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Dr. Dinesh Katre Chief Investigator Centre of Excellence for Digital Preservation Associate Director & HOD Human-Centred Design & Computing Group C-DAC,

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Dinesh Katre Chief Investigator Centre of Excellence for Digital Preservation Associate Director & HOD Human-Centred Design & Computing Group C-DAC,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Dinesh Katre Chief Investigator Centre of Excellence for Digital Preservation Associate Director & HOD Human-Centred Design & Computing Group C-DAC, Pune, INDIA. Digital Preservation Requirements of Electronic Educational Content (A Perspective of National Digital Preservation Programme)

2 Punch cards Punch tapes Selectron tubes Magnetic tapes Audio Cassette Magnetic Drum Evolution and obsolescence of storage media

3 8-inch floppy disk 5 ¼ floppy disk 3 1/2 inch floppy disk Compact disk Hard disk DVD Evolution and obsolescence of storage media

4 Discontinued Tools, Closed Formats and Outdated Storage Devices Computer hardware Continued changes in CPU speed, memory, processing, etc. New hardware introducing new peripheral connections Operating System Upgraded versions or new OS does not run the old software Continued transition from 8bit OS to 64bit OSs and so on Software Software upgrades do not support the former file formats Proprietary and closed source software Discontinuation of software, lack of support File formats Proprietary and closed format specification Change in the format specification Discontinuation of the required software Data corruption Storage devices and media Continued reduction in size and cost of storage devices Continued increase in storage capacity and performance Polycarbonate media like CD and DVD have uncertain lifetimes (Cerf, 2010) Obsolete storage media and unavailable reading devices e.g. 5 1/4” or 3 1/2” floppies New approaches like storage virtualization Physical threats Improper storage environment (temperature, humidity, dust, light) Overuse and handling of media Natural disaster Infrastructure failure Human error Sabotage

5 Tangible versus non-tangible Electronic These & Dissertation

6 Definition Long Term Digital Preservation (LTDP) is a secure and trustworthy mechanism to ingest, process, store, manage, protect, find, access, and interpret digital information such that the same information can be used at some arbitrary point in the future in spite of obsolescence of everything: hardware, software, processes, format, people, etc. What does “Long Term” mean? How can we increase the likelihood that data generated in 2010 or earlier will still be accessible in useful form in 2020 and later? (Cerf, 2010) Data should normally be preserved and accessible for not less than 10 years for any projects, and for projects of clinical or major social, environmental or heritage importance, the data should be retained for up to 20 years“ (Research Councils UK 2008:6) An archive is expected to provide permanent or indefinite Long Term, preservation of digital information. (OAIS, 2009) Benefits Digital preservation provides benefits such as legal protection, knowledge heritage for future work / future generations, trend analysis, reuse etc. What is Digital Preservation?

7 1 Terabyte = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes B = 10 12 1 Petabyte = 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes B = 10 15 1 Exabyte = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes B = 10 18 1 Zettabyte = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes B = 10 21 Digital Universe / Digital Dark Age As per the “Digital Universe Study Report” by International Data Corporation (IDC), 2010 - Estimated Size of Digital Universe in 2010 1.2 million Petabytes or 1.2 Zettabytes Estimated Size of Digital Universe in 2020 35 Zettabytes (As all major forms of media –voice, TV, radio, print would have completed the journey from analog to digital.) Estimated Size of Unprotected Data needing protection in 2020 18,000 Exabytes

8 Sustainable Economics for a Digital Planet, Ensuring Long Term Access to Digital Information, February 2010 – A report prepared by Blue Ribbon Task Force What digital information should we preserve? Who will preserve it? Who will pay for it?

9 National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program (NDIIPP), USA – started in 2000 Network of Expertise in Long-term STOrage of Digital Resources (NESTOR), Germany – started in 2003 CASPAR - Cultural, Artistic and Scientific knowledge for Preservation, Access and Retrieval UK – started in 2006 International Trends of Digital Preservation

10 Planets: Preservation and Long-term Access through Networked Services DigitalPreservationEurope (DPE) Digital Curation Centre (DCC) APARSEN: Network of Excellence International Trends of Digital Preservation


12 Alliance for Permanent Access (APA), EU project International Trends of Digital Preservation

13 Proceedings of Indo US Workshop Panel recommendations for India’s National Digital Preservation Programme Indo-US Workshop on International Trends in Digital Preservation March 23-24, 2009

14 Dr. A. K. Chakravarti, Chairman of Expert Group Dr. Dinesh Katre, Principal Investigator (C-DAC) Dr. Gautam Bose, National Informatics Centre Ms. Renu Budhiraja, e-Governance Division, DIT Mr. Sumnesh Joshi, Unique Identification Authority of India Dr. Meena Gautam, National Archives of India Ms. Debjani Nag, Controller of Certifying Authorities Mr. Vakul Sharma, Supreme Court Dr. Mukul Sinha, Expert Software Consultants Dr. Kamalini Dutt, Doordarshan Dr. Ramesh C. Gaur, Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts Ms. Manju Mathur, All India Radio Dr. S. B. Bhattacharyya, e-Health Consultant Dr. Usha Munshi, Indian Institute of Public Administration Dr. Vandana Sinha, American Institute of Indian Studies Dr. A. Moorthy, Defence Scientific Information & Documentation Centre, DRDO Mr. Ramchandra Budihal, WIPRO Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, IBM Mr. V.V.S. Nageswara Rao, National Remote Sensing Centre, Dept of Space Mr. Zia Saquib, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing Mr. Ashok Kapoor, Reserve Bank of India Mr. Patrick Kishor, State Bank of India Mr. Sukhdev Singh, National Informatics Centre Mr. Vivek K. Srivastava, e-Governance Division, DIT Ms. Seema Sridhar, Life Insurance Corporation of India Mr. N. S. Mani, National Archives of India Mr. V. H. Jadhav, National Film Archives of India Dr. V. C. V. Rao, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing Dr. Y.K. Somayajulu, National Institute of Oceanography May 20-21, 2010 National Meet of Expert Group Members from 30 different stakeholder organizations held at C-DAC, Pune

