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ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 13: Politics.

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Presentation on theme: "ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 13: Politics."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANTHONY GIDDENS ● MITCHELL DUNEIER ● RICHARD APPELBAUM ● DEBORA CARR Slides created by Shannon Anderson, Roanoke College Third Edition Chapter 13: Politics and Economic Life 1

2 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Important topics The emergence of the nation-state Democratic systems of government Terrorism Social functions of work Modern economies The changing economy 2

3 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Central terms Government Politics Economy In actuality, these three are inextricably linked. 3

4 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Power and authority Power is the ability to impose one’s beliefs or interests upon others, even in the face of resistance. Authority is the legitimate use of power. 4

5 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Characteristics of a state Organized government Territory Legal system Military force 5

6 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Nation-state Modern form of state. Has similar characteristics as a state, but also a shared sense of peoplehood. Nation-states are often associated with nationalism. Nation-states are characterized by legal sovereignty and citizenship. 6

7 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Nationalism Quasi-religious identification with and loyalty to the nation Not always defined by shared territory, as in religious nationalism Sometimes made up of smaller groups within a nation-state—local nationalisms 7

8 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Citizenship All rights are not granted equally or fully to all citizens –Civil rights –Political rights –Social rights 8

9 Map 13.1 Freedom in Global Perspective Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

10 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. What is democracy? Democracy means rule by the people. Types: –Participatory democracy –Liberal democracy –Constitutional monarchy Most nation-states are now republican, meaning there is no king or queen. 10

11 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Communism vs. democracy In the twentieth century, an ideological battle was waged between communism and democracy. Communism is a system of one-party rule. –Control is of both the political and economic systems. In 1989 a series of democratic revolutions swept communist regimes worldwide. 11

12 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Why the rise of democracy? 1.Democracy aligns well with capitalism, and capitalism has been more successful than communism economically. 2.Globalization has led to an imperative for knowledge, which is more available under democracy. 12

13 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Why the rise of democracy? 3.With increasing technologies and the spread of knowledge, governmental control declines. 13

14 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Democracy in the U.S. The two-party system leads to a movement toward the middle. By 2010, though, polarization between parties was very high and party affiliation continued to decline. Voting has declined from the 1960s forward, with the exception of Interest groups play an important role. 14

15 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Why is voter participation low? No compulsory registration or voting Registration required early, leaving many citizens disqualified on Election Day Two-party system leaves many voters disaffected Full slate of local, state, and national elections can be overwhelming 15

16 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Theories of democracy Democratic elitism Pluralist theory Power elite “Military-industrial complex” 16

17 Figure 13.1 Military spending in countries that spent at least $5 billion a year on the military, 2008 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

18 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Political identification Your score ( 0– 10) 1. Government has a responsibility to provide fi nancial support for the poor, the sick, and the elderly.________________ 2. Government must step in to protect the national economy when the market fails. ________________ 3. Religious faith should focus more on promoting tolerance, social justice, and peace in society and less on opposing abortion or gay rights. ________________ 4. Cultural institutions, the arts, and public broadcasting play an important role in our society and should receive government support. ________________ 5. African Americans and other minority groups still lack the same opportunities as whites in this country. ________________ 6. Immigrants today are a burden on our country because they take our jobs and abuse government benefits. ________________ 7. The federal government should guarantee affordable health coverage for every American. ________________ 8. The gap between rich and poor should be reduced even if it means higher taxes for the wealthy. ________________ 9. Military force is the most effective way to combat terrorism and make America safe. ________________ 10. America must play a leading role in addressing climate change by reducing our own greenhouse gas emissions and complying with international agreements on global warning. ________________ For each statement, please indicate how much you agree or disagree on a scale of 0 to 10, with 10 meaning you completely agree and 0 meaning you completely disagree, and 5 meaning you aren’t sure whether you agree or disagree. 18

19 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Political identification % who indicated agreement level of 6 or higher DemocratIndependentRepublican 1. Government has a responsibility to provide financial support for the poor, the sick, and the elderly Government must step in to protect the national economy when the market fails Religious faith should focus more on promoting tolerance, social justice, and peace in society and less on opposing abortion or gay rights Cultural institutions, the arts, and public broadcasting play an important role in our society and should receive government support African Americans and other minority groups still lack the same opportunities as whites in this country Immigrants today are a burden on our country because they take our jobs and abuse government benefits The federal government should guarantee affordable health coverage for every American The gap between rich and poor should be reduced even if it means higher taxes for the wealthy Military force is the most effective way to combat terrorism and make safe must play a leading role in addressing climate change by reducing our own greenhouse gas emissions and complying The following chart shows some of the ways that Democrats, Independents, and Republicans differ in their views. These responses are based on a national random sample survey of 1,400 Americans age 18 and older (Halpin and Agne 2009). How might you explain these differences? Can you conclude that there is a causal relationship, such as “being a Republican causes one to oppose national health care”? Or might the relationship be spurious, explained by some other social or demographic factor? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Source: Halpin and Agne

20 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Terrorism Terrorism is the use of violent attacks on civilians to create a climate of fear in the aim of influencing policy. Two basic types: –Old-style terrorism: local aims –New-style terrorism: global aims 20

