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Chapter 13: Politics and Economic Life

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1 Chapter 13: Politics and Economic Life
Today I’m going to be talking about politics and economic life. As you are likely aware, these are two aspects of social life that can scarcely be separated in reality. Just think about the connections between how the economy is doing here in the United States and the effect that has on political elections (“It’s the economy, stupid” being one of the best remembered lines in modern politics). But we can take the time to break down the basics of both politics and economic life, and that is our task for today. Chapter 13: Politics and Economic Life

2 Important topics The emergence of the nation-state
Democratic systems of government Terrorism Social functions of work Modern economies The changing economy So let me outline the broad topics I’ll be covering. I will talk about the development of the nation-state as the dominant form of political organization, about what constitutes a democratic system of government, and about what terrorism is and what it looks like today. I’ll also walk through the social functions of work, the structure and organization of modern economies, and the changing makeup of the American economy. There’s lots to cover, so let’s get started.

3 Central terms Government Politics Economy
In actuality, these three are inextricably linked. To begin, I want to define three central terms: government, politics, and economy. They are, of course, very much interrelated in practice, but let’s pull the pieces apart for now. Government is the political apparatus of a state or territory. This includes the various policies, programs, and officials, as well as the structures within which they operate. Politics is the means by which power is used to affect the content and direction of government. Politics are used by politicians and others involved in governmental work. And finally, there's the economy. The economy is a set of institutions that organizes and structures the production and distribution of goods and services. I’ll start with politics and government, and then we will move on to the economy. 3

4 Power and authority Power is the ability to impose one’s beliefs or interests upon others, even in the face of resistance. Authority is the legitimate use of power. In the study of politics, you need to be able to differentiate between core ideas like power and authority. Power is being able to impose your own desires and beliefs and values on others, in spite of their possible resistance. Power, in other words, is a relationship between any set of actors—individuals, states, corporations, combinations of these—where one can justify the ability to control the other. Authority is a bit different; it is a type of power. Authority is the legitimate use of power, as by a legitimate government that is agreed on as the ruling political institution. Those who are voluntary members of many religious institutions also accept the authority of their ministers, rabbis, and so on. For our purposes today, we’ll be thinking of both power and authority in terms of governmental use. 4

5 Characteristics of a state
Organized government Territory Legal system Military force So now that we have some key terms under our belts, I want to move on to how politics actually looks. In the modern world, most politics is organized within a state. What exactly is a state? A state is a structure wherein a political apparatus (a government of some kind) is operating within a particular territory, where a legal system is present and operating, and where military force is available when needed.

6 Nation-state Modern form of state.
Has similar characteristics as a state, but also a shared sense of peoplehood. Nation-states are often associated with nationalism. Nation-states are characterized by legal sovereignty and citizenship. Today, the most common form of the state is the nation-state. On the surface of things, state and nation-state seem indistinguishable. There are, however, several characteristics that set nation-states apart from earlier forms of statehood. One important thing is the sense of peoplehood that permeates the populations of nation-states. Members of these states feel a sense of belonging and shared past and future with each other and their state. Nation-states are often—though not necessarily—associated with nationalism, which I’ll talk about in a few minutes. Nation-states also are characterized by both legal sovereignty, governmental control of a clearly defined territory, and citizenship, the system of rights and duties bestowed on members of the national community. These aspects of nation-states distinguish this new political and governmental structure from those that came before. 6

7 Nationalism Quasi-religious identification with and loyalty to the nation Not always defined by shared territory, as in religious nationalism Sometimes made up of smaller groups within a nation-state—local nationalisms As I mentioned, nationalism is frequently associated with nation-states. It is a kind of ramped-up patriotism, a quasi-religious identification with and loyalty to the nation, that has gained a reputation for potentially exclusionary social movements and actions. Certainly that is not the case with all nationalism, but that reputation has been well-earned through sometimes violent conflicts. But being a nationalist is not the same as being a member of a nation-state. First of all, nation-states do not necessarily inspire nationalism in all their members. Second, not all nationalists are devoted to an existing nation-state. Some nationalisms are defined by religion, and so members can live anywhere in the world. Some are defined in terms of states they would like to see emerge. Others still are defined by the loss of a home state, perhaps having been appropriated by a larger or more powerful state. There are even nationalist groups within still existing nation-states that unite over a sense of something that they feel has been lost over time. Can you think of examples of any of these situations? [Jewish diaspora, Palestinian nationalism, Northern Ireland, the Basque movement, etc.] 7

