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David E. Culler & Costas Spanos University of California, Berkeley March 14, 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "David E. Culler & Costas Spanos University of California, Berkeley March 14, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 David E. Culler & Costas Spanos University of California, Berkeley March 14, 2011

2 Why do graduate study in UC Berkeley? 2

3 You are here! 3

4 … in Berkeley “Berkeley – the Athens of the West – is arguably the world’s best place to live.” New York Times  Fabulous restaurants, theatre, parks, scenery, weather  Culture: a community of independent thought, nonconformity “The campus of the University of California at Berkeley in springtime is about as close to Shangri-La as most mortals are likely to get.” New York Times 4

5 @ University of California, Berkeley Times Higher Education Supplement Worldwide University Ranking Academic Reputation 1. Berkeley 2. Harvard National Research Council Survey of Graduate Programs 1. Berkeley: 97% depts top MIT/Harvard: 87% 5

6 …at the dawn of a new Age Graduation Window You are here! 6

7 … of integration across vast scale years Computers Per Person 10 3 :1 1:10 6 Laptop PDA Mainframe Mini Workstation PC Cell 1:1 1:10 3 Mote! Bell’s Law: new computer class per 10 years 7

8 … in a changing World B 1/26/ RFC 675 TCP/IP WWW ARPANet Internet HTTP

9 Why do graduate study in UC Berkeley? 9

10 Why? - Facilities Soda Hall Cory Hall Sutardja- Dai Hall 10

11 Microlab – 45 years of commitment to the future 11

12 Marvell Nanolab and Sutardja-Dai CITRIS Headquarters inaugurated 2/27/

13 The best Academic Cleanroom in the World 13

14 Why? - Academic Reputation Times Higher Education Supplement Worldwide University Rankings, Engineering and Information Technology 1. Berkeley 2. MIT 3. Stanford Overall Academic Reputation 1. Berkeley 2. Harvard Times Higher Education Supplement Worldwide University Rankings, Engineering and Information Technology 1. Berkeley 2. MIT 3. Stanford Overall Academic Reputation 1. Berkeley 2. Harvard National Research Council* Overall Academic Quality 1. Berkeley (35/36 departments in top 10) 2. Stanford (31/36) 3. Harvard (26/36) National Research Council* Overall Academic Quality 1. Berkeley (35/36 departments in top 10) 2. Stanford (31/36) 3. Harvard (26/36) National Science Foundation Fellows Chosen Institution Berkeley (103 Fellows) 2. Stanford (58 Fellows) National Science Foundation Fellows Chosen Institution Berkeley (103 Fellows) 2. Stanford (58 Fellows) US News & World Report US Graduate School Rankings, 2010 Computer Science Programs 1. Berkeley/MIT/Stanford (3-way tie) Computer Engineering Programs 1. Berkeley/MIT/Stanford (3-way tie) EE/Electronics Programs 1. Berkeley/MIT/Stanford (3-way tie) US News & World Report US Graduate School Rankings, 2010 Computer Science Programs 1. Berkeley/MIT/Stanford (3-way tie) Computer Engineering Programs 1. Berkeley/MIT/Stanford (3-way tie) EE/Electronics Programs 1. Berkeley/MIT/Stanford (3-way tie) * recent numerical rankings are “work in progress” 14

15 15 Why? – Distinguished Faculty…  National Medal of Science (2)  ACM A.M.Turing Award (3)  MacArthur Prize (3)  National Academy of Sciences (10)  National Academy of Engineering (38)  IEEE Medal of Honor (3)  SIAM von Neumann Lecture Prize (2)  American Society for Engineering Education Awards (8)  C&C Promotion Prize (2)  Silicon Valley Engineering Hall of Fame (2)  Benjamin Franklin Medal (3)  Harvey Prize (1)  Honda Prize (1)  Kyoto Prize (1)  Okawa Prize (2)  National Science Foundation Awards (52)  American Academy of Arts & Sciences Fellows (15)  UC Berkeley Distinguished Teaching Award (12)  Sloan Foundation Fellowships (11)  ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award (12)  Endowed Chairs (21)  Many other ACM, IEEE, SIAM and other awards The Faculty Teach, Advise and Lead Research: ~120 Lecture hours per Year ~20 undergraduate advisees ~6 graduate students ~$600K in funded research ~2 departmental committees ~1 college or campus committee Nearly every faculty contributes to a World Class research activity.

