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Schooling Strategy Goal All students achieving their potential Strategic Priorities: All students experience effective teaching Learning is nurtured by families and whenas Practice is evidence based The long view is taken: Each student’s ultimate learning success is more important than the covering of particular achievement objectives The vision, values and principles are embedded in the key competencies, the learning areas and the daily life of the school This curriculum plan has been designed to give clear guidance on the learning outcomes to be achieved throughout Opus School’s delivery programmes and to give specific targets for the basis of self review. It is not intended, however, that the overviews should be viewed as being absolutely inflexible. Teachers may use their professional judgement to determine the order of topics within any of the curriculum areas over the year, provided that the expected coverage of the curriculum area is achieved. A focus on outcomes provides clarity for curriculum design. Clearly identified and prioritised outcomes gives schools frames of reference to view the many ways in which resources could be allocated. Students are more motivated and task orientated when they understand the outcomes they are working towards and know why these are important. Teachers, students and parents find it easier to recognise, measure and discuss progress when they gave a shared understanding of the planned outcomes. The curriculum assumes that all students can learn and success but not necessarily at the same time, on the same day or in the same way. There are no limits on how many students can be successful, on how much they can learn or how rapidly they advance All students are given appropriate and sufficient opportunities to learn. They are encouraged to build on their existing learning and take it to a higher level. 2

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Vision In line with the New Zealand Curriculum Document the vision of Opua School wants to empower young people to stand tall as New Zealanders, seize opportunities, overcome obstacles and make a difference. Our Young People will be: Confident Positive in their own identity Entrepreneurial Enterprising Resilient Connected Able to relate well to others Effective users of communication tools Lifelong Learners Literate and numerate Critical and creative thinkers Active seekers and creators of knowledge Informed decision makers Actively Involved Participants in a range of contexts Contributors to the well-being of New Zealand’s social, economic and environmental lifestyles. 1. L earning outside of the classroom environment will be a feature of our school. 2. To provide and promote opportunities for the children to experience activities in the fields of the arts, culture, sports and information technology. 3. To encourage community involvement based around the facilities of the school. 3

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. NAG 1 Curriculum All children to be at or above their Chronological Age in Reading age testing All children to be at or above their appropriate writing level according to ages. All children to be at or above their age-appropriate maths stage. All children from year 4 and up are reading music notation All year 7 & 8 students have access to some career guidance Meeting the needs of gifted and talented learners Physical activity everyday P.E. Health and sports Class and school participation in many interschool events Encouragement of afterschool and weekend sports Improve organisation and communication with community Further develop swimming skill levels Maintain and extend our sustainability practices(recycling, waste management etc.) Increase the fresh fruit and vegetable growing and production Strategies Assessment for Learning Understand it –untangle it--use it Do what you do do well Writing exemplars/indicators Student voice School targets Align literacy and numeracy assessments with the national standards Strategic Plan 2012 - 2015 4

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. Student Achievement All students will be achieving at or above the National Standards by December 2012 (Reading, Writing and Mathematics) Teaching and Learning programmes Identify and target groups especially in the just below cohorts in literacy and numeracy. Set goals to move these students to the At category or better. Develop teaching skills through co-coaching, professional development, classroom visiting, staff meetings and interschool liaisons Reporting Baseline Data Set at December 2011 Outline 2012 Resourcing Assessment Term 1 PAT Asttle Numpa Probe Benchmark Star Terms 2/3/4 Glos Probe / Benchmark Staff Development community Planning 5

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The foliage represents the product or the output of the tree. This is the Knowledge or the learning product. Knowledge Literacy Numeracy Relationships Changing world History Guardianship The trunk or bole of the tree supports and assists the tree. This represents the skills, core competencies and attitudes which help learning to occur. Key Competencies (The Tool Kit) Thinking Using language, symbols and texts Participating and contributing Managing self Relating to others The roots are the foundation and source of much support. This represents the values, beliefs and cultures, heart and spirit of the learner. Values Manaakitanga me te Awhina Caring and sharing None of these aspects can exist alone. It is all interdependent. If one area is weak the tree falls and dies. In order to grow, the tree needs a suitable soil and environment. The soil represents the principles outlined in the NZC: High Expectations Community Engagement Treaty of WaitangiCoherence Cultural DiversityFuture Focus InclusionLearning to Learn 6 Curriculum Outline

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Thinking A wide range of skills to develop a creative and innovative outlook Use of language, symbols and texts. Skilled in literacy and numeracy Managing Self. Students will be self-motivated and have a ‘can do’ attitude Relating to Others. Students can interact effectively with a diverse range of people and in a variety of contexts Participating and contributing. Students as group members will make a connection with others and create opportunities for others Key competencies Key competencies make up the tool box for an Opua student. These form the basis of all learning skills. 7

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Good Teachers have: Confidence in themselves Courage to make mistakes Compassion for children Character to do their best Competence in their subjects Clarity in their objectives Communication skills Collaboration with their colleagues Connections between learning and events Challenges for themselves and their students Critical thinking to evaluate lessons, programmes and reflections Creativity to construct new approaches and lessons Curiosity to want to know more and perform better Good Teachers are Good Learners too! 8

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TARGETS All students to be at or above the National Standards by the end of the year. Focused budgeting giving priority to learning areas Professional development targeting learning areas An appointment process which appoints quality staff Utilising an Integrated curriculum approach around authentic and transdisciplinary inquiry School wide learning, planning and assessment School-wide expectations and recognition of success School wide commitment to formative assessment and evidence –based practices School support programmes for children with special needs/requirements including gifted and talented students School wide assessment will include AsTTle, National Exemplars, National Standards, PROBE, PM BENCHMARK and PAT. READING All students to be AT or Above appropriate National Standard. Guideline: Comprehension Reading Age to be AT or ABOVE chronological Age WRITING All students to be at age Year Level Appropriate level according to National Standards Guidelines: Year 1\2 Level 1 A Year 3\4 Level 2A Year 5\6 Level 3A Year 7\8 Level 4A MATHEMATICS All to students to be at or above the National Standards in relation to their year levels. Guidelines: Year 1\2 Stage 4 Year 3\4 Stage 5 Year 5\6 Stage 6 Year 7\8 Stage 7 Reporting against the targets will be based on numbers of students who reach BELOW, AT or ABOVE the National Standards. 9

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C urriculum Delivery The main curriculum outcomes, consistent with Opua School’s Charter are: To foster children’s enthusiasm and desire to learn by providing balance programmes relevant to their needs To provide positive and supportive classroom environments where the children are encouraged to take risks To encourage the children to accept challenges and set realistic goals while striving for excellence To encourage tolerance and sensitivity towards others and to foster respect for the various cultures within the school. To capitalise on the advantages of being near a port that is the base for overseas cruising yachts, where children can mix with children from other countries. To recognise and appreciate teachers’ professionalism alongside parental input within as friendly cooperative environment. To encourage teachers’ individual curriculum expertise and to utilise these strengths throughout the school. “The test of a successful education is not the amount of knowledge that a pupil takes away from a school but his appetite to know and his capacity to learn. If a school sends out children with a desire for knowledge and some idea of how to acquire and use it, it will have done its job. Too many leave school with the appetite killed and the mind loaded with undigested lumps of information” (cited in Abbot,1999) 10

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Guidelines Information should gathered through a variety of methods. Coverage sheets for each learning area will show the various formats being used in the teaching programmes Information can be gathered and recorded in a way that suits each individual teacher. Sample folders will be used school –wide to show on-going school improvement Information will be clear, concise And relevant to learning. All statements should be able to be substantiated. Data on its own is of little use. It should be used to analyse the needs. Methods of assessment should be non-threatening and feedback should be given as soon as possible to ensure that enhanced learning will be the outcome of the assessment. Children should be aware of the criteria used for assessment before completing the tasks. These criteria should be reviewed with the children on a regular basis. Achievement is measured against clear objectives, identified at the start of the unit of work. Records should be readily available for discussion with the child, other teachers, and the parents as required. 11

