Presentation on theme: "Aurelius Augustine b. November 13, 354 d. August 28, 430 “Thou hast made us for Thee, and our heart is restless till it rests in Thee.”"— Presentation transcript:
Aurelius Augustine b. November 13, 354 d. August 28, 430 “Thou hast made us for Thee, and our heart is restless till it rests in Thee.”
Apostolic Church Apostolic Fathers Church Councils Church History Ca. 30AD590 AD1517 AD Golden Age of Church Fathers Reformation & Counter Reformation Rationalism, Revivalism, & Denominationalism Revivalism, Missions, & Modernism ? Ancient Church HistoryMedieval Church HistoryModern Church History The Pre-Reformers The First Medieval Pope The Rise of the Holy Roman Empire The Crusades The Papacy in Decline
Augustine of Hippo The Cauldron of Conversion *Africa *Parents *Education *Conversion *Disposition His Christian Service in the Church Confessions *Polemicist *Preacher *Episcopal Administrator *Theologian *Philosopher His spiritual pilgrimage & conversion as a clue to, an illustration of, the universal situation of human beings in relation to God Philosophy Practice Practical problems of the church Interior search for the truth “Vagabond Mind” Paganism Philosophy Astrology 12 to to 31 Manichaeanism Skepticism Neo-Platonism
July 386 Converted Easter 387 Baptized by Ambrose 388 Rome to write Returns to Thagaste 3 years of contemplative & literary retirement 391 Becomes presbyter 395 Elected Bishop of Hippo 430 Dies 39 years of ministry Timeline After Conversion retreat
Augustine’s unconverted life & conversion prepared him for 3 great theological battles Each of these opponents had one thing in common: they each assumed that people could, by their own virtue, set themselves apart as the ones on whom God particularly smiled. The Donatists The Pelagians The Manichaeans Augustine As A Polemicist The Nature of Evil The Fall of Man The Nature of the Church
July, 386 Augustine’s Personal Experience - “A Twice Born Man” Pelagianism The Doctrine of Grace – Its Condition & Development During the Ancient Church Grace - God’s unmerited favor shown to sinful humanity 390, RomeAugustine’s Development of “Augustianism” Pelagius – A British Ascetic ministering in Rome The Worldliness of Church Members He read Augustine’s Confessions “Give me the grace to do what you command, & command me what you will.”
Adam was made mortal and would have died whether he had sinned or not sinned The sin of Adam injured himself alone, and not the human race. New-born children are in that state in which Adam was before his fall. Neither by the death and sin of Adam does the whole race die, nor by the resurrection of Christ does the whole race rise. The Law leads to the kingdom of heaven as well as the Gospel. Even before the coming of the Lord there were men without sin. Man, as he came from the hand of God, his creator, was upright and perfect. The righteous law which God gave him spoke of life as conditional upon his obedience, and threatened death upon his disobedience. Chap 6, ¶ 1 Their sin involved us all, and by it death appertained to all. All men became dead in sin, and totally polluted in all parts and faculties of both soul and body. Chap 6, ¶ 2 The family of man is rooted in the first human pair. Chap 6, ¶ 3 The actual sins that men commit are the fruit of the corrupt nature transmitted to them by our first parents. Chap 6, ¶ 4 So far as the law is a covenant of works under which justification or condemnation is awarded, it has no application to true believers. Chap 19, ¶ 6 Sanctification... Extends to every part of man, yet remains incomplete in this life. Chap 13, ¶ 2 Conceived in sin and by nature children subject to God’s anger, the servants of sin and the subjects of death, all men are now given up to unspeakable miseries, spiritual, temporal and eternal, unless the Lord Jesus Christ sets them free. Chap 6, ¶ 3 The Main Tenets of Pelagianism
Grace dispensed thru the church & its sacraments “It is the church that gives birth to all, baptism therefore is the washing away of all sins... And the Eucharist is the food that feeds and nourishes for life.” Posse non peccare = “able (possible) not to sin” Non posse non peccara = “not able (possible) not to sin” The Development of Augustine’s Understanding Councils of Carthage in 418 & Ephesus in 431– Condemns Pelagius’ moral teachings & Coelestius 6 propositions Great opposition to Augustine’s teaching on the Fall of Man - Monasteries Synod of Orange in 529 – This synod accepts Augustine’s teachings on The Fall of Man but rejected his teaching on the Predestination & Irresistible Grace and Total Depravity – Semi-Pelagianism.