16 Why? – New Faculty  Dr. Sylvia Ratnasamy 7/2011 Area: Networked Systems  co-inventor of Distributed Hash Tables  Scalable software routers  Theoretical formulation of “protocol simplicity”  Energy efficiency in networked systems  Internet architecture and protocols  Degrees:  B.E. from University of Pune, 1997  Ph.D. Berkeley, 2002 (Shenker and Stoica)  Topic: “A Scalable Content-Addressable Network”  Positions:  Research Staff, ICSI Center for Internet Research ( )  Senior Researcher, Intel Research Berkeley (2002- present)  Dr. Ana Arias 1/2011  Area: Physical Electronics - Printed Organic Electronics  Processed electronic materials for flexible sensors  Fully printed blast dosimeter  Correlation of deposition conditions and morphology on device performance  Solving the “coffee ring effect  Degrees:  B.S. and M.S. in physics, Federal University of Paraná, Brazil (1995, 1997). Certificate in Physics Teaching (1995)  Ph.D. in physics, University of Cambridge, 2001 (Richard H. Friend)  Topic: “Conjugated Polymer Blends Phase Separation and Three-Dimensional Thin-Film Structure for Photovoltaics”  Positions:  Group Leader/Engineer, Plastic Logic Limited ( )  Printed Electronic Devices Area Manager, Palo Alto Research Center (2003-present) 16

17 17 Why? Strong Interactions With Industry Culture of Use-Inspired Fundamental Research  Proximity to Silicon Valley  Strong industrial funding for research  Internships  Many startups

18 Create Industries, not just companies NRC CSTB 2004 – Tracks to B$ Market

19 What do our competitors say? 2010 External Review Committee Report  “If Berkeley is arguably the crown jewel of America’s research-intensive universities, then EECS is arguably the crown jewel of Berkeley.”  “It is unsurpassed as a training ground both for the next generation of scholars and for the next generation of practitioners.”  “The research programs in Berkeley EECS are arguably the best in the world. Over many decades, Berkeley EECS has consistently opened up new areas of research for others.” 19

20 Why do graduate study in UC Berkeley? 20 Because Berkeley EECS grad students change the world

21 SPICE – Simulation Program with Integrated Circuits Emphasis A. Richard Newton EE 223 (F'69), EE 225A (W'70), EE 225B (S'70) Nagel, L. W, and Pederson, D. O., SPICE (Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis), Memorandum No. ERL-M382, University of California, Berkeley, Apr. 1973

22 RISC – Reduced Instruction Set Computers M. Katevenis, R. Sherburne, D. Patterson and C. Sequin: ``The RISC II Micro-Architecture'', Proceedings of VLSI '83, Trondheim, Norway, Aug Manolis Katevenis

23 Research as “Time Travel” - the secret formula  Imagine a technologically plausible future  Create an approximation of that vision using technology that exists.  Discover what is True in that world  Empirical experience  Bashing your head, stubbing your toe, reaching epiphany  Quantitative measurement and analysis  Analytics and Foundations  Courage to ‘break trail’ and discipline to do the hard science 23