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Some characteristics of effective assessment It benefits students. It clarifies for them what they know and can do and what they still need to learn. When students see that they are making progress, their motivation is sustained and their confidence increases. It involves students. They discuss clarify and reflect on their goals, strategies and progress with their teachers, their parents and one another. This develops their capacities for self and peer assessment. It supports teaching and learning goals. The students understand the desired outcomes and the criteria for success. Important outcome are emphasised and the teacher give feedback that helps the students to reach the goals. It is planned and communicated. Outcomes, teaching strategies and assessment criteria are carefully matched. Students know in advance how and why they are to be assessed. The teachers programme planning is flexible so that they can make changes in response to new information, opportunities or insights. It is suited to the purpose. Information is obtained by using a range of informal and formal assessment approaches. These are chosen to suit the learning being assessed. It is valid and fair. Teachers obtain and interpret information from a range of sources and then decide on how to use the evidence it provides, based on their professional judgement. They can have most confidence in the validity of the assessment analysis when it comes from more than one assessment. 12

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Reporting on Achievement Purposes To inform the parents and the children of progress. This is done four times per year. (At the end of each school term). To form a partnership with parents for the benefit of the children’s learning To help the children set goals To provide motivation and encouragement for the children to be part of all aspects of school life. Guidelines Effective communication with parents will be established early in the year. Parents and teachers are encourage to make both formal and informal contact in ways that are appropriate for the specific need. There will be one formal parent/ teacher/student interview during the year and four written reports, and a final summary at the end of the school year. Children’s sample folders will complement both of these and will form the basis for discussion with parents about their children’s progress Written reports will provide information on achievement (Reading, writing and mathematics). Comments will be positive and specific. Interviews with parents will provide an opportunity for teachers to discuss the children’s achievement, behaviour and attitudes and will provide a forum for offering suggestions for future learning. (Goal setting) Regular newsletters will inform parents and the community about school organisation details, forthcoming events and achievements School assemblies and school sharing will be used to inform the children about general achievement and school events. Parents are encouraged to attend these assemblies. Exercise books and record books are the recognised methods of recording children’s work. Homework can give parents an indication of learning programmes and can give children an indication of strengths and weaknesses. Teachers will use their professional judgement on deciding the need, style or content of homework activities 13

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Curriculum Content The teaching programme throughout the school will give a coverage of all eight learning areas. English, Mathematics, Science, Technology, Social Studies, Arts, Health and Phys Ed and Languages. (Throughout these there is strong emphasis on literacy and numeracy) The key competencies will be developed as an integral part of the teaching programme National Curriculum is the basis for the learning programmes. Each learning area will identify focus objectives which will provide data on individual children’s progress which could be used for school wide aggregation purposes. The teachers in charge of specific learning areas will oversee the purchasing and utilisation of resources for these areas. A curriculum overview will be developed and will provide the basis for individual teacher planning. Teachers will use a planning format that suits their individual teaching styles, experience and professional judgement Each year a strategic plan will be developed which highlights the curriculum priorities for the year. 14

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Success criteria For some time many teachers have mainly focussed success criteria around end points and products, by using words/phrases like ‘By the end of the unit you will have….’ The Gillingham Study revealed that ‘product’ success criteria were relatively unhelpful to children compared with ‘ process’ success criteria. Examples of product success criteria: Learning Intention To be able to use papier mache effectively Success criterion. Everyone will have made a bowl. This success criteria is broadly what the teacher wants but it does not indicate for the children, how the learning intention is to be fulfilled. Once the success criteria have been planned and written in the short term plan, something magical follows. The activity agenda is now set, so less time is spent on the planning of the activity. There is now no mystery when asking the children for the success criteria. The lesson has been structured around those very things. The success criteria amounts to no more than getting the children to summarise the teaching points so far. Learning Intentions WALT We are learning to… WILF What I’m looking for…. Plan our lessons for, learning intentions and success criteria Give effective feedback to children, recognising their success against the learning intention and give suggestions for the ‘next steps’ in their learning 15

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Learning Intentions Make sure that the Learning Intention (Learning Objective) of the task is clear Clarify Learning Intentions It must be a whole school Approach. Children are to be told that ‘From now on you will not only be told what we want you to do for every lesson but also what we hope you will be learning’ Make it an expectation for children Teachers need to separate learning Intentions and success criteria from the task. The children need to know the difference between what we want them to do and what we want them to learn. Explain the Learning Intention in ‘Child Speak’ if necessary Learning Intentions seem to be more effective if once stated clearly, it is then followed by an invitation to create the success criteria or ‘How will we know that we have achieved this?’ Invite the children to state how we will know that this has been done. Tell the children why they are learning this. How it fits into the bigger picture or how it is relevant to everyday life. Say why this is an important thing to learn The learning intention and success criteria need to be visually displayed. WALT and WILF Write the Learning Intention and success criteria on the Board Ask the children to read aloud the learning intention. Read it out loud together 16

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ARTS School Art Statement Introduction and structure The arts develop the artistic and aesthetic dimensions of human experience. They contribute towards our intellectual ability and to our social, cultural and spiritual understandings. They are an essential element of daily living and lifelong learning Aims The aims of the arts in the New Zealand Curriculum are: To enable the students to develop literacies in dance, drama, music and the visual arts To assist students to in and develop a lifelong interest in the arts To broaden understanding and involvement in the arts of New Zealand. Literacy within the Arts Literacies in the arts involve the ability to communicate and interpret meaning in the arts disciplines. Students develop literacy in each discipline as they: Explore and use its elements, conventions, processes, techniques and technologies Investigate the discipline and artworks in relation to their social and cultural contexts. Draw on a variety of sources of motivation to develop ideas and make art works Present and respond to artworks, developing skills in conveying and interpreting meaning. Investigate the discipline and artworks in relation to their social and cultural contexts Structure The arts Curriculum has four disciplines. Dance, Drama, Music and Visual Arts 17

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Strands These disciplines are approached through four interrelated strands: Developing practical knowledge in the arts (PK) Developing ideas in the arts (DI) Communicating and interpreting the arts (CI) Understanding the arts in context(UC) Achievement objectives and levels Achievement objectives are expressed at eight levels and consideration should be given to the fluidity of the levels and the students’ individual learning within these levels. Learning in each discipline is spiral in nature and at each level it includes and builds upon learning from the previous levels Progression in Music Education The spiral curriculum emphasises a progression 0f music education from early childhood to year` 13 which will develop musical skills to match the child’s physical and intellectual ability. There is a recognised and effective order of learning in music starting from early childhood Imitating, exploring and improvising with sound Learning to sing in tune and to recognise a beat and pattern Learning to do notation and group music-making with instrumental skills Learning about a range of musical styles Learning to compose, improvise and perform a ah high level of skill School-wide Musical Activities Opua School children perform regularly at such events as school parent evenings, prizegivings, fundraisers, church services, principals’ Conferences, market days, gala days. Regatta Days and Welcome The Cruisers at The Opua Cruising Club. Programmes for these events are drawn from the year’s music programme. Because there is so much public performing there is no annual musical show. 18

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Once a week there is School Sharing. Singing and dancing are part of the weekly Sharing programme. Opua School Music Overview Years 1-3 The emphasis for these years should be on rhythm work and singing. If the groundwork in these areas is put in at this level it shows through as the children advance through the school classes. Developing practical knowledge (PK) Listening and mood The children will be encouraged to express mood, situation, occasion and culture through a variety of styles of music. This will be done by: Participation in kapa haka and school sharing Participation in End of Year Concert Participation in End of Term Talent Show Listening for patterns Listening for styles of accompaniment Recognising the difference in sound between major and minor keys Vocal and rhythmic imitation Enjoying music for its own sake Learning about programme music. i.e. Music written for specific occasions or purposes such as TV themes, Olympic/Commonwealth Games etc. 19