Donatism In 312, when Constantine won at the battle of Milvian Bridge, Christianity would become the official religion of the Roman Empire. The imperial patronage of the Christianity was the cause of many problems. 1.With the arm of the state, Christianity began to deny opponents religious freedom. 2.Who was to get the $ that Constantine wanted to return to the church. 2 claims for the $ going to N. Africa – Caecilian, Bishop of Carthage & the Donatists in 312 Donatists were those who opposed anything like leniency to those who had weakened in the persecutions, especially by surrendering copies of the scriptures to the authorities. They rejected Caecilian because he had been consecrated by one they considered to be a traitor. ***
Manichaeanism Manichaeanism offered soothing relief to Augustine. Augustine was not to blame that he felt this way, the Manichees told him, for he was only the pawn of greater forces that could, because Augustine was lucky and clever, be propitiated, by seeking a higher spiritual (non-material) knowledge. Security could be had without sacrifice, and guilt removed without atonement. A false teaching originating in Persian from a man called Mani. It was an amalgamation of Zoroastrianism, Gnosticism, Buddhism, & Christianity. Among other teachings, it taught a dualism – a god of goodness and a god of evil, that explains the source of conflict in the world. Augustine rejects mentally this false religion because it provided him no relief from his guilt and because it did not satisfy him intellectually. He would not openly disavow Manichaeanism until many years later. Augustine came to see that this false religion couldn’t stand up to his intellectual rigors nor could it solve his struggle with evil.
Augustine As A Preacher He lived in the Bishops house, not a monastery because of visitors. Preferred the Monastic life, wore only a layman’s cloak, rejected all invitations to feasts He was a preacher/pastor to the people in Hippo. Preaching, baptizing, catechizing, visiting the sick and administering the sacraments. His preaching was conversational in style and often elicited vocal response and applause from his congregation. He spoke from rough notes/outlines at most. Often would switch sermon during the meeting. Augustine described a pastor’s job like this – “Disturbers are to be rebuked, the low spirited to be encouraged, the infirmed to be supported, objectors confuted, the treacherous guarded against, the unskilled taught, the lazy aroused, the contentious restrained, the haughty repressed, litigants pacified, the poor relieved, the oppressed liberated, the good approved, the evil borne with, and all to be loved.”
Augustine As An Episcopal Administrator Much time spent in dealing with church problems within his control. Wayward priest abusing congregations. Roman officials in conflict with local churches. Wrestled with false teaching under his rule. He was a judge-pastor empowered to impose settlements, by arbitration on consenting parties.
Augustine As A Theologian & Philosopher Wrote influential works on the Trinity, the nature of man, evil, the nature of the Church and church discipline, the sacraments Wrote a Christian philosophy of history the City of God. Would write about grammar, dialectics, rhetoric, geometry, and arithmetic. The Intellectual head of the church – Schaff 386, Against Skeptics 386, On the Happy Life 386, On the Immortality of the Soul 387, On Music 388, On Free Will 389, On True Religion 394, An Explanation of Galatians 394, An Explanation of Romans 399, The Trinity 412, On Faith and Good Works 414, On Nature and Grace 415, On the Perfection of Righteousness 417, On the Proceedings Against Pelagius 418, On the Grace of Christ & Original Sin 421, Against Julian 426, On Grace and Free Choice 428, On the Predestination of the Saints 428, On the Gift of Perseverance
Augustine of Hippo The Cauldron of Conversion *Africa *Parents *Education *Conversion *Disposition His Christian Service in the Church Confessions *Polemicist *Preacher *Episcopal Administrator *Theologian *Philosopher His spiritual pilgrimage & conversion as a clue to, an illustration of, the universal situation of human beings in relation to God Philosophy Practice Practical problems of the church Interior search for the truth