8 Citizenship All rights are not granted equally or fully to all citizens Civil rights Political rights Social rights Once a nation-state has been established, citizenship can begin to take root. It’s important to understand that citizenship, like nation-states themselves, is always in process. Laws can change, constitutions can be amended, and new rights may develop. There are three main types of rights that we typically see, or notice in their absence: Civil rights: These are the rights and privileges to live where and as we choose, freedoms of speech and religion, the right to own property and businesses, and to equal representation in court, among many others. As you may know, it was not until the 1960s that these rights were extended to all Americans Political rights: These are the (very hard won) rights to vote, run for office, and so on. These rights were initially limited to white men who owned property, but were gradually expanded over time to include women and minorities. Social rights: These are less clearly defined, but essentially require that all citizens enjoy the right to a basic standard of living, of economic well-being enough to support themselves. These rights are meted out differently in different nation-states, but they do encompass most of what we think of as rights and responsibilities.

9 Map 13.1 Freedom in Global Perspective
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company Map 13.1 Freedom in Global Perspective

10 What is democracy? Democracy means rule by the people. Types:
Participatory democracy Liberal democracy Constitutional monarchy Most nation-states are now republican, meaning there is no king or queen. You have a sense now of where we see democracies around the world, but I have not yet defined just what a democracy is, so let me take care of that. A democracy is a political system where decisions are made by the members of the nation-state. The degree of direct participation varies, but the basic idea is that the people rule. The three basic types include constitutional monarchies, participatory democracies, and liberal democracies. A constitutional monarchy is where a sitting monarch—king or queen—remains (mostly as a symbol of historical national identity), but where the real power is held by elected officials. A participatory democracy is one where citizens have a direct voice in all political decision making. This system was used in Ancient Greece, when citizenship itself was extremely limited, but is not typically used in large, inclusive societies. Occasionally locales will use this system to consider local issues. Finally, liberal democracy is the type of democratic system we are most familiar with. This is a system with two or more parties, where citizens are able to vote in elections for those who will represent them in voting on actual policy. Today, the majority of nation-states are republican, which simply means they have no monarchy.

11 Communism vs. democracy
In the twentieth century, an ideological battle was waged between communism and democracy. Communism is a system of one-party rule. Control is of both the political and economic systems. In 1989 a series of democratic revolutions swept communist regimes worldwide. As many of you probably know, the second half of the twentieth century involved a battle between super powers—the United States and the U.S.S.R.—representing communist and democratic systems of government. This battle, called the Cold War, was one whose outcome was seen as a path to reshaping the world. Communism is a system of one-party rule where all candidates in elections are representatives of the same party. In addition, the Party also controls the economic system. Having just learned a bit about democracy, perhaps you can see the root of the conflict in these two systems of government. What do you think might be the problem? If you said that democratic institutions saw communist countries as inherently unfree and without choice, you were right. And in 1989, countries like the United States saw themselves as vindicated when a series of revolutions overthrew communist regimes beginning in Eastern Europe and around much of the world. As your textbook indicates, between 1989 and 2005, the number of democratic nations increased from 66 to 119. Certainly the transition to democracy has not been even, smooth, or easy, but the fall of communism in so many places does suggest that in relation to the other social systems currently in place, democracy has been the more successful.

12 Why the rise of democracy?
Democracy aligns well with capitalism, and capitalism has been more successful than communism economically. Globalization has led to an imperative for knowledge, which is more available under democracy. The obvious question then, is why? Why did democracy come out on top over communism? Your textbook offers at least three important explanations: The first is that there is some affinity, some alignment, between democracy and capitalism. Since capitalism has grown to be the dominant global economic system and since it lines up well with the freedoms of democracy, democracy had a better shot than communism. A second explanation is that globalization and changes in the economy (which we will talk about in a little while) have led to increased desire and need for knowledge and information. Communist regimes were notoriously closed and secretive, thus getting in the way of economic development and free markets. Again, this gave room for democracies to expand.