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Developing Ideas in Music Dynamics and Timbre The children will learn to recognise that the use of expression and different form s of accompaniment will enhance a piece of music through: The use of dynamics where appropriate The use of staccato and legato the use of body percussion, un-tuned percussion and found objects to accompany songs Texture Children will learn to recognise that a difference can be made to a piece of music by: using un-tuned percussion and body percussion as an improvised or directed accompaniment singing known songs with and without an accompaniment Communicating and Interpreting in Music (CI) Singing A wide range of songs will be taught including those that involve echo-singing and improvisation. New songs will be drawn from mainly ‘Love To…’ Songbooks and ABC Sing & Singalong 1990-2006 Moving Children will be encouraged to express feelings through a variety of styles of music. This will be done by: Undirected movement that is appropriate response to a variety of styles of music Directed movement to known songs Lines dances and dances from, folk dances, new wave folk dance, ballroom Jump Jam Videos, CD’s, DVD’s and tapes 20

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KAPA HAKA Once a week for one hour. Understanding Music in Context (UC) Music appreciation This will happen incidentally within the lessons as many different styles of music will be used. Music from other countries will be explored as it arises. Year 4-8 For these children the emphasis should be on the continuation of note reading skills through recorder playing which can later be readily translated to other instruments. Creating and appreciating music should be covered as well to provide a balanced programme. Developing practical knowledge Listening and Mood Children will be encouraged to express mod, situation, occasion and culture through a variety of styles of music. this will be done by: Participation in Kapa Haka and School Sharing Participation in End of Term Talent shows Recognising melodic and rhythmic patterns involving repetition and contrast recognise the difference in sound between major and minor keys Enjoying music for its own sake Learning about programme music Developing Ideas in Music (DI) Dynamics and Timbre Pianissimo to fortissimo Using body percussion and untuned percussion to accompany or enhance or as part of instrumental works Harmony and Texture Layers of instrumental and vocal sounds Rounds, partner songs and descants Harmonies and descants in instrumental work 21

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Communicating and Interpreting Music (CI) Melody Conventional music notation Middle C to A’ including all chromatic notes G Maj, F Maj, Bb Maj D Maj Key signatures Class music making using recorders Simple duple, triple quadruple time signatures triplets, tied notes and rests Repeat signs and Italian Terms for find way around music Singing New songs drawn mainly from Sing And Sing Along Booklets Movement Directional movement through line dancing and folk dancing Traditional dances from other countries. New wave Folk dance Ballroom Dance Jump Jam Videos and tapes Improvised and self choreographed dances in groups or classes. Performance Many performance opportunities both for the children and by the children will be offered. All children from year 4 to 8 will be in the orchestra and will be expected to perform in public. Violin and guitar lesson are offered to these children Understanding Music in context (UC) Music Appreciation This will happen incidentally within the lessons as many different styles of music will be used. Music from other countries will be explored as it arises. 22

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Visual Art Introduction The visual arts comprise a broad range of conceptual material and dimensional forms through which we communicate, learn about ourselves and make meaning of the world.. They involve people making objects and images through which ideas, experiences and feelings are made tangible. The visual arts link social, cultural and spiritual action and belief and reflect our relationships with other people and the environment. Visual Art Strands Achievement Objectives and Indicators Learning the languages of the visual arts. In this strand students learn and use the language of the visual arts in making objects and images. They learn to identify, select and structure visual elements to communicate ideas in making two dimensional, three dimensional and time based works. They become fluent in visual art processes through experiences in a variety of forms, such as painting, sculpture and video. Students explore the relationships between elements and principles, and they use art making conventions and pictorial ands spatial devices to organise their ideas. They investigate the properties of materials and media and use tools and technologies to develop skills in a range of techniques. Developing Ideas in the Visual Arts. In this strand students initiate and develop ideas through observation, imagination and invention with materials. They also develop ideas in response to experience and feelings and as they reflect on their own art making. They learn to source ideas and to develop and organise them in ways that communicate their intentions. Students use selected drawing methods to explore and develop their ideas. They learn ways to conceptualise their ideas and express them through a range of media and materials. They reflection, test, clarify and regenerate ideas and they solve problems, individually and collaboratively in making objects and images. 23

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Communicating and Interpreting Meaning in the Visual ArtCommunicating and Interpreting Meaning in the Visual Arts In this strand students interpret and respond to meanings and intentions communicated through the various forms of the visual arts. They investigate how meaning in their own and others’ works is mediated through technologies, the languages of the visual arts and the context in which the visual arts are presented and viewed. Students read a range of visual texts and develop skills in analysing, interpreting and evaluating meaning in objects and images created by others. They interpret public and persona signs and symbols systems used to make meaning and to communicate ideas. They articulate ideas about art making in order to engage with art works and to inform their own practice. Understanding the Visual Arts in Context. In this strand students identify the functions and contexts of the visual arts in society. They develop informed responses to the visual arts in public and private settings and investigate objects and images from past and present cultures. Through the various media and forms of the visual arts they examine their significance for individuals, for their communities and for societies. Students identify contexts in which objects and images are made, viewed and valued. They investigate the role of the visual arts in societies and cultures and explore the relationships between the production of art and its social context.. They understand the visual culture reflects and is shaped by the beliefs, technologies, needs and values of society. Curriculum Plan for the Visual Arts The model will focus on media/processes covering a minimum of five units of work per year to a maximum of eight per year (two a term) This will ensure that the children will have experiences in the eight processes of the visual arts over a two year period. Painting and drawing are seen as core media/processes Included in the visual art programme will be: At least one three Dimensional activity each year The option of integrating with other curriculum areas The option of following the same theme through a range of processes. Units of work which reflect coverage of all four strands in any one year. Some strands might be address a number of times over4 the year and others may be addressed only once in the year Opportunities for collaborative art making Opportunities for some to be involved in enrichment programmes 24

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Planning and Organisation Media/processes. Classes will select from the process/media listed in the two year overview giving consideration to the main topics being studied throughout the year Record the intended units of work on the visual arts year` planner and use the coverage sheets to monitor coverage of the four strands Indicate of the year planner which strands will be assessed and highlight the units which might be used for portfolio work Write appropriate Objectives/ Learning intentions that help inform the teaching of the units Duration of the unit Teachers can choose to work within a weekly Visual Arts programme or use the Visual arts intensive approach. Care must be taken that programmes retain an in –depth approach covering at least two strands. Length of time spent on any one unit will vary dependent on the processes used. However the intention is to ensure that the children are not having one-off learning experiences. More than one unit of work may be completed within a term or one unit may extend into the following term Exhibitions and displays The annual PTA art exhibition. These must include a wide range of media/processes and include a Foyer and hall displays. Classes are asked to contribute work for these displays on a rotating basis. Class displays It is expected that every child’s completed work will be exhibited in the classroom, mounted and labelled appropriately. Class displays can include evidence of developing ideas, communicating and interpreting and context strands as well as the final product. Art work from every child.. These are all to be mounted and clearly labelled. This is often planned to coincide with the Regatta early in the year and need artworks from the previous year’s work. 25