24 NOW – Scalable High Performance Clusters 24

25 10 th ANNIVERSARY REUNIONS Network of Workstations (NOW): NOW Team 2008: L-R, front row: Prof. Tom Anderson †‡ (Washington), Prof. Rich Martin ‡ (Rutgers), Prof. David Culler* †‡ (Berkeley), Prof. David Patterson* † (Berkeley). Middle row: Eric Anderson (HP Labs), Prof. Mike Dahlin †‡ (Texas), Prof. Armando Fox ‡ (Berkeley), Drew Roselli (Microsoft), Prof. Andrea Arpaci-Dusseau ‡ (Wisconsin), Lok Liu, Joe Hsu. Last row: Prof. Matt Welsh ‡ (Harvard/Google), Eric Fraser, Chad Yoshikawa, Prof. Eric Brewer* †‡ (Berkeley), Prof. Jeanna Neefe Matthews (Clarkson), Prof. Amin Vahdat ‡ (UCSD), Prof. Remzi Arpaci- Dusseau (Wisconsin), Prof. Steve Lumetta (Illinois). *3 NAE members † 4 ACM fellows ‡ 9 NSF CAREER Awards

26 Inktomi – Fast Massive Web Search Fiat Lux - High Dynamic Range Imaging Paul Gauthier Paul Debevec Fiat Lux

27 Research in Courses  First-year courses such as CS262AB (systems), CS281AB (learning), EE227AB (convex optimization) include research projects  Learn to do research in a stress-free way  Multiple courses => interdisciplinary research!  Term projects (almost) conference pub  “special topics” courses every year focus on cutting edge research areas  RISC, RAID, NOW, SPICE all started in advanced graduate courses  Launch successful projects, 1 st or 2 nd area of expertise 27

28 Computational Lens on the Sciences Costis Daskalakis Constantinos Daskalakis, Paul W. Goldberg and Christos H. Papadimitriou, The Complexity of Computing a Nash Equilibrium, In the 38th ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2006STOC 2006

29 Berkeley EECS Research Style  Work together on really important problems  No matter how hard  Have ideas with impact  Produce great students 29

30 Research Styles: Collaboration  Advisor and student working together  Most meet at least weekly  Advisor and several students working together  Several faculty and many students  Sensor Networks, ParLab, Nanolab, BWRC, BSAC  Groups of students with faculty guidance  E.g., Probabilistically Checkable Proofs - PCP 30

31 A Day at Berkeley Professors Spanos and Poolla and their typical research group meeting. 31

32 Research Retreats  Project Reviews with Outsides  Twice a year: 3-day retreat at nice place  Faculty, students, staff, industry  Industry visitors supply feedback  Faculty members listen to it!  High-intensity informal exchanges  Builds team spirit  Experience shows that research retreats are the key ingredient in the success of large-scale (10-25 person) projects 32

33 EECS  Harnessing physical processes to perform logically defined functions  Everything from band-gap phenomena to Google and Avatar  Dense interconnect between EE and CS, and increasingly between EECS and statistics 33

34 Research 34

35 Some of Our Contributions:  Berkeley Unix The first free Unix, virtual memory, foundation of Linux  Computational complexity NP-completeness  Cryptography Foundations of cryptographic protocols  Approximation hardness PCP (Probabilistically Checkable Proofs)  Devices FINFET transistor, organic semiconductors, etc.  Electrical ground fault interruptors Invented at Berkeley in the 1950s  Electronic design automation (EDA) Berkeley built this industry  Embedded systems Concurrency, real-time computing, formal foundations  Floating point IEEE 754 floating point standard  Graph algorithms Network Flow, Planar separators and embeddings  Hybrid systems Mixed discrete/continuous systems  Nanoscale electronics Photolithography, transistors, transistor models, etc.  Networking TCP/IP, foundation of the Internet, in Berkeley UNIX  Mixed-signal circuits Key contributions that make CMOS dominant MEMS systems microelectromechanical systems Model-based design Concurrent models of computation, formal foundations Modern probabilistic AI Reunified AI, learning, vision, control theory, stats Open source movement Berkeley software is truly free (vs. MIT’s GPL) Quantum computing Foundations of Quantum Complexity Theory Parallel computing Network of Workstations RAID storage systems Dominant design for large storage systems Randomized algorithms Randomness as a computational resource Relational databases An EE/CS collaboration (Stonebraker & Wong) RISC processors Reduced instruction set computers Sensor Networks Berkeley created this field Soft computing Fuzzy logic Systems theory Foundations of control, communications, signal proc. Spice Worldwide standard in circuit simulation 35