13 Why the rise of democracy?
With increasing technologies and the spread of knowledge, governmental control declines. Finally, a third reason that democracies “defeated” communism in the Cold War is that with improved technologies—particularly communication and travel—it became very difficult for communist regimes to control the flow of information and knowledge. This meant that increasingly, it was more and more obvious to populations of communist states that the government was actively attempting to limit their access. Not surprisingly, many people resisted this kind of imposition of power, and as a result governments began to lose both control and legitimacy. Thus, improved technology and loss of control worked against the success of communist regimes. 13

14 Democracy in the U.S. The two-party system leads to a movement toward the middle. By 2010, though, polarization between parties was very high and party affiliation continued to decline. Voting has declined from the 1960s forward, with the exception of 2008. Interest groups play an important role. What does democracy actually look like in action? As I have pointed out, there are many kinds of democracy, so let’s just focus on our own. In the United States we have a two-party system, which occasionally engenders a third party whose life span is usually rather short. Another part of our system, one that gets very little favorable attention, is the role of interest groups. These are organized groups that seek to influence either elections or policy (or both), and they do so by having lobbyists who meet with politicians and their staffs to gather information and influence the process. What two-party systems typically do is lead toward a strong middle. That is, both the parties and the population tend to be fairly moderate. What is interesting in our current historical moment is that despite our two-party system, we seem to be in a pattern of increasing polarization. Perhaps that is related to the decline memberships of the two parties (Democrats and Republicans). Or perhaps both of those things are related to another unusual data point from 2008, which marks the highest levels of voter participation since the 1960s. Something, then, is changing or standing out in our system today. 14

15 Why is voter participation low?
No compulsory registration or voting Registration required early, leaving many citizens disqualified on Election Day Two-party system leaves many voters disaffected Full slate of local, state, and national elections can be overwhelming In a recent study of 192 countries, the United States was in 112th place in terms of voter participation (textbook, p. 371). Despite the high levels of voting in 2008, we are still significantly lower than many of our peer countries. Why? What explains the lack of participation? Well, it is likely a combination of factors, and I’ll mention a few of those. In the United States we do not have compulsory registration or voting. Though the idea of compulsory registration and voting may seem anti-democratic itself, it does, of course, lead to greater involvement. In fact, an area of our system that is often under fire is our registration process. First off, it is more or less difficult and the time demands vary depending on the state in which you live. Second, if it varies from state to state, which means that in states where the process is more difficult (for whatever reason), more potential voters are likely to sit out. Another thing that negatively influences some voters here in the United States is the two-party system. Some potential voters feel that only two extremes are represented in elections, that their vote does not really matter, and that therefore there is no reason to vote. Finally, the fact that we vote on officials at all levels is highly democratic, but also a bit overwhelming. We vote on many more levels than people in most countries, and that might well turn some voters off.

16 Theories of democracy Democratic elitism Pluralist theory Power elite
“Military-industrial complex” As you might expect, sociologists have developed theories of democracy to better understand political processes and relationships. I’m going to talk about four significant theories, and you’ll notice that there is a certain amount of overlap between them. First is democratic elitism. This theory explains that in large societies true direct democracy is not possible not only for pragmatic reasons—it is just too difficult to arrange to have everyone vote on every issue—but also because we need informed experts to make the best decisions. For this reason, large societies construct governments that are run by full-time elected officials and large bureaucracies. Weber called these the political elites. Joseph Schumpeter, another important theorist, agreed with Weber and added that democracy was really rule by the politicians, not by the people (see textbook p. 374). The second theory to consider is pluralist theory. This theory holds that democracies must represent a balance between a variety of interest groups as they attempt to influence government. This would include lobbyists, unions, corporations, and so on. The power elite is the third theory and was developed by C. Wright Mills (of sociological imagination fame). Mills claimed that the leaders of politics, the economy, and the military all come from the same, hyper-privileged segment of society, thus leading to high levels of convergence among those three sectors. He was writing in the mid-twentieth century, but even today our top leaders are rarely representative of the population. The idea of the “military-industrial complex” is not so very different. President Eisenhower warned of the dangers of too close relations between the American military and the arms industry as a relationship that could produce an unhealthy balance of power.

