love fades Women are less dependent on men Many of today’s marriages are stressful Divorce is socially acceptable A divorce is easier to get
Figure 13.2 (p. 386) Divorce Rate for the United States, Over the long term, the U.S. divorce rate has gone up. Since about 1980, however, the trend has been downward. Society: The Basics, 10 th Edition by John Macionis Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Who Divorces Young couples are at greatest risk Especially after brief courtship Lack money and emotional maturity Also rises if couple marries after an unexpected pregnancy People whose parents divorce have a higher divorce rate More common if both partners have successful careers Men and women who divorce once are more likely to divorce again High-risk factors follow from one marriage to another
Divorce and Children Mothers gain custody but fathers earn more income Well-being of many children depend on court-ordered child support payments Courts award child support in 57% of all divorces involving children 3.2 million “deadbeat dads” Federal legislation requires employers to withhold money from earnings of parents who fail to pay
Remarriage and Blended Families Four out of five people who divorce remarry Blended Families Composed of children and some combination of biological parents and step-parents Blended families must define who is part of the nuclear family Adjustments are necessary Offer both young and old the chance to relax rigid family roles
Violence against Women Often unreported to police 700,000 people are victims of domestic violence each year 32% of women who are homicide victims are killed by spouses, partners, or ex-partners Women are more likely to be injured by a family member than a stranger Marital Rape Laws Found in all 50 states Communities across U.S. have shelters to provide counseling and temporary housing for women and children of domestic violence The Family and Violence
Violence against Children 3 million reports of child abuse and neglect each year 1,500 involves a child’s death Involves more than physical injury Misuse of power and trust to damage child’s well-being Child abusers conform to no stereotype More likely to be women than men All abusers share one trait All abused themselves as children The Family and Violence
Profane Occurring as an ordinary element of everyday life Sacred Set apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverence Religion A social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred Faith Belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence
Society: The Basics, 10 th Edition by John Macionis Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Sociologists categorize hundreds of different American religious organizations along a continuum Church at one end and sects at the other And then there are cults
Church Church A type of religious organization that is well-integrated into the larger society Persisted for centuries State church A church formally allied with the state Considers everyone in the society a member Denomination A church, independent of the state, that recognizes religious pluralism Hold to their own beliefs but recognizes rights of others
Sect Sect A type of religious organization apart from the larger society Rigid religious convictions, denies beliefs of others Charisma Extraordinary personal qualities that can infuse people with emotion and turn them into followers Generally form as break-away groups Actively recruit (proselytize) new members Churches and sects differ in composition Churches (high social standing); sects (social outsiders
Cults Cult A type of religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditions Most spin off from conventional religion Typically forms around a charismatic leader Because some principles and practices are unconventional, viewed as deviant or evil Many demand adoption of radical lifestyle Sometimes accused of brainwashing
Religious Commitment in the US Eight in 10 people claim “comfort and strength” from religion More than half of U.S. adults are Protestants One-fourth are Catholics 2% are Jews Religious diversity stems from constitutional ban on government sponsored religion and high immigrant population Identification with religion varies by region Religiosity The importance of religion in a person’s life
Figure 13.4 (p. 398) Religiosity in Global Perspective Religion is stronger in the U.S. than in many other nations. Source: World Values Survey (2006 Society: The Basics, 10 th Edition by John Macionis Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
National Map 13.1 Religious Membership across the United States Society: The Basics, 10 th Edition by John Macionis Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
National Map 13.2 Religious Diversity across the United States Society: The Basics, 10 th Edition by John Macionis Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
Religion is changing in the U.S. Sociologists focus on the process of: Secularization Includes Civil religion “New Age” seekers Religious revival
Secularization The historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and the sacred Commonly associated with modern, technologically advanced societies Science is the major way of understanding More likely to experience birth, illness, and death in the presence of physicians rather than church leaders Will religion disappear some day? Sociologists say no
Majority of people in U.S. profess belief in God Conservatives view secularization as a mark of moral decline Progressives view secularization as liberation from dictatorial beliefs Secularization sparked by U.S. Supreme Court ban on prayer in schools (1963)
Civil Religion A quasi-religious loyalty binding individuals in a basically secular society Religious qualities of citizenship People find religious qualities in political movements Involves a range of rituals Standing to sing the National Anthem Waving the flag at parades U.S. flag serves as a sacred symbol of our national identity and expect people to treat it with respect
Religious Revival: “Good Old-Time Religion” Fundamentalism A conservative religious doctrine that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodation in favor of restoring traditional, otherworldly religion Distinctive in five ways: Fundamentalists take the words of sacred texts literally Fundamentalists reject religious pluralism Fundamentalists pursue the personal experience of God’s presence Fundamentalists oppose “secular humanism” Many fundamentalists endorse conservative political goals