36 Our General Approach to the PhD  We want you to acquire great minds  Deep, broad, skilled in the art of creation  Much further beyond your current self than you are beyond your high-school self  It’s important to learn new ways of thinking  Multidisciplinary research projects  Courses in related areas of EE and/or CS  Courses in related disciplines: statistics, mathematics (geometry, logic, …), molecular biology, materials science, quantum physics, …  We want you to have a good time doing it  (Ask the current students about this part.)  Our approach seems to be working 36

37 Berkeley PhDs in top-15 EE depts Cal Tech Bridges, William Doyle, John Low, Steven Murray, Richard M. Perona, Pietro Rutledge, David Tai, Yu-Chong Yariv, Amnon USC Breuer, Melvin Dimakis, Alex Feinberg, Jack Hwang, Kai Kim, Eun Sok Pedram, Massoud UCLA Abidi, Asad Cabric, Danijela Chiou, Pei Yu Dolecek, Lara Jacobsen, Stephen E. Judy, Jack Markovic, Dejan Srivastava, Mani Wang, Paul K.C University of Michigan Ku, Pei-Cheng Lafortune, Stéphane Maharbiz, Michel Nguyen, XuanLong Pradhan, Sandeep Tilbury, Dawn Zhang, Zhengya Berkeley Anantharam, Venkat Bahai, Ahmad Budinger, Thomas Chang-Hasnain, Connie Hu, Chenming Lee, Edward Morgan, Nelson Newton, Richard Nguyen, Clark Niknejad, Ali Pister, Kristofer Polak, Lucien* Sastry, Shankar Shank, Charles Tomlin, Claire Van Duzer, Theodore* Varaiya, Pravin* Walrand, Jean Welch, William J.* Whinnery, John* Wu, Ming Stanford Bambos, Nick Boyd, Stephen P. De Micheli, Giovanni Dutton, Robert W. Goldsmith, Andrea Howe, Roger Kahn, Joseph McKeown, Nick Meng, Theresa Murmann, Boris Poon, Ada Wong, S. Simon Wooley, Bruce UIUC Adesida, Ilesanmi Cangellaris, Andreas Chiu, Yun DeTemple, Thomas Gross, George Hajek, Bruce Hajj, Ibrahim Kwiat, Paul Ma, Yi Pai, Anantha Rosenbaum, Elyse Viswanath, Pramod Purdue Hu, Jianghai Sands, Timothy UT Austin Arapostathis, Aristotle Baldick, Ross Chen, Ray de Veciana, Gustavo Garg, Vijay Gharpurey, Ranjit Lee, Jack Orshansky, Michael Cornell Avestimehr, Salman Molnar, Alyosha Wagner, Aaron MIT Chandrakasan, Anantha Coleman, Charles P. Daniel, Luca Goyal, Vivek Ippen, Erich Lee, Hae-Seung Sodini, Charles White, Jacob Zheng, Lizhong Harvard Wood, Robert CMU Fedder, Gary Rohrer, Ronald University of Maryland Abed, Eyad Bhattacharyya,Shuvra Gligor, Virgil La, Richard Newcomb, Robert Rosfjord, Kristine Tits, Andre Zaki, Kawthar Georgia Tech Buck, John Kornegay, Kevin Madisetti, Vijay May, Gary Milor, Linda 37