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ART OVERVIEW TermLevel 1Level 2 Level 3Level 4 Term 1Sketching Painting crayon Painting Pen and In Marbling Batik Sketching Marbling Pen and ink Charcoal Chalk Painting Sketching Marbling Pen and Ink Painting Charcoal Batik Term 2Papier Mache Painting Rubbing/scratching Collage Craft Watercolour Rubbings scratching sewing Craft Fabric/weaving Sewing Patchwork Masks Craft Rubbing/scratching Pastel Papier Mache Term 3Clay pots printmaking Geometry Clay 3D sculpture Geometry Translation Rotation Symmetry Mosaics 3D Geometry Translation Rotation Symmetry Mosaics Ethnic patterns 3D Sculpture Term 4Collage Mobiles Kites Wrapping paper Boxes, toys stamps Floral art Printmaking PVA Screen prints Floral art Printmaking PVA, cardboard Screen prints Floral art Printmaking PVA, lino Screen prints 26

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DrawingPaintingcollageModelling/carvingFabric/fibre Using a range of: Pencils/pens Chalk Felts Charcoal Coloured pencil Crayon Pastels Chalk Ink Paints tempera, acrylic, water, dye Painting tools Brushes card, sponges, rollers etc Painting surfaces Paper, card, Hessian, canvas etc Styles Impressionist, Pointalism, cubist etc. Genres Still life,, portrait, landscape, seascape etc Techniques Blending underpainting. Dry brush, overpainting, detailing limited palette Torn paper Cut paper Magazine pages Made papers Commercial paper Tissues Card Other materials Natural material Fabrics Different techniques Flat collage Relief mosaics Dough / Clay Relief tiles 3D Models /sculptures Pinch pots Coiled slabs Finishing techniques Oxiding gazing firing Papier Mache Paper strips Paper pulp Relief Over 3D Casting Plaster Carving Clay Wood bone Weaving Paper Card frame looms Range of fibre Tukutuku Plaiting Stitching Embroidery Sewn collage Fabric Painting and drawing Batik Printing Dyeing Soft sculpture Wearable arts Paper making techniques PrintmakingConstructionDesign /graphic processes Crayon pastel & dye Crayon & pastel Crayon/dye & ink Crayon batik Limited colour range Blending /layering Stamp/leaf prints Polystyrene/biro PVA / String Monoprints Card /collage relief Screen prints Lino wood cuts Singe/multi colour Repeated patterns Marbling Paper Card Junk Rolled paper Natural materials Wood Wire Cane Kites Puppets Mobiles dioramas Design and make toys, tools, containers Furniture, books, jewellery Signs, symbols, emblems Flags, banners Pin hole camera Cartoons Slide show Computer art video Drawing to develop ideas and gather information 27

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HEALTH AND PHYSICAL WELL_BEING FOCUS OBJECTIVES HEALTH To develop the skills needed to maintain a Healthy lifestyle To become aware of the effects of influences and to make informed personal decisions PHYSICAL EDUCATION To participate fully in the physical Education programme to the best of their ability To develop the skills required to become a team leader Philosophical Statement Through learning in this curriculum students will gain the knowledge, skills and attitudes and values to enjoy a healthy lifestyle and to contribute actively to the well-being of other people and to the well-being of their community. Students will take an increasing responsibility for their own health and will learn movement skills in a wide range of contexts. They will develop the skills that will enable them to enhance their relationships with other people and they will participate in creating healthy communities by taking responsible and critical action. Planning the Health/Physical Education Unit Consult the curriculum and identify concepts that will be covered during the unit Refer to local needs and identify any areas related to your theme. You will need to write success criteria for learning intentions These will need to be measurable. Select appropriate resources for the unit. Use a format for planning that us easy to follow. E.g. Etap Planning matrix. Include in it the learning intentions and success criteria, resources and activities including assessment activities. Unit assessment will be best carried out by measuring pupils performance against the learning intentions. Selecting Resources These questions will help you assess the suitability of the resources Is the resource suitable for the students’ age, sex, ability and culture? Does it cater for the health/PE needs you have identified? Does it relate clearly to the curriculum? Is the material concise, precise and clearly presented? Will the children find it stimulating, relevant and challenging? Will it help the children to become more actively involved in health issues in the community? Are audio-visual aids supplied to back up the activities? Can teachers preview all the material? Will it be available when and where it is required? Will it be acceptable to parents and members of the community? Is it a suitable size and durability? 28

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Allocation of time Time is allocated for Health and PE as follows Fitness 10 minutes daily PE Skills 2 X 30 minutes per week 50 minutes sports time per week During February, March,November and December most PE time is taken with swimming Room 4 11:30 – 12:00 Room 3 12:00 - 12:30 Room 2 12:30 – 1:00 Room 1 2:00 – 2:30 Room R 2:30 - 3:00 Organisation of the daily Fitness programme Any well organised fitness programme requires: Regularity Variety Enjoyment Vigorous activity Suitable clothing Time for activities, changing, drinks A quality programme can have a positive impact on; cardio-vascular efficiency Health and fitness Cardio-vascular efficiency Muscular endurance Flexibility Body composition Skill related fitness Co-ordination Balance Power Speed Agility Reaction times Reducing risks Heart disease Lower back injury Hypertension Obesity Diabetes Essential criteria Motivation initially and on-going Teachers set a positive role model in participation Routine so that children know where they are each day Whatever theme is used there is a warm-up, warm -down and stretching 29

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Odd YearTerm 1Term 2Term 3Term 4 ContextSkills for growing U.1 Building a school community U.2 Growing as a group L2/3 Body Care L4 Puberty Personal identity Self-worth Keeping ourselves safe Key areas of learning Mental HealthBody care and safety Sexuality Mental HealthBody care and safety Health Assessment A4 analyse attitudes and values and take actions that contribute in their personal identity and self-worth C1 Come to understand the nature of relationships D1 Find out how societal attitudes, values, beliefs, and practices affect well- being A1 Gain understandings and skills to manage and adjust to the process of growth and maturation C2 Increase their understanding of personal identity and develop sensitivity to other people A4 analyse attitudes and values and take actions that contribute in their personal identity and self- worth C1 Come to understand the nature of relationships A3 Meet and manage challenges and risks in positive health enhancing ways D3 Understand the rights and responsibilities, laws and practices that relate top peoples’ well-being Physical EducationWk 1 Small group games Wk 2 Swimming /aquatics/water safety Wk 3 College pool groups Wk 4 Swimming races Russell Sports SBIPA Sports Skipping Winter sports rotation Rugby, netball, soccer, hockey Tapuwae Winter rotation Rugby, netball, soccer, hockey Cross country Tapuwae Summer skills Minor games Athletics Swimming and safety Physical Education Assessment B1 Develop and apply in context a range of movement skills and facilitate the development of physical competence. B2 develop a positive attitude towards physical activity by accepting challenges and extending personal capabilities. B4 Develop and apply knowledge and understanding of the social and cultural factors that influence people’s involvement in physical activity EventsRegatta Camps, swimming sports. Top School, sea week. Life Ed Public Health Nurse Rugby netball Day Cross country Camps, trips, sunsmart. Water safety On-goingInterpersonal skills, caring and sharing, making and maintaining friendships, relating to and respecting other people and their ideas etc. 30

