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13.1 Can Financing Decisions Create Value?

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Presentation on theme: "13.1 Can Financing Decisions Create Value?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13: Corporate Financing Decisions and Efficient Capital Markets
13.1 Can Financing Decisions Create Value? 13.2 A Description of Efficient Capital Markets 13.3 The Different Types of Efficiency 13.4 The Evidence 13.5 Implications for Corporate Finance 13.6 Summary and Conclusions

2 13.1 Can Financing Decisions Create Value?
Earlier parts of the book show how to evaluate investment projects according the NPV criterion. The next five chapters concern financing decisions. “You can make a lot more money with smart investment decisions than with smart financing decisions.” Nonetheless, financing decisions are important: GOOD financing decisions won’t make you rich, but won’t put you out of business. BAD financing decisions can put you out of business. Quote from Brealey & Meyers

3 What Sort of Financing Decisions?
Typical financing decisions include: How much debt and equity to sell When (or if) to pay dividends When to sell debt and equity Just as we can use NPV criteria to evaluate investment decisions, we can use NPV to evaluate financing decisions.

4 How to Create Value through Financing
Fool Investors Empirical evidence suggests that it is hard to fool investors consistently. Reduce Costs or Increase Subsidies Certain forms of financing have tax advantages or carry other subsidies. Create a New Security Sometimes a firm can find a previously-unsatisfied clientele and issue new securities at favorable prices. In the long-run, this value creation is relatively small, however. Generally, creating a new security may be a positive NPV for the innovator, the first time out. But competition quickly removes the advantage.

5 A Description of Efficient Capital Markets
An efficient capital market is one in which stock prices fully reflect available information. The EMH has implications for investors and firms. Since information is reflected in security prices quickly, knowing information when it is released does an investor no good. Firms should expect to receive the fair value for securities that they sell. Firms cannot profit from fooling investors in an efficient market. Market efficiency is a funny thing: Markets are efficient precisely because there are lots of well- paid, well-financed, and smart security analysts who don’t believe that the markets are efficient…and their actions make the market efficient!

6 Reaction of Stock Price to New Information in Efficient and Inefficient Markets
Overreaction to “good news” with reversion Delayed response to “good news” Efficient market response to “good news” Days before (-) and after (+) announcement

7 Reaction of Stock Price to New Information in Efficient and Inefficient Markets
Efficient market response to “bad news” Stock Price Delayed response to “bad news” Overreaction to “bad news” with reversion Days before (-) and after (+) announcement

8 The Different Types of Efficiency
Weak Form Security prices reflect all information found in past prices and volume. Semi-Strong Form Security prices reflect all publicly available information. Strong Form Security prices reflect all information—public and private.

9 Weak Form Market Efficiency
Security prices reflect all information found in past prices and volume. If the weak form of market efficiency holds, then technical analysis is of no value. Often weak-form efficiency is represented as Pt = Pt-1 + Expected return + random error t Since stock prices only respond to new information, which by definition arrives randomly, stock prices are said to follow a random walk. Stock prices following a random walk is not the same thing as stock prices having random returns.

10 Why Technical Analysis Fails
Investor behavior tends to eliminate any profit opportunity associated with stock price patterns. Stock Price If it were possible to make big money simply by finding “the pattern” in the stock price movements, everyone would do it and the profits would be competed away. Sell Sell Buy Buy Time

11 Getting Technical Barron’s March 5, 2003

12 Getting Technical Back to Buy Low, Sell High Barron’s March 12, 2003

13 Getting Technical, continued.
Most technical indicators fall into two categories -- trend followers and overbought/oversold oscillators. The former include such tools as moving averages and pattern breakouts. The latter include such tools as the relative strength index and stochastics. All of them work great when used as designed. The problem is that most people simply apply them all the time, and that can cause problems. For example, if moving averages are trend-following tools that signal a change in trend when prices cross them, what happens when there's no trend? If we apply the commonly used 50-day moving average and prices have been in a trading range for six months, it's not uncommon for the market to cross the average many times in both directions. The result is a series of losses. So, there's nothing wrong with the tool; it's just the wrong one to use under the circumstances.

14 Getting Technical, continued
Clearly, the bull market is over. Arguably, the bear market is over, too. We can't be sure of that until more time passes. I believe it ended last July. During that market bottom, we saw a big rush to the exits in the form of a big price decline and reversal -- as well as the biggest volume on record except for the post-September 11 period. And even though the major market indexes made lower lows in October, it wasn't by much. There was neither a significantly lower low nor a significantly lower high. The classic definition of a declining trend was not met, so the bear market was broken. Even if the market undercuts those lows once again, that alone would not a bear market make. A bearish signal would come only if the market cannot trade back up to its range top in the next cycle. A lower low and a lower high would mark a new bearish trend. …the end of a bear market doesn't necessarily lead directly to a new bull market. Conditions are now ripe for a 1970s-style, decade-sized flat market (see chart 1). Sure, we could hit a new low here, but I don't believe it will be a significantly lower low.

15 Semi-Strong Form Market Efficiency
Security Prices reflect all publicly available information. Publicly available information includes: Historical price and volume information Published accounting statements. Information found in annual reports.

16 Strong Form Market Efficiency
Security Prices reflect all information— public and private. Strong form efficiency incorporates weak and semi-strong form efficiency. Strong form efficiency says that anything pertinent to the stock and known to at least one investor is already incorporated into the security’s price.