38 Berkeley PhDs in Top-16 CS Depts Univ. of Washington Borriello, Gaetano Eggers, Susan Gribble, Steven Ivory, Melody Ladner, Richard Lee, James Ruzzo, Walter UC Berkeley Asanovic, Krste Demmel, James Garcia, Daniel Hearst, Marti Katz, Randy McMains,Sara Paxson, Vern Song, Dawn Vazirani, Umesh Wagner, David Stanford University Gill, John Heer, Jeff Jurafsky, Dan Klemmer, Scott Kozyrakis, Christos Levis, Phil Motwani, Rajeev Ng, Andrew Rosenblum, Mendel Cal Tech Perona, Pietro Umans, Christopher UCLA Klinger, Allen Majumdar, Rupak Potkonjak, Miodrag Tamir, Yuval University of Wisconsin Arpaci-Dusseau, Andrea Arpaci-Dusseau, Remzi Bach, Eric Carey, Michael Chenney, Stephen Dewey, Colin Hill, Mark Klein, Sheldon Wood, David University of Michigan Chen, Pete Mao, Morley Sylvester, Dennis Newman, Mark Dutta, Prabal University of Illinois Borisov, Nikita Erickson, Jeff Hwu, Wen-mei Lumetta, Steven Wah, Ben Yu, Yizho USC Leonard Adleman UT Austin Arikan, Okan Dahlin, Mike Dhillon, Inderjit Warnow, Tandy Zuckerman, David Princeton Arora, Sanjeev Blei, David M. Funkhouser, Tom Carnegie Mellon Cooper, Eric Efros, Alexei Fedder, Gary Gibson, Garth Goldstein, Seth Gupta, Anupam Harchol-Balter, Mor Heckbert, Paul Hong, Jason Miller, Gary Rohrer, Ronald Rudich, Steven Seshan, Srini Xing, Eric P. Zhang, Hui MIT Balakrishnan, Hari Daskalakis, Costis Devadas, Srinivas Goldwasser, Shafi Lampson, Butler Liskov, Barbara Madden, Sam Micali, Silvio Rubinfeld, Ronitt Sipser, Michael Solar-Lezama, Armando Sudan, Madhu Teller, Seth Harvard Grosz, Barbara Mitzenmacher, Mike Seltzer, Margo Welsh, Matt Yale Angluin, Dana Krishnamurthy, Arvind Cornell Birman, Ken Shmoys, David 38

39 CS PhDs in top 10 CS Depts

40 Why? Because we care Attendees Cornell0 CMU2 MIT1 Princeton0 Stanford0 UIUC1 UC Berkeley34 40

41 The future of EECS  Radically new physics at the bottom: nano, quantum, negative capacitance…  Redesign the hardware stack, rethink levels of separation, retool the design industry  New machine architectures: massively parallel, probably stochastic, possibly quantum; and new ways to program them  Redesign the communication stack top-to-bottom: clean slate  Intelligent human-scale robots  Information systems that know everything  As-yet-unimagined forms of education, entertainment  Increasing extroversion: engaging with and solving the problems of society 41

42 EECS program healthier than ever  Cory 4 th floor Swarms + Post-Silicon + Photonics  Intel STC on Secure Computing  Final round for Simon Institute for Theoretical Computer Science  … 42

43 EECS is more critical than ever 43

44 A different “Graduation Window” Today 0°C Feedback Abrupt climate change Water Rising seasWater shortagesGlaciers melt Weather Storms, droughts, fires, heat waves Ecosystems Reefs damaged Species extinction Food Crop yields fall 3°C2°C1°C Global temperature change (relative to pre-industrial era) 4°C5°C 44

45 45

46 The worst thing about being at Berkeley is that you can never really be happy anywhere else - Prof. Shafi Goldwasser, MIT 46