17 Figure 13.1 Military spending in countries that spent at
least $5 billion a year on the military, 2008 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

18 Political identification
For each statement, please indicate how much you agree or disagree on a scale of 0 to 10, with 10 meaning you completely agree and 0 meaning you completely disagree, and 5 meaning you aren’t sure whether you agree or disagree. Your score ( 0– 10) 1. Government has a responsibility to provide fi nancial support for the poor, the sick, and the elderly ________________ 2. Government must step in to protect the national economy when the market fails ________________ 3. Religious faith should focus more on promoting tolerance, social justice, and peace in society and less on opposing abortion or gay rights. ________________ 4. Cultural institutions, the arts, and public broadcasting play an important role in our society and should receive government support. ________________ 5. African Americans and other minority groups still lack the same opportunities as whites in this country ________________ 6. Immigrants today are a burden on our country because they take our jobs and abuse government benefits ________________ 7. The federal government should guarantee affordable health coverage for every American ________________ 8. The gap between rich and poor should be reduced even if it means higher taxes for the wealthy ________________ 9. Military force is the most effective way to combat terrorism and make America safe ________________ 10. America must play a leading role in addressing climate change by reducing our own greenhouse gas emissions and complying with international agreements on global warning ________________ Please number your paper and respond to the following statements on a scale of 1–10, where a 10 means you completely agree and a zero means you do not agree at all (a 5 would mean you do not particularly agree or disagree). You will not need to share your answers. [Read through the statements.] 18

19 Political identification
The following chart shows some of the ways that Democrats, Independents, and Republicans differ in their views. These responses are based on a national random sample survey of 1,400 Americans age 18 and older (Halpin and Agne 2009). How might you explain these differences? Can you conclude that there is a causal relationship, such as “being a Republican causes one to oppose national health care”? Or might the relationship be spurious, explained by some other social or demographic factor? % who indicated agreement level of 6 or higher Democrat Independent Republican 1. Government has a responsibility to provide financial support for the poor, the sick, and the elderly. 84 65 51 2. Government must step in to protect the national economy when the market fails. 75 43 3. Religious faith should focus more on promoting tolerance, social justice, and peace in society and less on opposing abortion or gay rights. 71 63 38 4. Cultural institutions, the arts, and public broadcasting play an important role in our society and should receive government support. 48 33 5. African Americans and other minority groups still lack the same opportunities as whites in this country. 60 46 36 6. Immigrants today are a burden on our country because they take our jobs and abuse government benefits. 53 7. The federal government should guarantee affordable health coverage for every American. 86 61 39 8. The gap between rich and poor should be reduced even if it means higher taxes for the wealthy. 80 57 9. Military force is the most effective way to combat terrorism and make safe. 49 74 10. must play a leading role in addressing climate change by reducing our own greenhouse gas emissions and complying 82 67 [Walk through the 10 statements and responses, clarifying that the percentages are those who answered with a “6” or above.]  ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Source: Halpin and Agne 2009. 19

20 Terrorism Terrorism is the use of violent attacks on civilians to create a climate of fear in the aim of influencing policy. Two basic types: Old-style terrorism: local aims New-style terrorism: global aims Over the past decade, terrorism has been perhaps the major source of international conflict from an American perspective. The events of September 11, 2001, changed our relationship to a phenomenon that has been taking place in many parts of the world for a very long time. The use of violence to create a climate of fear and to attempt to influence policy and power structures is what we mean when we say terrorism. Though terrorism has been around for a long time, a new type of terrorism has emerged. I want to briefly distinguish for you old- and new-style terrorism. Old-style terrorism is that which has mostly local aims and is frequently associated with local nationalist goals: for example, the Irish Republican Army (the IRA), which sought to cut off British control over Ireland used terrorist tactics to scare off the British and the Loyalists. New-style terrorism has much broader, more global aims. It may or may not be explicitly nationalism, as in its best known example, al Qaeda, which claims religious purposes. New-style terrorism is even more brutal in its methods and also has a different structure than old-style, with small cells that can be reproduced virtually anywhere. It is clear that terrorism will remain a significant approach to influencing world politics. 20