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Even YearTerm 1Term 2Term 3Term 4 ContextCreating a positive classroom community L2 Nutrition L3 Body image Skills for living U3 making positive decisions U 5 Celebrating you and me Physical safety Road, bike, sun. home, water Key areas of learningMental HealthBody care and safety Food and nutrition Mental Health Sexuality education Body care and safety Outdoor education Health AssessmentA4 analyse attitudes and values and take actions that contribute in their personal identity and self-worth C1 Come to understand the nature of relationships D1 Find out how societal attitudes, values, beliefs, and practices affect well-being A1 Gain understandings and skills to manage and adjust to the process of growth and maturation C1 Come to understand the nature of relationships. A4 analyse attitudes and values and take actions that contribute in their personal identity and self-worth C1 Come to understand the nature of relationships A3 Meet and manage challenges and risks in positive health enhancing ways D3 Understand the rights and responsibilities, laws and practices that relate top peoples’ well-being Physical EducationWk 1 Small group games Wk 2 Swimming /aquatics/water safety Wk 3 College pool groups Wk 4 Swimming races Russell Sports SBIPA Sports Skipping Winter sports rotation Rugby, netball, soccer, hockey Tapuwae Winter rotation Rugby, netball, soccer, hockey Cross country Tapuwae Summer skills Minor games Athletics Swimming and safety Physical Education Assessment B1 Develop and apply in context a range of movement skills and facilitate the development of physical competence. B2 develop a positive attitude towards physical activity by accepting challenges and extending personal capabilities. B4 Develop and apply knowledge and understanding of the social and cultural factors that influence people’s involvement in physical activity EventsRegatta Camps, swimming sports. Top School, sea week. Life Ed Public Health Nurse Rugby netball Day Cross country Camps, trips, sunsmart. Water safety On-goingInterpersonal skills, caring and sharing, making and maintaining friendships, relating to and respecting other people and their ideas etc. 31

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INSTRUCTOR ACTIVITY SHEET Learners COMPONENTPURPOSE AND POINTS TO LOOK FOR Slide entry and exitRetain contact with point of entry and exit. Place hands firmly. Slide until the shoulders are under. Climb out. Repeat Exhalation test.Blow a hole in the water. Face above the surface. Note depth of depression and length of exhalation. Blowing bubbles.To teach that each time the head is submerged there is exhalation. Normal controlled breath. Submerge and exhale.Increasing confidence. Be aware that exhaling reduces buoyancy of the body. Pick up objects.Increasing confidence and practising exhalation. Head first for learners may be difficult. Bounce down bottom first Feet of the bottom.Using bottles for stability. “Sit in a bucket” Upright squat position. Arms out straight chin on the surface. Back layout.Horizontal body position. Bottles level with waist. legs together. No movement body at balance. Return to “sit in a bucket” position. Front layout basic glide position. Bottles forward of shoulders. Head down – exhale. Check weight distribution. After exhalation return to squat position. Repeat front and back lay Add leg action Long loose flippy-floppy feet. Eliminate the word kick from your vocabulary. Movement through the waterTeaching the LA on front and back retaining the horizontal position. Learner pushes off pool side in a front layout. After exhalation “Sit in a bucket” then back layout and leg action. Return to wall. Leg action backInitially with bottles then board tummy in between arms. Then no support. Points of balance retained. No bendy knees. No splashing feet just under the surface. Leg action Back no supportLook at the sky LLL and FFF Relaxed arm training along side of body. Watch straight lines on ceiling 32

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Learners ComponentPurposepoints Horizontal rotationWater orientation skillRoll from front layout to back layout, keep spinal alignment Freestyle arm actionStanding describe ‘over t6he rainbow’ movement with arms Arms, elbows bent as the arch over a rainbow shape NOTE: On no account should the hands meet at the front of the swimmer nor should they be diametrically opposed Freestyle swimStart with glide add LA Swim four armstrokes exhaling Stop return to poolside on back with LA Head remains down during armstrokes Hands flat and firm. Finger tips enter the water first extend fully underwater sweep under the body and out to thigh Find breathing sideOne arm stretched forward at surface head down on this arm with EAR IN FRONT of arm other arm at side Change sides to find the more comfortable. This chosen side is the breathing side only during LTS Breathing and leg actionHold end of kickboard in outstretched hand. Add LA maintain position on side to lane rope and back Leg action is sideways if ear stays in front of arm mouth and nose are out of the water Roll and breathe outAs above to start. Take a breath and roll to front and exhale. Roll back for another breath roll to front and exhale (4 sec exh) LA is sideways then up and down when learner rolls onto front to exhale. The body rolls not the head. Freestyle swim.Glide LA Arm action. On the 4 th cycle roll to breathing side inhale, roll back- continue cycle Points of balance maintained slow strong arms effective leg action SomersaultsFrom turtle float and exhaling through nose use hands to flip the body over Body remains in tuck position. No leg action ScullingBody is upright. ‘Sit in a bucket’ position –Squat. Bent elbows forward of the shoulders. Hands sweep in and out at 40 angle in an elongated figure 8 No floppy movements. Elbows are the pivot point and remain fixed. Elbow to fingertips form An efficient survival technique will support the head above water level Freestyle arm action BoardBreathing side only. Leading arm hold board with breathing side hand under Exhale pull through roll and inhale. Recovering hand slides under board repeat On no account alternate arms Changing hand leads to tapping out in front of swimmer. Stroking hand remains 10-12 cm under board while exhaling 33

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CONFIDENCE ComponentPurposepoints Slide entry and exitRetain contact with point of entryPlace hands firmly. Slide in until shoulders under. Climb out repeat. Blowing bubbles mouth and nose To teach that each time head is submerged there is exhalationNormal sized breath. Controlled exhalation Submerge and exhaleIncreasing confidenceBe aware that exhaling reduces body buoyancy Pick up objectsIncreasing confidence practising exhalationHead first for learners might be difficult. Bounce down bottom first. Feet off the bottomUsing bottles for stability. ‘sit in a bucket’Upright squat position. Arms out straight.. Chin on the surface Back layoutHorizontal body position. Bottles level with waist. Legs together. No movement. Body on balance. Return to ‘sit in a bucket’ position Front layoutBasic glide position. Bottles forward of shoulders. Head down exhale. Check weight distribution. After exhalation return to squat position Repeat front and back layouts - add leg action – long loose flippy-floppy feet. Eliminate the word kick from vocabulary Movement through the water Use the bottles for balance. Teach the LA on front and back using the horizontal position Learner pushes off from poolside in a front layout with LA After exhalation ‘sit in a bucket’ position then back layout with LA to wall. The learner should now3 be able to glide out change direction by leaning back on to the back layout and return to start Glide no leg actionArms behind ears. Chin on skin. Push off the wall and slide therou8gh the water. Return on back with LA Check glide position. When exhalation is completed lean back – arms sweep to sides. LA on back to wall Glide with leg action As above Dolphin activitiesDeep glide through hoop – under kick board. Body undulation eels/worms etc. Legs flu8ed together. Head and shoulders initiate movements Check head position during dives. Chin on skin. Arms by sides for body undulations TurtlesTuck position. Head down on knees. Buoyancy test positionKnees are tucked under body.. Head on knees under water. Hold position for 6 seconds 34

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INSTRUCTOR ACTIVITY SHEET Breast stroke kick progressions Sit on pool edge. Arms behind to adopt a lean back position. Legs underwater stretched and together. Simulate a back glide. Breast stroke feet feet dorsi-flex (hook) Glide feet. Feet plantar-flex (drop to glide position) swimmer s to repeat this until they feel calf muscles stretching as dorsi-flex the feet (toes to knees – Impossible but makes then flex the ankles fully) BR/ST Kick bend knees to bring the back of the heels to that wall. Breast stroke feet (feet hook) describe a circle back to glide position. Feet must be driving through the circle heels leading until legs come together in glide position. Then feet drop (plantar flex) CHECK THAT KNEES REMAIN NO MORE THAN SHOULDER WIDTH APART THROUGHOUT THE MOVEMENT. If knees spread wide the feet are unable to make an effective drive outside the line of the knees BS/Str kick at the wall swimmer holds body in upright position against the wall arms folded on deck. Feet pointing to the pool floor knees bend to bring heels to buttocks (kick But) feet hook then circle and drive down to the pool floor. Heels lead the way Check that knees remain shoulder width apart Breast stroke scull Is performed in front of the shoulder line. From glide hands scull outwards then sweep inwards under the nose/chin sweeping forward to return to glide with no pause. The elbows remain high throughout the scull. Coaching rule BR/S arm action. The wrist never goes beyond the elbow. The elbow never goes beyond the shoulder. 35