17 Relationship among Three Different Information Sets
All information relevant to a stock Information set of publicly available information Information set of past prices

18 Some Common Misconceptions
Much of the criticism of the EMH has been based on a misunderstanding of the hypothesis says and does not say.

19 What the EMH Does and Does NOT Say
Investors can throw darts to select stocks. This is almost, but not quite, true. An investor must still decide how risky a portfolio he wants based on risk aversion and the level of expected return. Prices are random or uncaused. Prices reflect information. The price CHANGE is driven by new information, which by definition arrives randomly. Therefore, financial managers cannot “time” stock and bond sales.

20 The Evidence The record on the EMH is extensive, and in large measure it is reassuring to advocates of the efficiency of markets. Studies fall into three broad categories: Are changes in stock prices random? Are there profitable “trading rules”? Event studies: does the market quickly and accurately respond to new information? The record of professionally managed investment firms.

21 Are Changes in Stock Prices Random?
Can we really tell? Many psychologists and statisticians believe that most people want to see patterns even when faced with pure randomness. People claiming to see patterns in stock price movements are probably seeing optical illusions. A matter of degree Even if we can spot patterns, we need to have returns that beat our transactions costs. Random stock price changes support weak-form efficiency.

22 What Pattern Do You See? Click on the chart, Excel will recalculate the series of random numbers automatically. You never know what you’ll see, but it’s kind of a fun game to make up projections of the stock price in the 26th period. With different patterns, you may believe that you can predict the next value in the series—even though you know it is random.

23 Event Studies: How Tests Are Structured
Event Studies are one type of test of the semi-strong form of market efficiency. This form of the EMH implies that prices should reflect all publicly available information. To test this, event studies examine prices and returns over time—particularly around the arrival of new information. Test for evidence of under reaction, overreaction, early reaction, delayed reaction around the event.

24 How Tests Are Structured (cont.)
Returns are adjusted to determine if they are abnormal by taking into account what the rest of the market did that day. The Abnormal Return on a given stock for a particular day can be calculated by subtracting the market’s return on the same day (RM) from the actual return (R) on the stock for that day: AR= R – RM The abnormal return can be calculated using the Market Model approach: AR= R – (a + bRM)

25 Event Studies: Dividend Omissions
Efficient market response to “bad news” S.H. Szewczyk, G.P. Tsetsekos, and Z. Santout “Do Dividend Omissions Signal Future Earnings or Past Earnings?” Journal of Investing (Spring 1997)

26 Event Study Results Over the years, event study methodology has been applied to a large number of events including: Dividend increases and decreases Earnings announcements Mergers Capital Spending New Issues of Stock The studies generally support the view that the market is semistrong-from efficient. In fact, the studies suggest that markets may even have some foresight into the future—in other words, news tends to leak out in advance of public announcements.

27 Issues in Examining the Results
Magnitude Issue Selection Bias Issue Lucky Event Issue Possible Model Misspecification

28 The Record of Mutual Funds
If the market is semistrong-form efficient, then no matter what publicly available information mutual-fund managers rely on to pick stocks, their average returns should be the same as those of the average investor in the market as a whole. We can test efficiency by comparing the performance of professionally managed mutual funds with the performance of a market index.

29 The Record of Mutual Funds
Taken from Lubos Pastor and Robert F. Stambaugh, “Evaluating and Investing in Equity Mutual Funds,” unpublished paper, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago (March 2000).

30 The Strong Form of the EMH
One group of studies of strong-form market efficiency investigates insider trading. A number of studies support the view that insider trading is abnormally profitable. Thus, strong-form efficiency does not seem to be substantiated by the evidence.

31 Views Contrary to Market Efficiency
Stock Market Crash of 1987 The market dropped between 20 percent and 25 percent on a Monday following a weekend during which little surprising information was released. Temporal Anomalies Turn of the year, —month, —week. Speculative Bubbles Sometimes a crowd of investors can behave as a single squirrel. The authoritative and entertaining book about speculative bubbles is “Extraordinary Popular Delusion and the Madness of Crowds” by John Mackay

32 Implications for Corporate Finance
Because information is reflected in security prices quickly, investors should only expect to obtain a normal rate of return. Awareness of information when it is released does an investor little good. The price adjusts before the investor has time to act on it. Firms should expect to receive the fair value for securities that they sell. Fair means that the price they receive for the securities they issue is the present value. Thus, valuable financing opportunities that arise from fooling investors are unavailable in efficient markets.

33 Implications for Corporate Finance
The EMH has three implications for corporate finance: The price of a company’s stock cannot be affected by a change in accounting. Financial managers cannot “time” issues of stocks and bonds using publicly available information. A firm can sell as many shares of stocks or bonds as it desires without depressing prices. There is conflicting empirical evidence on all three points.

34 Why Doesn’t Everybody Believe the EMH?
There are optical illusions, mirages, and apparent patterns in charts of stock market returns. The truth is less interesting. There is some evidence against market efficiency: Seasonality Small versus Large stocks Value versus growth stocks The tests of market efficiency are weak.

35 Summary and Conclusions
An efficient market incorporates information in security prices. There are three forms of the EMH: Weak-Form EMH Security prices reflect past price data. Semistrong-Form EMH Security prices reflect publicly available information. Strong-Form EMH Security prices reflect all information. There is abundant evidence for the first two forms of the EMH.

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