Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Sociology: Chapter 13 - Family and Religion"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Sociology: Chapter 13 - Family and Religion Roderick Graham
2FAMILY: BASIC CONCEPTS A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any childrenKinshipA social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoptionMarriageA legal relationship, usually involving economic cooperation as well as sexual activity and childbearing
3Family: Global Variations Extended FamilyA family composed of parents and children as well as other kinIncludes everyone with “shared blood”Nuclear FamilyA family composed of one or two parents and their childrenThe nuclear family is the type we see on television and is considered the middle class ideal
4Marriage Patterns Endogamy Exogamy Monogamy Polygamy Marriage between people of the same social categoryLimits marriage prospectsExogamyMarriage between people of different social categoriesMonogamyMarriage that unites two partnersPermitted by law in higher-income nationsPolygamyMarriage that unites a person with two or more spousesPermitted by many lower-income nations
5Constructing Family Life: Micro-Level Analysis “One way of thinking about marriage and family…”The Social-Exchange ApproachDescribes courtship and marriage as forms of negotiationDating allows the assessment of advantages and disadvantages of a potential spouseTerms of exchange are converging for men and women
6STAGES OF FAMILY LIFESeveral distinct stages of family life across the life courseCourtship and romantic loveIdeal and real marriageChild rearingFamily in later life
7Courtship and Romantic Love Arranged MarriagesAlliances between two extended families of similar social standing and usually involve an exchange not just of children but also of wealth and favorsRomantic LoveAffection and sexual passion toward another personHomogamyMarriage between people with the same social characteristicsArranged marriages were weakened with industrialization
8Settling In: Ideal and Real Marriage American culture gives idealized picture of marriageSexuality also a source of disappointmentFrequency of marital sex declines over timeInfidelitySexual activity outside marriageAnother area where reality does not match the ideal
9Child Rearing Big families pay off in preindustrial societies Children supplied laborHigh death rateIndustrialization transformed children from asset to liabilityParenting is expensive, lifelong commitment
10Family in Later Life Increasing life expectancy in U.S. “Empty Nest” Couples who stay married do so for a longer time“Empty Nest”Requires adjustmentsLess sexual passion, more understanding and commitmentAdults in midlife now provide more care for aging parents
11“Baby Boomers” in their 60s are the “sandwich generation” Many, especially women, spend many years caring for aging parents as they did for their childrenFinal and most difficult transition in married lifeDeath of a spouseWives typically outlive husbands because of greater life expectancyChallenge greater for menFewer friends than widowsLack housekeeping skills
12TRANSITION AND PROBLEMS IN FAMILY LIFEAfter marriage couples have to make the transition from “ideal” to “real” marriage. There can be problems during this transitionMany times couples decide to divorceThe family is the most violent group in society with the exception of the police and the military
13Divorce Causes of Divorce Individualism is on the rise Romantic love fadesWomen are less dependent on menMany of today’s marriages are stressfulDivorce is socially acceptableA divorce is easier to get
14Figure (p. 386) Divorce Rate for the United States, Over the long term, the U.S. divorce rate has gone up. Since about , however, the trend has been downward.Society: The Basics, 10th Edition by John MacionisCopyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
15Who Divorces Young couples are at greatest risk Especially after brief courtshipLack money and emotional maturityAlso rises if couple marries after an unexpected pregnancyPeople whose parents divorce have a higher divorce rateMore common if both partners have successful careersMen and women who divorce once are more likely to divorce againHigh-risk factors follow from one marriage to another
16Divorce and Children Mothers gain custody but fathers earn more income Well-being of many children depend on court-ordered child support paymentsCourts award child support in 57% of all divorces involving children3.2 million “deadbeat dads”Federal legislation requires employers to withhold money from earnings of parents who fail to pay
17Remarriage and Blended Families Four out of five people who divorce remarryBlended FamiliesComposed of children and some combination of biological parents and step-parentsBlended families must define who is part of the nuclear familyAdjustments are necessaryOffer both young and old the chance to relax rigid family roles