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BACKSTROKE ComponentPurposepoints Leg action on the backInitially with bottles then board –tummy ion between arms. Then no support. Points of balance retained. No bendy knees no splashing. Feet just under the surface. Leg action on back no support. Looking at the sky. LLL FFF. Relaxed arms trailing alongside body Watch the straight lines in the sky. Backstroke arm actionHand is a paddle flat and firm. Arm brushes past the ears. Little finger leads the way hand scoops down side to thigh. Recovery arm is straight. As arm sinks behind head elbow bends (Give the water a hug) and scoops to thigh Be aware that a learner is still acquiring balance. When the arm lifts out of the water the hips may sink. (buoyancy vs gravity) the learner must learn the fat tummy technique to counter this. The under water action is not a straight arm pull Backstroke body rollWaltz down the pool. Arms trailing at sides Body roll takes the hand to dense water for effective propulsion Backstroke arm action continuous Arms brush past the ear. Head remains still. Body roll and steady leg action Horizontal body position. Effective arm action. Leg action continuous Combine these progressions (front and back activities repetitions begin with the basics. Leading up the learners capabilities and repeating. Check that there is exhalation when the face is under water. Check that horizontal position is maintained front and back. In aquatics there are three forces to consider BUOYANCY RESISTANCE PROPULSION 36

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LEVEL 1 CHALLENGES 1.1Unassisted entry into the pool 1.2Move in the water 1.3Safe exits 1.4Face and hair wet 1.5Submerge and blow bubbles 1.6Open eyes under water 1.7Pick up objects from the pool floor LEVEL 2 CHALLENGES 2.1Sit and ¼ turn entry 2.2Float on front and regain feet 2.3Float on back and regain feet 2.4Glide on front 2.5Glide on back 2.6Freestyle arm action 2.7Horizontal rotation 2.8Sculling 2.9Rigid aid assistance LEVEL 3 CHALLENGES 3.1Crouch and ¼ turn entry 3.2Float with improvised aid 3.315m freestyle 3.415m backstroke 3.5Breaststroke leg action 3.6Breaststroke arm action 3.715m scull 3.8Non-rigid aid assistance LEVEL 4 CHALLENGES 4.1Safe dives 4.2Dolphin body action 4.3Individual survival initiatives and assistance signal 4.425m freestyle 4.525m backstroke 4.625m Breaststroke 4.715m survival backstroke 4.8 LEVEL 5 CHALLENGES 5.125m sidestroke 5.2H.E.L.P. 5.3Clothed survival 5.4Group safety initiatives 5.550m freestyle 5.650m backstroke 5.750m Breaststroke 5.8Unassisted entries for deep water SWIMMING/AQUATICS/WATER SAFETY 37

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Blowing bubbles mouth and noseTo teach that each time the head is submerged there is exhalation Front float Back Float Using bottles for stability get the feet off the bottom and into a horizontal position Pick up objectsTeaching how to completely submerge and to find objects underwater Movement through the waterTeaching the leg action on the front and back retaining horizontal position. Initially with bottles, then board, then no support GlideBend forward push off the wall and slide through the water. No leg movement Glide with leg actionLong legs and floppy feet boiling the water. No splashing Dolphin activitiesDeep glide through hoops. Dive under a board/rope. Check head position Freestyle arm action standingStanding up straight. Describe big slow circles. Hands go ‘over the rainbow’. If the movement are small and cramped, ‘Tough the ceiling with your fingers’ Finding the breathing sideBending over, one arm stretched forward on the surface. Head down on this arm with the ear in front of arm. Other arm at side. Mouth and nose out of the water. Walk practising breathingStart in the above position. Inhale, roll head and shoulders into the water, blow bubbles without lifting the. Roll head and shoulders onto the side and inhale, roll back and exhale. Breathing position with leg actionHold end of board in outstretched hand. Add leg action and maintain this position on the side to the end of the pool Breathing with leg actionAs per walking and breathing. Check that the ear remains in front of the leading arm. Check the body roll and exhalation Freestyle swimGlide – leg action – arm action 4 cycles. Stop and stand. Start again repeat to end of pool. Check that the head remains in the low position Instructor activity Sheet Unassisted entry/exit. Move freely in the water. Face and hair wet. 38

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Freestyle swim continuous Glide- leg action – arm action 4 cycles. Roll onto back. As the body rolls over the arms sweep to the sides. Continue on back to end of pool Freestyle swim and breathing Glide- leg action – arm action 4 cycles. Roll onto breathing side. INHALE. Roll back onto front and continue Leg action on the back Ears back in the water. Eyes looking straight up. Fat tummy, long legs, feet boiling the water. No bendy knees. Eyes wide open breathing normally. Relaxed arms trailing alongside the body Backstroke arm action Standing up straight. Arm swings up directly in front of the body. Arm brushes passed the ear. Flat hand with little finger leading the way into the water. Hand then scoops down the side to the thigh. Practise one arm then the other slowly. Backstroke drillHold board at the end with both hands. Fingers on top. Begin the leg action. Pupil counts 1-2-3.One arms lifts brushing the ear. Little finger enters the water first Flat hand scoops the water down the side to grasp the end of the board. Count to 3. This allows time to readjust the body position. Repeat using the same arm and then alternate arms Repeat without the board. Watch the horizontal position being maintained. Slow arms – fast feet. hand should be flat and firm. 39

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By the end of Year 1 The reading standards After one year at school, students will read, respond to, and think critically about fiction and non-fiction texts at the Green level of Ready to Read (the core instructional series that supports reading in the New Zealand Curriculum) Key characteristics of texts at Green level Texts at Green level have been designed with characteristics that include: generally familiar contexts and settings one text form, and one main storyline or topic, for each text most content explicitly stated but also some implicit content that provides opportunities for students to make simple inferences illustrations that support and extend the meaning but may not exactly match the words many high-frequency words topic words and interest words (including a wide range of regular and irregular verbs and some adjectives and adverbs) that are likely to be in a reader's oral vocabulary and that are strongly supported by the context or illustrations some visual language features such as diagrams or speech bubbles sentences that run over more than one line but do not split phrases dialogue between easily identified speakers a range of punctuation, including speech marks and commas, to support phrasing and meaning. ENGLISH Focus Objectives. To listen and interact appropriately in a variety of situations To interpret, analyse, identify and discuss qualities relating to personal experiences and other texts To speak confidently about experiences, ideas and opinions and in responding to others. 40

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Year 2 After two years at school, students will read, respond to, and think critically about fiction and non- fiction texts at the Turquoise level of Ready to Read (the core instructional series that supports reading in the New Zealand Curriculum). Key characteristics of texts at Turquoise level Texts at Turquoise level have been designed with characteristics that include: some settings and contexts that may be outside the students’ prior knowledge but can easily be related to it a mix of explicit and implicit content that provides opportunities for students to make simple inferences illustrations that support the meaning and may suggest new ideas or viewpoints mostly familiar words, but some new topic words and descriptive language that are supported by the context (for example, the text may include synonyms, definitions, or explanations) and/or by illustrations some visual language features such as labelled diagrams, inset photographs, and bold text for topic words that are linked to a glossary a variety of sentence structures, including compound sentences and a few complex sentences, so that students are required to notice and use punctuation as a guide to phrasing and meaning frequent use of dialogue and more than one character speaking on a page. 41