21 Work and economic life The economy shapes much of social life.
Basic concepts: Work Occupation Technology Now we are going to shift gears rather substantially and move into our discussion of economic life; keep in mind that in reality politics and the economy are intimately interrelated. I’ll start with three basic terms that you’ll see and hear repeatedly as we move on today: work, occupation, and technology. Work is, of course, the various and sundry forms of social action through which we produce goods, services, and knowledge. We’ll talk more about types of work, the meaning of work, and similar topics in a couple moments. An occupation is an organized form of paid employment (work). Typically it is a steady kind of work, but that is more true of some occupations than others. And technology, a word we have already used many times in this course, is used here to describe the application of knowledge or science to production of all of kinds. 21

22 The importance of work Work plays a role, not only in the economy, but also in an individual’s own life. Paid and unpaid work are important in providing meaning to life. Formal economy Informal economy Let me start by asking an important question: why is work so important? The question isn’t entirely rhetorical. Of course it is important in terms of production of necessary (and not-so-necessary) goods and services, but it is also more than that. Work is one of the most significant ways that human beings make meaning in life. Work is a way of seeing purpose in our existence and also helps structure and organize social groups of all shapes and sizes. One of the reasons Karl Marx was so disenchanted with capitalism was that he saw it’s structure as taking meaning out of the work people were virtually forced to do. What research has shown is that even dull or repetitive work is important for structuring our lives. And work does not have to be paid for it to be meaningful; think, for example, of parenthood or volunteering. Societies have both formal and informal economies at work. The formal economy is the arena of occupations and high technology (typically). The informal economy is all of the work that gets done without monetary compensation: housework, do-it-yourself projects, volunteer work, and so on. All this work is actually crucial to the way our society runs, it simply is not done in a formally organized way for most of us. 22

23 Work in modern societies
Highly complex division of labor (DOL)  economic interdependence Industrial work Alienation Industrial conflict Strikes Unions In modern societies the structure of the formal economy is highly complex and has an equally highly complex division of labor. In pre-modern societies everyone was a farmer or a shepherd, every family served as school, business, and doctor. Each household was virtually a replica of the next. In modern, industrial societies people do one small thing and count on the fact that other people are trained to do other things that they need. For example, someone in here probably has a parent who is a doctor. Someone else may have a parent who is a chef, someone a teacher, someone a contractor—the point is, we do different things, have different skills, so we need each other. We are interdependent. While interdependence is, by many accounts, a good thing, not everything about modern work has positive connotations. Industrial work is seen by many, Marx, for example, as being highly alienating. Assembly line work is very efficient, but perhaps less fulfilling to workers. This leaves many modern workers unsatisfied with a part of their lives that consumes most of their time. Certainly not unrelated to the nature of industrial work is the seemingly perennial problem of conflict between workers and bosses. Industrial conflict in modern societies has taken on a more organized and structured sensibility, as workers now strike and/or collectively bargain through their unions. This highly rationalized form of conflict, which is usually able to prevent work stoppage, is distinctly modern. 23

24 Capitalist economies Economic system based on private ownership and free markets Most economies in modern societies are now capitalistic. Even true of economies in technically communist states Most societies today are, if not fully capitalist, highly capitalistic. This is even true, for example, of communist China. So what does it mean to say that most economies are capitalist? A capitalist economy is one that is based on the principles of private ownership and free markets. The ideology is that a truly free market is self-regulating and helps build the healthiest, most powerful, most prosperous societies. 24