18The Family and Violence Violence against WomenOften unreported to police700,000 people are victims of domestic violence each year32% of women who are homicide victims are killed by spouses, partners, or ex-partnersWomen are more likely to be injured by a family member than a strangerMarital Rape LawsFound in all 50 statesCommunities across U.S. have shelters to provide counseling and temporary housing for women and children of domestic violence
19The Family and Violence Violence against Children3 million reports of child abuse and neglect each year1,500 involves a child’s deathInvolves more than physical injuryMisuse of power and trust to damage child’s well-beingChild abusers conform to no stereotypeMore likely to be women than menAll abusers share one traitAll abused themselves as children
20RELIGION: BASIC CONCEPTS ProfaneOccurring as an ordinary element of everyday lifeSacredSet apart as extraordinary, inspiring awe and reverenceReligionA social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacredFaithBelief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence
21Society: The Basics, 10th Edition by John Macionis Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
22TYPES OF RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS Sociologists categorize hundreds of different American religious organizations along a continuumChurch at one end and sects at the otherAnd then there are cults
23Church Church State church Denomination A type of religious organization that is well-integrated into the larger societyPersisted for centuriesState churchA church formally allied with the stateConsiders everyone in the society a memberDenominationA church, independent of the state, that recognizes religious pluralismHold to their own beliefs but recognizes rights of others
24Sect Sect Charisma Generally form as break-away groups A type of religious organization apart from the larger societyRigid religious convictions, denies beliefs of othersCharismaExtraordinary personal qualities that can infuse people with emotion and turn them into followersGenerally form as break-away groupsActively recruit (proselytize) new membersChurches and sects differ in compositionChurches (high social standing); sects (social outsiders
25Cults Cult Most spin off from conventional religion A type of religious organization that is largely outside a society’s cultural traditionsMost spin off from conventional religionTypically forms around a charismatic leaderBecause some principles and practices are unconventional, viewed as deviant or evilMany demand adoption of radical lifestyleSometimes accused of brainwashing
26Religious Commitment in the US Eight in 10 people claim “comfort and strength” from religionMore than half of U.S. adults are ProtestantsOne-fourth are Catholics2% are JewsReligious diversity stems from constitutional ban on government sponsored religion and high immigrant populationIdentification with religion varies by regionReligiosityThe importance of religion in a person’s life
27Figure (p. 398) Religiosity in Global Perspective Religion is stronger in the U.S. than in many other nations. Source: World Values Survey (2006Society: The Basics, 10th Edition by John MacionisCopyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
28National Map 13.1 Religious Membership across the United States Society: The Basics, 10th Edition by John MacionisCopyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
29National Map 13.2 Religious Diversity across the United States Society: The Basics, 10th Edition by John MacionisCopyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ All rights reserved.
30RELIGION IN A CHANGING SOCIETY Religion is changing in the U.S. Sociologists focus on the process of:SecularizationIncludesCivil religion“New Age” seekersReligious revival
31SecularizationThe historical decline in the importance of the supernatural and the sacredCommonly associated with modern, technologically advanced societiesScience is the major way of understandingMore likely to experience birth, illness, and death in the presence of physicians rather than church leadersWill religion disappear some day?Sociologists say no
32Majority of people in U.S. profess belief in God Conservatives view secularization as a mark of moral declineProgressives view secularization as liberation from dictatorial beliefsSecularization sparked by U.S. Supreme Court ban on prayer in schools (1963)
33Civil ReligionA quasi-religious loyalty binding individuals in a basically secular societyReligious qualities of citizenshipPeople find religious qualities in political movementsInvolves a range of ritualsStanding to sing the National AnthemWaving the flag at paradesU.S. flag serves as a sacred symbol of our national identity and expect people to treat it with respect
34Religious Revival: “Good Old-Time Religion” FundamentalismA conservative religious doctrine that opposes intellectualism and worldly accommodation in favor of restoring traditional, otherworldly religionDistinctive in five ways:Fundamentalists take the words of sacred texts literallyFundamentalists reject religious pluralismFundamentalists pursue the personal experience of God’s presenceFundamentalists oppose “secular humanism”Many fundamentalists endorse conservative political goals