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**CHAPTER 13 Capital Structure and Leverage**

Previously we were given the capital structure of a company so that we could determine its cost of capital (WACC). The WACC was effectively used to determine which investments should be undertaken: those whose Return > WACC. We are now concerned with the optimal (best) capital structure.

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**Optimal Capital Structure**

That mixture of debt and equity that maximizes the firm’s stock price Factors affecting this include: Business Risk – higher = lower debt Tax position – use of debt lowers tax Financial Flexibility – stronger B/S is good Managerial conservatism or aggressiveness – encourages use of debt to boost profits

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**Earnings before interest and taxes**

What is business risk? Uncertainty about future operating income (EBIT), assuming that the firm uses no debt Low risk Probability High risk E(EBIT) EBIT Earnings before interest and taxes

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**What determines business risk?**

Uncertainty about demand (sales). Uncertainty about output (sales) prices. Uncertainty about (input) costs. Product, other types of liability. Operating leverage.

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**What is operating leverage, and how does it affect a firm’s business risk?**

Operating leverage is the use of fixed costs rather than variable costs. If most costs are fixed, hence do not decline when demand falls, then the firm has high operating leverage.

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**Effect of operating leverage**

More operating leverage leads to more business risk, for then a small sales decline causes a big profit decline. Sales $ Rev. TC FC QBE } Profit

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**Using operating leverage**

Low operating leverage Probability High operating leverage EBITL EBITH

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**What is financial leverage? Financial risk?**

Financial leverage is the use of debt and preferred stock. Financial risk is the additional risk concentrated on common stockholders as a result of financial leverage.

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**Business risk vs. Financial risk**

Business risk depends on business factors such as competition, product liability, and operating leverage. Financial risk depends only on the types of securities issued. More debt, more financial risk. Business risk – risk borne by shareholders when there is no debt Financial risk – additional risk borne by shareholders when there is debt

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**Terminology BEP - Basic Earning Power: EBIT/Total Assets**

TIE – Times interest earned: EBIT/Interest ROA – Return on Assets: EAT(NI) /Total Assets ROE – Return on Equity: EAT(NI) /Equity

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**An example: Illustrating effects of financial leverage**

Two firms with the same operating leverage, business risk, and probability distribution of EBIT. Only differ with respect to their use of debt (capital structure). Firm U Firm L No debt $10,000 of 12% debt $20,000 in assets $20,000 in assets 40% tax rate 40% tax rate

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**Firm U: Unleveraged Economy Bad Avg. Good Prob. 0.25 0.50 0.25**

EBIT $2,000 $3,000 $4,000 Interest EBT $2,000 $3,000 $4,000 Taxes (40%) , ,600 NI $1,200 $1,800 $2,400

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**Firm L: Leveraged Economy Bad Avg. Good Prob.* 0.25 0.50 0.25**

EBIT* $2,000 $3,000 $4,000 Interest 1, , ,200 EBT $ $1,800 $2,800 Taxes (40%) ,120 NI $ $1,080 $1,680 *Same as for Firm U.

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**Ratio comparison between leveraged and unleveraged firms**

FIRM U Bad Avg Good BEP % % % ROE % % % TIE ∞ ∞ ∞ FIRM L Bad Avg Good ROE % % % TIE x x x

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**Risk and return for leveraged and unleveraged firms**

Expected Values: Firm U Firm L E(BEP) 15.0% 15.0% E(ROE) 9.0% 10.8% E(TIE) ∞ x Risk Measures: σROE 2.12% 4.24% CVROE

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Conclusions Basic earning power (BEP) is unaffected by financial leverage. L has higher expected ROE because BEP > kd. L has much wider ROE (and EPS) swings because of fixed interest charges. Its higher expected return is accompanied by higher risk.

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**Optimal Capital Structure**

That capital structure (mix of debt, preferred, and common equity) at which P0 is maximized. Trades off higher E(ROE) and EPS against higher risk. The tax-related benefits of leverage are exactly offset by the debt’s risk-related costs. The structure that maximizes P0 also minimizes WACC.

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**The sequence of events in a recapitalization.**

Campus Deli announces the recapitalization. New debt is issued. Proceeds are used to repurchase stock. The number of shares repurchased is equal to the amount of debt issued divided by price per share.

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**Cost of debt at different levels of debt, after the proposed recapitalization**

Amount D/A D/E Bond borrowed ratio ratio rating kd $ AA % A % BBB 11.5% 1, BB 14.0%

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**Why do the bond rating and cost of debt depend upon the amount borrowed?**

As the firm borrows more money, the firm increases its financial risk causing the firm’s bond rating to decrease, and its cost of debt to increase.

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**Analyze the proposed recapitalization at various levels of debt**

Analyze the proposed recapitalization at various levels of debt. Determine the EPS and TIE at each level of debt.

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**Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt**

Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt. (D = $250,000 and kd = 8%)

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**Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt**

Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt. (D = $500,000 and kd = 9%)

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**Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt**

Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt. (D = $750,000 and kd = 11.5%)

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**Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt**

Determining EPS and TIE at different levels of debt. (D = $1,000,000 and kd = 14%)

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**Stock Price, with zero growth**

If all earnings are paid out as dividends, E(g) = 0. EPS = DPS To find the expected stock price (P0), we must find the appropriate ks at each of the debt levels discussed.