25 Modern corporations Past 100 years have seen corporate growth and the concentration of corporate capital. 200 largest U.S. financial firms account for over 50 percent of financial activity We have a situation of oligopoly more than monopoly. High-level mergers and acquisitions further this trend of consolidation. The major players in capitalist economies—in terms of volume of production and finances—are corporations. From 1900 to today, there has been an ongoing trend toward the concentration of corporate capital. This means that more money is in the hands of fewer and fewer corporations. As you can see here, the top 200 financial firms in the U.S. account for more than half of financial activity. According to the FDIC, as of August 2010, there are 7,796 such firms ( In other words, 2.5 percent of financial firms dominate over 50 percent of financial activity. That’s a lot of concentration. What we have, though, is not a monopoly, but an oligopoly. This means that a small number of firms (rather than just one) dominates some industry. The fact that corporate mergers and acquisitions are very commonplace furthers the trend of concentration of capital (money) and power. 25

26 Global business Transnational corporations operate across many countries and now constitute more than 50 percent of the world economy The U.S. share of top transnationals is declining. The rise of transnational business is intimately related to recent improvements in technology, especially transportation and communication. Another decidedly modern trait about today’s corporations is their global nature. Transnational corporations—those that have offices in more than two countries—now constitute more than half of the global economy. Given the significant advances in technology that have taken place over the past half-century, especially in terms of transportation and electronic communication, this is probably not terribly surprising. Markets grow however they can, and new technologies have meant new avenues for corporate growth. At one point in time the United States dominated the field, but other countries have now taken up this trend and are changing the dynamics. Japan, for example, has dramatically increased its share of major transnational businesses to 13 percent, while the United States has declined to 28 percent from highs in the 1960s. Clearly the United States is still the major player, but its dominance is waning a bit. 26

27 Figure 13.3 Where Does Your Car Come From?
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company Figure 13.3 Where Does Your Car Come From?

28 Changes in the economy Deskilling of workers
Decline in manual labor and manufacturing work Rise in white-collar and service work Shift to knowledge economy Increase in part-time work Aside from globalization, what are some of the important changes in our economy: One is the deskilling of workers. As production is now increasingly automated, workers do not need to be highly skilled. This means that skilled workers are left without meaningful work. On top of that, a great deal of unskilled work is being sent overseas where it can be done for less money. That loss of jobs means that there has been a steady decline in the manufacturing sector, leaving especially men without jobs or opportunities in the types of work they are accustomed to doing. The sectors that have grown have been white-collar work and what is often dubbed “pink-collar” work, or the service sector. The growth in white collar work is good for those with college educations, those who are part of the growing knowledge economy, but not for those now unemployed due to the loss of manual labor jobs. The same is true for the service sector, which is mostly made up of jobs that we have gender-typed as female. What counts as “pink-collar work”? Again, men who used to work in manufacturing are left without many options. One of the few options that is left is that of part-time, impermanent work. Part-time work may be better than no work at all, but it rarely offers benefits or security, and certainly isn’t the kind of work a family can depend upon. 28

29 Figure 13.4 The Changing Occupational Structure
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company Figure 13.4 The Changing Occupational Structure

30 Chapter 13: Politics and Economic Life
As you can see, the structure of our economy has changed rather dramatically in recent decades. If you pay attention to politics, you will know that these changes are an important part of public debate, especially in times of economic crisis like today. The connections between these two fundamental parts of modern societies become more and more obvious once you are a working and voting member of a community, a state, a country. Now you have some additional tools for thinking about both parts.

31 Clicker Questions 1. According to C. Wright Mills, the power elite is composed of a. the heads of the nation’s biggest transnational corporations. b. the top leadership of the military, the government, and business. c. the political leaders of the free world. d. the wealthiest families around the globe. Answer: B Ref: How Do Democracies Function?, p The power elite are small networks of individuals from politics, business, and the military who hold concentrated power in modern societies. 31

32 Clicker Questions 2. You walk into class ten minutes late and find your classmate Sunghoon giving a presentation on politics and economic life. He discusses the need for private ownership of the means of production; profit as incentive; free competition for markets to sell goods, acquire cheap materials, and utilize cheap labor; and expansion and investment to accumulate capital. Based on these key points, what is Sunghoon giving his presentation on? a. the essential features of capitalism b. the essential features of socialism c. the reasons why labor unions form d. the reasons why Republicans have dominated public office since the 1970s Answer: A Ref: What Are Key Elements of the Modern Economy?, p Capitalism is a way of organizing economic life that is based on the private ownership of wealth, which is invested and reinvested in order to produce profit.