21 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Work and economic life The economy shapes much of social life. Basic concepts: –Work –Occupation –Technology 21

22 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. The importance of work Work plays a role, not only in the economy, but also in an individual’s own life. Paid and unpaid work are important in providing meaning to life. –Formal economy –Informal economy 22

23 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Work in modern societies Highly complex division of labor (DOL)  economic interdependence Industrial work Alienation Industrial conflict –Strikes –Unions 23

24 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Capitalist economies Economic system based on private ownership and free markets Most economies in modern societies are now capitalistic. –Even true of economies in technically communist states 24

25 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Modern corporations Past 100 years have seen corporate growth and the concentration of corporate capital. –200 largest U.S. financial firms account for over 50 percent of financial activity –We have a situation of oligopoly more than monopoly. High-level mergers and acquisitions further this trend of consolidation. 25

26 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Global business Transnational corporations operate across many countries and now constitute more than 50 percent of the world economy The U.S. share of top transnationals is declining. The rise of transnational business is intimately related to recent improvements in technology, especially transportation and communication. 26

27 Figure 13.3 Where Does Your Car Come From? Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

28 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Changes in the economy Deskilling of workers Decline in manual labor and manufacturing work Rise in white-collar and service work Shift to knowledge economy Increase in part-time work 28

29 Figure 13.4 The Changing Occupational Structure Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

30 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint Presentation for For more learning resources, please visit our online StudySpace at: 30 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Chapter 13: Politics and Economic Life

31 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 1. According to C. Wright Mills, the power elite is composed of a. the heads of the nation’s biggest transnational corporations. b. the top leadership of the military, the government, and business. c. the political leaders of the free world. d. the wealthiest families around the globe. 31

32 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 2. You walk into class ten minutes late and find your classmate Sunghoon giving a presentation on politics and economic life. He discusses the need for private ownership of the means of production; profit as incentive; free competition for markets to sell goods, acquire cheap materials, and utilize cheap labor; and expansion and investment to accumulate capital. Based on these key points, what is Sunghoon giving his presentation on? a. the essential features of capitalism b. the essential features of socialism c. the reasons why labor unions form d. the reasons why Republicans have dominated public office since the 1970s 32

33 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 3. According to Marx, why does worker alienation increase under capitalism? a. Workers are paid less than before. b. Work is physically harder and more complex. c. Workers have little or no control over the creation and sale of the goods they produce. d. Increasing numbers of the workers are employed by transnational corporations. 33

34 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 4. What is the informal economy? a. It refers to domestic labor within the home. b. It refers to transactions outside the sphere of regular employment, sometimes involving the exchange of cash for services provided, but also often involving the direct exchange of goods and services. c. It refers to transactions between small businesses. d. It refers to the economy in traditional societies. 34

35 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 5. What is terrorism? a. groups of radical Muslims who wish to eliminate Western culture through any means, including violence. b. attacks on civilians designed to persuade a government to alter its policies or to damage its standing in the world c. any network of individuals that conspires to undermine the authority of a government d. attacks on civilian or military targets designed to create chaos in specific areas, and thus weaken the power of a government 35

36 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 6. What is the definition of a nation-state? a. a government that lays claim to specific territories, legitimates its authority by means of a legal system and supports its rule by the control of armed forces b. a government that issues passports, establishes customs and tariffs and sets up border posts c. a government that is able to institute a tax system that is seen as legitimate by most of the population d. a government that gains the recognition of other governments as the sole legitimate ruler of a given territory 36

37 © 2011 W. W. Norton Co., Inc. Clicker Questions 7. What are the three rights associated with the growth of citizenship? a. civil, political, and social rights b. civil, voting, and welfare rights c. civil, social, and economic rights d. civil, human, and animal rights 37

38 Art Presentation Slides Chapter 13 Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr Politics and Economic Life

39 Chapter Opener Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

40 Map 13.1 Freedom in Global Perspective Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

41 A U.S. Border Patrol agent drives along the wall that Separates Nogales, Arizona, from Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, on the U.S. and Mexican border. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

42 The Barack Obama presidential campaign revolutionized electoral politics with its use of the Internet for fundraising and organizing. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

43 Various health care advertisements from interest groups lobbying Congress. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

44 One of the most powerful women in United States politics, Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi (D-Cal). Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

45 Figure 13.1 Military spending in countries that spent at least $5 billion a year on the military, 2008 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

46 An example of an old- style terrorist movement, these Basque Nationalists are mostly concerned with territorial control and the formation of states. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

47 Factory workers at the Ford Motor Company assemble a Model T automobile. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

48 Figure 13.2 Number of Work Stoppages Involving 1,000 Workers or More, 1947–2004 Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

49 Writers Guild of America members picket outside Paramount Studios in Los Angeles during their 2008 labor strike. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

50 Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

51 Figure 13.3 Where Does Your Car Come From? Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

52 Figure 13.4 The Changing Occupational Structure Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

53 Google headquarters. Knowledge-based companies, such as Google, account for more than half of the business output in developed countries. Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

54 Globalization and Everyday Life Essentials Of Sociology, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company

55 W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned Essentials Of Sociology THIRD EDITION This concludes the Art Presentation Slides Slide Set for Chapter 13 by Anthony Giddens Mitchell Duneier Richard P. Appelbaum Deborah Carr


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