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**What effect does increasing debt have on the cost of equity for the firm?**

If the level of debt increases, the riskiness of the firm increases. We have already observed the increase in the cost of debt. However, the riskiness of the firm’s equity also increases, resulting in a higher ks.

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The Hamada Equation Because the increased use of debt causes both the costs of debt and equity to increase, we need to estimate the new cost of equity. The Hamada equation attempts to quantify the increased cost of equity due to financial leverage. Uses the unlevered beta of a firm, which represents the business risk of a firm as if it had no debt.

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**The Hamada Equation βL = βU[ 1 + (1 - T) (D/E)]**

Suppose, the risk-free rate is 6%, as is the market risk premium. The unlevered beta of the firm is We were previously told that total assets were $2,000,000.

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**Calculating levered betas and costs of equity**

If D = $250, βL = 1.0 [ 1 + (0.6)($250/$1,750) ] βL = ks = kRF + (kM – kRF) βL ks = 6.0% + (6.0%) ks = 12.51%

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**Table for calculating levered betas and costs of equity**

ks 12.00% 12.51 13.20 14.16 15.60 Amount borrowed $ 250 500 750 1,000 D/A ratio 0.00% 12.50 25.00 37.50 50.00 D/E ratio 0.00% 14.29 33.33 60.00 100.00 Levered Beta 1.00 1.09 1.20 1.36 1.60

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**Finding Optimal Capital Structure**

The firm’s optimal capital structure can be determined two ways: Minimizes WACC. Maximizes stock price. Both methods yield the same results.

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**Table for calculating WACC and determining the minimum WACC**

ks 12.00% 12.51 13.20 14.16 15.60 kd (1 – T) 0.00% 4.80 5.40 6.90 8.40 Amount borrowed $ 250 500 750 1,000 D/A ratio 0.00% 12.50 25.00 37.50 50.00 E/A ratio 100.00% 87.50 75.00 62.50 50.00 WACC 12.00% 11.55 11.25 11.44 12.00 * Amount borrowed expressed in terms of thousands of dollars

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**Table for determining the stock price maximizing capital structure**

Amount Borrowed DPS k P s $ $3.00 12.00% $25.00 250,000 3.26 12.51 26.03 500,000 3.55 13.20 26.89 750,000 3.77 14.16 26.59 1,000,000 3.90 15.60 25.00

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**What debt ratio maximizes EPS?**

Maximum EPS = $3.90 at D = $1,000,000, and D/A = 50%. (Remember DPS = EPS because payout = 100%.) Risk is too high at D/A = 50%.

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% 15 ks WACC kd(1 – T) D/A .25 .50 .75 $ P0 EPS D/A .25 .50

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**What is Campus Deli’s optimal capital structure?**

P0 is maximized ($26.89) at D/A = $500,000/$2,000,000 = 25%, so optimal D/A = 25%. EPS is maximized at 50%, but primary interest is stock price, not E(EPS). The example shows that we can push up E(EPS) by using more debt, but the risk resulting from increased leverage more than offsets the benefit of higher E(EPS).

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What if there were more/less business risk than originally estimated, how would the analysis be affected? If there were higher business risk, then the probability of financial distress would be greater at any debt level, and the optimal capital structure would be one that had less debt. On the other hand, lower business risk would lead to an optimal capital structure with more debt.

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**Other factors to consider when establishing the firm’s target capital structure**

Industry average debt ratio TIE ratios under different scenarios Lender/rating agency attitudes Reserve borrowing capacity Effects of financing on control Asset structure Expected tax rate

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**How would these factors affect the target capital structure?**

Sales stability? High operating leverage? Increase in the corporate tax rate? Increase in the personal tax rate? Increase in bankruptcy costs?

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**Modigliani-Miller - Assumptions**

There are no brokerage costs There are no taxes There are no bankruptcy costs Investors can borrow at the same rate as corporations All investors have the same information as management about the firm’s future investment opportunties EBIT is not affected by the use of debt

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**Modigliani-Miller Irrelevance Theory**

Value of Stock MM result Assuming no bankruptcy costs Assuming bankruptcy costs Actual No leverage D/A D D2

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**Modigliani-Miller Irrelevance Theory**

The graph shows MM’s tax benefit vs. bankruptcy cost theory. Logical, but doesn’t tell whole capital structure story. Main problem--assumes investors have same information as managers.

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**JC Penny’s Steve Walsh on Modigliani & Miller**

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**Incorporating signaling effects**

Signaling theory suggests firms should use less debt than MM suggest. This unused debt capacity helps avoid stock sales, which depress stock price because of signaling effects.

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**What are “signaling” effects in capital structure?**

Assume: Managers have better information about a firm’s long-run value than outside investors. Managers act in the best interests of current stockholders.

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**What can managers be expected to do?**

Issue stock if they think stock is overvalued. Issue debt if they think stock is undervalued. As a result, investors view a common stock offering as a negative signal--managers think stock is overvalued.

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**Conclusions on Capital Structure**

Need to make calculations as we did, but should also recognize inputs are “guesstimates.” As a result of imprecise numbers, capital structure decisions have a large judgmental content. We end up with capital structures varying widely among firms, even similar ones in same industry.

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