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Year 3 After three years at school, students will read, respond to, and think critically about fiction and non- fiction texts at the Gold level of Ready to Read (the core instructional series that supports reading in the New Zealand Curriculum). Key characteristics of texts at gold level Texts at Gold level have been designed with characteristics that include: some unfamiliar contexts and settings shifts in time and/or place (in narrative texts) many characters and events and more than one storyline a mix of explicit and implicit content within text and illustrations that requires students to make connections between ideas in the text and their prior knowledge in order to make simple inferences some pages with no illustrations some unfamiliar words and phrases, the meaning of which is supported by the context or illustrations, including descriptive vocabulary, subject-specific vocabulary, and commonly used words that have multiple meanings visual language features such as subheadings, text boxes, footnotes, glossaries, indexes, and diagrams and maps that are clearly explained and linked to the body text ideas and information organised in paragraphs a variety of sentence structures, including complex sentences frequent use of dialogue, some of which is not explicitly attributed, and more than one character speaking on a page. 42

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Year 4 By the end of year 4, students will read, respond to, and think critically about texts in order to meet the reading demands of the New Zealand Curriculum at level 2. Students will locate and evaluate information and ideas within texts appropriate to this level as they generate and answer questions to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. Key characteristics of texts that students read at this level The texts that students use to meet the reading demands of the curriculum at this level will often include: some abstract ideas that are clearly supported by concrete examples in the text or easily linked to the students’ prior knowledge some places where information and ideas are implicit and where students need to make inferences based on information that is easy to find because it is nearby in the text and there is little or no competing information a straightforward text structure, such as a structure that follows a recognisable and clear text form some compound and complex sentences, which may consist of two or three clauses some words and phrases that are ambiguous or unfamiliar to the students, the meaning of which is supported by the context or clarified by photographs, illustrations, diagrams, and/or written explanations other visual language features that support the ideas and information, for example, text boxes or maps figurative language, such as metaphors, similes, or personification. Such texts will include both fiction and non-fiction in electronic and print media. They may be published individually, for example, as picture books, junior novels, multimedia resources, or junior reference materials, or they may appear in collections (for example, the School Journal often includes poems, plays, procedural texts, and information texts designed for this age group). 43

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Year 5 By the end of year 5, students will read, respond to, and think critically about texts in order to meet the reading demands of the New Zealand Curriculum as they work towards level 3. Students will locate, evaluate, and integrate information and ideas within and across a small range of texts appropriate to this level as they generate and answer questions to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. The text and task demands of the curriculum are similar for students in year 5 and year 6. The difference in the standard for year 6 is the students’ increased accuracy and speed in reading a variety of texts from across the curriculum, their level of control and independence in selecting strategies for using texts to support their learning, and the range of texts they engage with. In particular, by the end of year 6, students will be required to read longer texts more quickly than students in year 5 and to be more effective in selecting different strategies for different reading purposes. Key characteristics of texts that students read at this level The texts that students use to meet the reading demands of the curriculum at this level will often include: abstract ideas, in greater numbers than in texts at earlier levels, accompanied by concrete examples in the text that help support the students’ understanding some ideas and information that are conveyed indirectly and require students to infer by drawing on several related pieces of information in the text some information that is irrelevant to the identified purpose for reading (that is, some competing information), which students need to identify and reject as they integrate pieces of information in order to answer questions mixed text types (for example, a complex explanation may be included as part of a report) sentences that vary in length and in structure (for example, sentences that begin in different ways and different kinds of complex sentences with a number of subordinate clauses) a significant amount of vocabulary that is unfamiliar to the students (including academic and content-specific words and phrases), which is generally explained in the text by words or illustrations figurative and/or ambiguous language that the context helps students to understand illustrations, photographs, text boxes, diagrams, maps, charts, and graphs that clarify or extend the text and may require some interpretation. Such texts will include both fiction and non-fiction in electronic and print media. They may be published individually, for example, as junior novels or information texts, or they may appear in collections, such as the School Journal or other journals and magazines for this age group. Such collections often include poems, plays, stories, and procedural texts. 44

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Year 6 By the end of year 6, students will read, respond to, and think critically about texts in order to meet the reading demands of the New Zealand Curriculum at level 3. Students will locate, evaluate, and integrate information and ideas within and across a small range of texts appropriate to this level as they generate and answer questions to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. The text and task demands of the curriculum are similar for students in year 5 and year 6. The difference in the standard for year 6 is the students’ increased accuracy and speed in reading a variety of texts from across the curriculum, their level of control and independence in selecting strategies for using texts to support their learning, and the range of texts they engage with. In particular, by the end of year 6, students will be required to read longer texts more quickly than students in year 5 and to be more effective in selecting different strategies for different reading purposes. Key characteristics of texts that students read at this level The texts that students use to meet the reading demands of the curriculum at this level will often include: abstract ideas, in greater numbers than in texts at earlier levels, accompanied by concrete examples in the text that help support the students’ understanding some ideas and information that are conveyed indirectly and require students to infer by drawing on several related pieces of information in the text some information that is irrelevant to the identified purpose for reading (that is, some competing information), which students need to identify and reject as they integrate pieces of information in order to answer questions mixed text types (for example, a complex explanation may be included as part of a report) sentences that vary in length and in structure (for example, sentences that begin in different ways and different kinds of complex sentences with a number of subordinate clauses) a significant amount of vocabulary that is unfamiliar to the students (including academic and content-specific words and phrases), which is generally explained in the text by words or illustrations figurative and/or ambiguous language that the context helps students to understand illustrations, photographs, text boxes, diagrams, maps, charts, and graphs that clarify or extend the text and may require some interpretation. Such texts will include both fiction and non-fiction in electronic and print media. They may be published individually, for example, as junior novels or information texts, or they may appear in collections, such as the School Journal or other journals and magazines for this age group. Such collections often include poems, plays, stories, and procedural texts. 45

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Year 7 By the end of year 7, students will read, respond to, and think critically about texts in order to meet the reading demands of the New Zealand Curriculum as they work towards level 4. Students will locate, evaluate, and synthesise information and ideas within and across a range of texts appropriate to this level as they generate and answer questions to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. The text and task demands of the curriculum are similar for students in year 7 and year 8. The difference in the standard for year 8 is the students’ increased accuracy and speed in reading a variety of texts from across the curriculum, their level of control and independence in selecting strategies for using texts to support their learning, and the range of texts they engage with. In particular, by the end of year 8, students need to be confidently and deliberately choosing the most appropriate strategies for reading in different learning areas. Key characteristics of texts that students read at this level The texts that students use to meet the reading demands of the curriculum at this level will often include: elements that require interpretation, such as complex plots, sophisticated themes, and abstract ideas complex layers of meaning, and/or information that is irrelevant to the identified purpose for reading (that is, competing information), requiring students to infer meanings or make judgments non-continuous text structures and mixed text types sentences that vary in length, including long, complex sentences that contain a lot of information adverbial clauses or connectives that require students to make links across the whole text academic and content-specific vocabulary words and phrases with multiple meanings that require students to know and use effective word-solving strategies to retain their focus on meaning metaphor, analogy, and connotative language that is open to interpretation illustrations, photographs, text boxes, diagrams, maps, charts, and graphs, containing main ideas that relate to the text’s content. Such texts will include both fiction and non-fiction in electronic and print media. They may be published individually (for example, as novels, reference materials, textbooks, or modified scientific and historical texts) or in collections (for example, age-appropriate newspapers, magazines, and journals, including the School Journal). Poetry, plays, procedural texts, and extended instructions (for example, in science and mathematics) often appear in collections 46