47 47

48 Why do graduate study in UC Berkeley? 48

49 But, … 49

50 Berkeley’s financial situation  Total campus spending increased in vs  Research activity very healthy  EBI ($500M over 10 yrs) is the largest grant to any university in history  Berkeley will have 70 faculty searches next year and following  State support functions analogously to endowment, bridging gap between tuition and the operating budget  Tuition is rising, as is federal support  UC 20% drop in state support  Equivalent to ~5-6% of campus budget  In-state undergraduate tuition increased to ~ $11K (vs ~$38K peers)  Proportion of out-of-state students will go from 8% to ~20%  Actively diversifying income stream with professional masters, etc.  Stanford’s endowment lost 27% 9/08-8/09; 500+ layoffs, faculty hiring freeze  MIT’s endowment lost 21% 7/08-6/09; $125M budget cut, freeze 50

51 Didn’t the faculty have a pay cut? 51

52 % of salary covered by campus 52

53 % of salary covered by campus 53

54 % of salary covered by campus 54

55 The situation for PhD students  PhD students don’t pay fees or depend on state funds  Bit more expensive for the faculty member  Campus fellowships for EECS more than doubled in 2010  Further increase in 2011  EECS research dollars up around 15% over 5 years to ~$65M/yr  Not including new $25M NSF STC in low-power electronics  Most PhD students are paid 100% (i.e. double stipend) in summer 55

56 Campus-wide trends since 2001  40% increase in PhD applicants  Increase in offer acceptance from 45% to 55%  124 NSF fellows in 2009 (10% of US total)  110 at MIT, 72 at Stanford  Berkeley has more Sloan Fellows than any other institution, indicating quality of younger faculty  $155M for PhD fellowships in current campaign 56

57 The bottom line  All major institutions took a hit; the appropriate response is collaboration - e.g., work on federal science policy  Universities are very robust and long-lived, whether private (Harvard, MIT, Stanford) or public (Berkeley, Oxford, Cambridge)  Make a choice on the scientific merits; the rest will take care of itself 57

58 Some of Our Contributions:  Berkeley Unix The first free Unix, virtual memory, foundation of Linux  Computational complexity NP-completeness  Cryptography Foundations of cryptographic protocols  Approximation hardness PCP (Probabilistically Checkable Proofs)  Devices FINFET transistor, organic semiconductors, etc.  Electrical ground fault interruptors Invented at Berkeley in the 1950s  Electronic design automation (EDA) Berkeley built this industry  Embedded systems Concurrency, real-time computing, formal foundations  Floating point IEEE 754 floating point standard  Graph algorithms Network Flow, Planar separators and embeddings  Hybrid systems Mixed discrete/continuous systems  Nanoscale electronics Photolithography, transistors, transistor models, etc.  Networking TCP/IP, foundation of the Internet, in Berkeley UNIX  Mixed-signal circuits Key contributions that make CMOS dominant MEMS systems microelectromechanical systems Model-based design Concurrent models of computation, formal foundations Modern probabilistic AI Reunified AI, learning, vision, control theory, stats Open source movement Berkeley software is truly free (vs. MIT’s GPL) Quantum computing Foundations of Quantum Complexity Theory Parallel computing Network of Workstations RAID storage systems Dominant design for large storage systems Randomized algorithms Randomness as a computational resource Relational databases An EE/CS collaboration (Stonebraker & Wong) RISC processors Reduced instruction set computers Sensor Networks Berkeley created this field Soft computing Fuzzy logic Systems theory Foundations of control, communications, signal proc. Spice Worldwide standard in circuit simulation 58