33 Clicker Questions 3. According to Marx, why does worker alienation increase under capitalism? a. Workers are paid less than before. b. Work is physically harder and more complex. c. Workers have little or no control over the creation and sale of the goods they produce. d. Increasing numbers of the workers are employed by transnational corporations. Answer: C Ref: What Is the Social Significance of Work?, p With little control over their jobs, contributing only a fraction to the creation of the overall product, and having no influence over how or to whom it is eventually sold, work appears as something alien, a task that the worker must carry out in order to earn an income but that is intrinsically unsatisfying.

34 Clicker Questions 4. What is the informal economy? a. It refers to domestic labor within the home. b. It refers to transactions outside the sphere of regular employment, sometimes involving the exchange of cash for services provided, but also often involving the direct exchange of goods and services. c. It refers to transactions between small businesses. d. It refers to the economy in traditional societies. Answer: B Ref: What Is the Social Significance of Work?, p. 382

35 Clicker Questions 5. What is terrorism? a. groups of radical Muslims who wish to eliminate Western culture through any means, including violence. b. attacks on civilians designed to persuade a government to alter its policies or to damage its standing in the world c. any network of individuals that conspires to undermine the authority of a government d. attacks on civilian or military targets designed to create chaos in specific areas, and thus weaken the power of a government Answer: B Ref: What Is Terrorism?, p. 379

36 Clicker Questions 6. What is the definition of a nation-state? a. a government that lays claim to specific territories, legitimates its authority by means of a legal system and supports its rule by the control of armed forces b. a government that issues passports, establishes customs and tariffs and sets up border posts c. a government that is able to institute a tax system that is seen as legitimate by most of the population d. a government that gains the recognition of other governments as the sole legitimate ruler of a given territory Answer: A Ref: How Did the State Develop?, p. 364

37 Clicker Questions 7. What are the three rights associated with the growth of citizenship? a. civil, political, and social rights b. civil, voting, and welfare rights c. civil, social, and economic rights d. civil, human, and animal rights Answer: A Ref: How Did the State Develop?, pp. 365–366

38 Politics and Economic Life
Art Presentation Slides Chapter 13 Politics and Economic Life Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr

39 Chapter Opener Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition
Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company Chapter Opener

40 Map 13.1 Freedom in Global Perspective
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company Map 13.1 Freedom in Global Perspective

41 A U.S. Border Patrol agent drives along the wall that
Separates Nogales, Arizona, from Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, on the U.S. and Mexican border. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

42 The Barack Obama presidential campaign revolutionized
electoral politics with its use of the Internet for fundraising and organizing. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

43 Various health care advertisements from interest
groups lobbying Congress. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

44 One of the most powerful women in United States politics,
Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi (D-Cal). Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

45 Figure 13.1 Military spending in countries that spent at
least $5 billion a year on the military, 2008 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

46 An example of an old- style terrorist movement, these
Basque Nationalists are mostly concerned with territorial control and the formation of states. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

47 Factory workers at the Ford Motor Company assemble
a Model T automobile. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

48 Figure 13.2 Number of Work Stoppages Involving
1,000 Workers or More, 1947–2004 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

49 Writers Guild of America members picket outside
Paramount Studios in Los Angeles during their 2008 labor strike. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

50 Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of
their load in truck-size containers. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

51 Figure 13.3 Where Does Your Car Come From?
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company Figure 13.3 Where Does Your Car Come From?

52 Figure 13.4 The Changing Occupational Structure
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company Figure 13.4 The Changing Occupational Structure

53 Google headquarters. Knowledge-based companies, such
as Google, account for more than half of the business output in developed countries. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company

54 Globalization and Everyday Life
Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © W.W. Norton & Company Globalization and Everyday Life

55 Essentials Of Sociology
W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Art Presentation Slides Slide Set for Chapter 13 Essentials Of Sociology THIRD EDITION by Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr

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