15 National Study Report on Digital Preservation Requirements of India Volume – I Recommendations for National Digital Preservation Programme Chapter 1. Need of Digital Preservation Chapter 2. Scope of Digital Preservation in India Chapter 3. Recommendations for NDPP Volume – II Position Papers by National Expert Group Members 23 Status Reports Stakeholder Recommendations Short Term (3Yrs) and Long Term Actions (10Yrs)

16 A) Conduct research and development in digital preservation to produce the required tools, technologies, guidelines and best practices. B) Develop the pilot digital preservation repositories and provide help in nurturing the network of Trustworthy Digital Repositories (National Digital Preservation Infrastructure) as a long-term goal. C) Define the digital preservation standards by involving the experts from stakeholder organizations, consolidate and disseminate the digital preservation best practices generated through various projects under National Digital Preservation Programme, being the nodal point for pan-India digital preservation initiatives. D) Provide inputs to Department of Information Technology in the formation of national digital preservation policy and strategy by identifying and selecting the activities for the National Digital Preservation Programme. E) Spread awareness about the potential threats and risks due to digital obsolescence and the digital preservation best practices. Objectives of Centre of Excellence (C-DAC Pune) Project Duration: April 2011 to March 2014

17 Offering appropriate Delivery Information Package to Designated Users Creating a complete Archival Information Package Preparing for Valid Submission Information Package Digital Preservation of Government Archives Digital Preservation of Born Digital Records Preservation of Cultural Digital Content Digital Repository Portals for Access to Designated Users Authenticity Management and Digital Preservation Audit Portal for National Digital Preservation Program (NDPP) Domain Specific Digital Preservation and Archival Systems Digital Preservation Research & Development Digital Preservation Best Practices and Standards for e-Governance Archival Science Library Science Digital Repository 01 Digital Repository 02 Digital Repository 03 Scope of CoE-DP Project

18 Motivations for Management of Electronic Theses and Dissertations  Archive and preserve valuable scholarly / academic resources  Make it accessible to designated users  Enable further research advancements  Knowledge enhancement, problem solving  Collective growth  Comparative quality

19 Information Object Physical Object Digital Object Information Object Digital Object Bit Sequence Bit Sequence Reformatted Digital Information Born Digital Information Deteriorating due to time, changing weather, handling Less accessible Digital Surrogate Best capture of current condition More accessible Interlinking between both is needed for continuity

20 Electronic Theses & Dissertations Analysis Experimentation Data Collection Final Manuscript Software Artefacts Data Formats Raw data Dissemination

21 Electronic Theses & Dissertations Final Manuscript Dissemination ISO 19005-1 PDF/A-1a Key characteristics 1.Preserves the visual appearance of document 2.Includes visible contents like text, raster images, vector graphics, fonts, color information 3.Documents logical structure 4.100% self contained 5.Long term reproducibility - internationally accepted as a Standard for long-term electronic archiving Prohibitions 6.Information from direct or indirect external sources 7.Transparency and sound and movie actions

22 Data linked with Electronic Theses & Dissertations Databases StatisticsGraphs Images VideoAudioHyperlinks to URLs 3D Models Documents Algorithms Base Programs

23 2. DEFINITION AND CONTENT OF THESES 2.1 Definition 2.1.1 The Research Awards Rules (sr. 1.4(1)) define a thesis as 'original written work', which, for the PhD may have been published (thesis by publication), or may be comprised of video recordings, film or other works of visual or sonic arts, computer software, digital material or other non-written material. 2.1.2 ‘Written work' for a thesis, includes video recordings, film or other works of visual or sonic arts submitted by a student for examination. 2.3.2 A thesis by publication may also include video recordings, film or other works of visual or sonic arts, computer software, digital material or other non-written material for which approval has been given for submission in alternative format



26  E-thesis and dissertations  Research data  Paper publications Research Resources University Repository of Electronic Educational Content Learning Resources  Lecture notes  Power Point Slides  Audio / Video / Animations  E-learning content State Level Repository of Electronic Educational Content Univ 1 Univ 2 Univ 3 Univ 4 Univ 5 Engineering Degrees Awarded (2008) (R Banerjee, Engineering Education in India, 2008) Ph.D.s1000 Masters20000 Bachelor230000 Annual projection of Science Ph.Ds in India in 2020 - 20,000 (Education: The PhD factory, Nature, 20 April 2011)


28 Location, building architecture Server hardware / racks / KVM Storage hardware (SAN, NAS) Backup device Network Infrastructure (Switches, routers, UTM) Raised flooring Connectivity and bandwidth Disaster recovery site Physical Security Biometric Security Network Security (Firewall) Motion detection for lighting CCTV digital recorders Humidity control Cooling Fire suppression Smoke detection Redundant power supply Physical setup Trusted Digital Repository of Electronic Educational Content Electronic Educational Content

29 Key concerns in ETD and e-content preservation  Raw research data  Use of Indian languages for thesis writing  Specifications for learning objects  Version control  De-duplication  Copyright protection  Authentication  Type of data and file formats  Define the standard practices  Digital preservation strategy  Data and value sharing rules

30 India’s National Digital Preservation Programme Thank You

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