59 Some of Our Contributions:  Berkeley Unix The first free Unix, virtual memory, foundation of Linux  Computational complexity NP-completeness  Cryptography Foundations of cryptographic protocols  Approximation hardness PCP (Probabilistically Checkable Proofs)  Devices FINFET transistor, organic semiconductors, etc.  Electrical ground fault interruptors Invented at Berkeley in the 1950s  Electronic design automation (EDA) Berkeley built this industry  Embedded systems Concurrency, real-time computing, formal foundations  Floating point IEEE 754 floating point standard  Graph algorithms Network Flow, Planar separators and embeddings  Hybrid systems Mixed discrete/continuous systems  Nanoscale electronics Photolithography, transistors, transistor models, etc.  Networking TCP/IP, foundation of the Internet, in Berkeley UNIX  Mixed-signal circuits Key contributions that make CMOS dominant MEMS systems microelectromechanical systems Model-based design Concurrent models of computation, formal foundations Modern probabilistic AI Reunified AI, learning, vision, control theory, stats Open source movement Berkeley software is truly free (vs. MIT’s GPL) Quantum computing Foundations of Quantum Complexity Theory Parallel computing Network of Workstations RAID storage systems Dominant design for large storage systems Randomized algorithms Randomness as a computational resource Relational databases An EE/CS collaboration (Stonebraker & Wong) RISC processors Reduced instruction set computers Sensor Networks Berkeley created this field Soft computing Fuzzy logic Systems theory Foundations of control, communications, signal proc. Spice Worldwide standard in circuit simulation 59

60 Some of Our Contributions:  Berkeley Unix The first free Unix, virtual memory, foundation of Linux  Computational complexity NP-completeness  Cryptography Foundations of cryptographic protocols  Approximation hardness PCP (Probabilistically Checkable Proofs)  Devices FINFET transistor, organic semiconductors, etc.  Electrical ground fault interruptors Invented at Berkeley in the 1950s  Electronic design automation (EDA) Berkeley built this industry  Embedded systems Concurrency, real-time computing, formal foundations  Floating point IEEE 754 floating point standard  Graph algorithms Network Flow, Planar separators and embeddings  Hybrid systems Mixed discrete/continuous systems  Nanoscale electronics Photolithography, transistors, transistor models, etc.  Networking TCP/IP, foundation of the Internet, in Berkeley UNIX  Mixed-signal circuits Key contributions that make CMOS dominant MEMS systems microelectromechanical systems Model-based design Concurrent models of computation, formal foundations Modern probabilistic AI Reunified AI, learning, vision, control theory, stats Open source movement Berkeley software is truly free (vs. MIT’s GPL) Quantum computing Foundations of Quantum Complexity Theory Parallel computing Network of Workstations RAID storage systems Dominant design for large storage systems Randomized algorithms Randomness as a computational resource Relational databases An EE/CS collaboration (Stonebraker & Wong) RISC processors Reduced instruction set computers Sensor Networks Berkeley created this field Soft computing Fuzzy logic Systems theory Foundations of control, communications, signal proc. Spice Worldwide standard in circuit simulation 60

61 Some of Our Contributions:  Berkeley Unix The first free Unix, virtual memory, foundation of Linux  Computational complexity NP-completeness  Cryptography Foundations of cryptographic protocols  Approximation hardness PCP (Probabilistically Checkable Proofs)  Devices FINFET transistor, organic semiconductors, etc.  Electrical ground fault interruptors Invented at Berkeley in the 1950s  Electronic design automation (EDA) Berkeley built this industry  Embedded systems Concurrency, real-time computing, formal foundations  Floating point IEEE 754 floating point standard  Graph algorithms Network Flow, Planar separators and embeddings  Hybrid systems Mixed discrete/continuous systems  Nanoscale electronics Photolithography, transistors, transistor models, etc.  Networking TCP/IP, foundation of the Internet, in Berkeley UNIX  Mixed-signal circuits Key contributions that make CMOS dominant MEMS systems microelectromechanical systems Model-based design Concurrent models of computation, formal foundations Modern probabilistic AI Reunified AI, learning, vision, control theory, stats Open source movement Berkeley software is truly free (vs. MIT’s GPL) Quantum computing Foundations of Quantum Complexity Theory Parallel computing Network of Workstations, RAID storage systems Dominant design for large storage systems Randomized algorithms Randomness as a computational resource Relational databases An EE/CS collaboration (Stonebraker & Wong) RISC processors Reduced instruction set computers Sensor Networks Berkeley created this field Soft computing Fuzzy logic Systems theory Foundations of control, communications, signal proc. Spice Worldwide standard in circuit simulation 61


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