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Year 8 By the end of year 8, students will read, respond to, and think critically about texts in order to meet the reading demands of the New Zealand Curriculum at level 4. Students will locate, evaluate, and synthesise information and ideas within and across a range of texts appropriate to this level as they generate and answer questions to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. The text and task demands of the curriculum are similar for students in year 7 and year 8. The difference in the standard for year 8 is the students’ increased accuracy and speed in reading a variety of texts from across the curriculum, their level of control and independence in selecting strategies for using texts to support their learning, and the range of texts they engage with. In particular, by the end of year 8, students need to be confidently and deliberately choosing the most appropriate strategies for reading in different learning areas. Key characteristics of texts that students read at this level The texts that students use to meet the reading demands of the curriculum at this level will often include: elements that require interpretation, such as complex plots, sophisticated themes,and abstract ideas complex layers of meaning, and/or information that is irrelevant to the identified purpose for reading (that is, competing information), requiring students to infer meanings or make judgments non-continuous text structures and mixed text types sentences that vary in length, including long, complex sentences that contain a lot of information adverbial clauses or connectives that require students to make links across the whole text academic and content-specific vocabulary words and phrases with multiple meanings that require students to know and use effective word-solving strategies to retain their focus on meaning metaphor, analogy, and connotative language that is open to interpretation illustrations, photographs, text boxes, diagrams, maps, charts, and graphs, containing main ideas that relate to the text’s content. Such texts will include both fiction and non-fiction in electronic and print media. They may be published individually (for example, as novels, reference materials, textbooks, or modified scientific and historical texts) or in collections (for example, age- appropriate newspapers, magazines, and journals, including the School Journal). Poetry, plays, procedural texts, and extended instructions (for example, in science and mathematics) often appear in collections or textbooks 47

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English Achievement Objectives Level 1 Oral Language Listening Listen and respond top others Listen and respond to text Identify and describe verbal and non-verbal features and text Identify, clarify and question meaning I spoken texts Ask questions Formative Teacher observes students Ability to recall Ability to listen and respond Teacher questions students Speaking Converse Tell a story Identify, describe and use verbal and non-verbal features Question meanings Ask questions Formative Teacher observes students Ability to recall Ability to listen and respond Self assessment Student assess quality of own rehearsal and make agreed changes Written Language Reading Select and read for enjoyment from a range of texts Respond to language and meanings in text Explore the choices made by the writer Identify and express meanings of text Identify, retrieve, record and present information Diagnostic Running records 6 Year net Self-assessment Reading logs Ability to share what they have learned Writing Write spontaneously to record personal; experiences Write ion a variety of topics Write instructions and recount events Explore choices made by the writer Identify and express meanings of text Identify, retrieve, record and present information Diagnostic 6 Year net Formative Individual conferences Visual Language Viewing Respond to meanings and ideas Understand that communication involves verbal and visual features Awareness of how words and images combine to make meaning View and use visual; text to gain information Diagnostic Teacher observes students Ability to show connections verbal/visual Ability to understand signs/symbols Presenting Present ideas using simple layouts and drama Understand that communication involves verbal and visual features Awareness of how words and images combine to make meaning View and use visual; text to gain information Formative Teacher observes students Ability to retell a story using visual images Overview 48

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English Achievement Objectives Level 2 Oral Language Listening Listen and respond top others in group/class Listen and respond to text. Recall main ideas Identify and describe verbal and non-verbal features and text Identify, clarify and question meaning in spoken texts Ask questions Formative Teacher observes students Ability to recall Ability to listen and respond Teacher questions students Speaking Converse ask questions and talk about text Tell a story recite, read aloud to audience Identify, describe and use verbal and non-verbal features Question meanings Ask questions Formative Teacher observes students Ability to recall Ability to listen and respond Self assessment Student discuss each others performances Written Language Reading Select and read for enjoyment from a range of texts using cues, predicting and self-correcting Respond to language and meanings in text Explore the choices made by the writer Identify and express meanings of text Identify, retrieve, record and present information Diagnostic Running records Self-assessment Reading logs Ability to share what they have learned Writing Write spontaneously and regularly to record personal experiences and observations Write on a variety of topics and using a number of genre Write instructions and recount events stating fact/opinion Explore choices made by the writer Identify and express meanings of text Identify, retrieve, record and present information Diagnostic PAT PROBE Formative Individual conferences Visual Language Viewing Respond to meanings and ideas. Identify and describe verbal and visual features Understand that communication involves verbal and visual features Awareness of how words and images combine to make meaning View and use visual text to gain information Diagnostic Teacher observes students Ability to show connections verbal/visual Ability to understand signs/symbols Presenting Use verbal and visual features to communicate ideas and stories Present ideas using simple layouts and drama Understand that communication involves verbal and visual features Awareness of how words and images combine to make meaning View and use visual; text to gain information Formative Teacher observes students Ability to retell a story using visual images 49

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English Achievement Objectives Level 3 Oral Language Listening Listen to and interact with others Listen and respond to text Respond to main ideas in organised way Identify and describe verbal and non-verbal features and text Identify, clarify and question meaning I spoken texts Ask questions Diagnostic PAT Listening Formative Teacher observes students Ability to recall Ability to listen and respond as they work in groups Ability to adhere to the storyline Speaking Converse in small and larger groups Tell a story using texts from different genre Read aloud and/or perform Identify, describe and use verbal and non-verbal features Question meanings Ask questions Formative Teacher observes students Ability to recall Ability to listen and respond Self assessment Student assess quality of own rehearsal and make agreed changes Written Language Reading Select and read for enjoyment from a range of texts Respond to language and meanings in text Explore the choices made by the writer Identify, discuss and express meanings of text Identify, gather, select, retrieve, interpret, record and present information Diagnostic Running records PAT Comprehension and vocabulary Self-assessment Reading logs Ability to share what they have learned Writing Write regularly and with ease to express personal experiences Write on a variety of topics using appropriate genre Write instructions, explanations and recount events Explore choices made by the writer Identify and express meanings of text Identify, gather, select, retrieve, record and present information Diagnostic Exemplars Formative Individual conferences Dancing with the pen- characteristics of learner writers Self-assessment Against set criteria Visual Language Viewing Respond to meanings and ideas Understand that communication involves verbal and visual features Awareness of how words and images combine to make meaning View and use visual; text to gain information Diagnostic Teacher observes students Ability to show connections verbal/visual Ability to understand signs/symbols Presenting Use verbal and visual features to communicate information Identify important features of verbal and visual language Discuss how they combine for a particular purpose View and use visual texts to retrieve, interpret, organise and present information Formative Teacher observes/listens to discussion to assess understanding of verbal and non-verbal visual features students Ability to retell a story using visual images 50

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English Achievement Objectives Level 4 Oral Language Listening Listen to and interact with others. Understanding of narrative, info, ideas and opinions Listen and respond to text & respond in structured imaginative way Identify and describe verbal and non-verbal features and text Identify, clarify and question meaning I spoken texts Select, assemble and interpret information Diagnostic PAT Listening Formative Teacher observes students Ability to listen as they work in groups Accuracy in recognising and comparing language features Ability to adhere to the story line Speaking Converse coherently in small and large groups Using texts from several genre make meaning clear by using appropriate speech and delivery Identify, describe and use verbal and non-verbal features Discuss and identify spoken text Select, assemble and interpret information Formative Teacher records observations of individual contributions Self assessment Student assess quality of own rehearsal and make agreed changes Written Language Reading Select and read for enjoyment from a range of contemporary and historical texts Relate a range of texts to experiences, purposes, audience and other texts Identify language features and discuss how they relate to the topic. Explore the choices made by the writer Identify and express meanings of text Identify, gather, select,retrieve, record and present information Diagnostic Running records PAT Vocabulary and comprehension Self-assessment Reading logs Ability to share what they have learned Writing Write regularly and with ease to express a range of experiences Write on a variety of topics using appropriate genre, spelling and sentence structure Write instructions, explanations and factual accounts and express and explain a point of view Explore choices made by the writer Identify and express meanings of text Identify, gather, select, retrieve, record and present information Diagnostic exemplars Formative Individual conferences Dancing with the Pen-characteristics of learner writers Self-assessment Against set criteria Visual Language Viewing Respond discuss and identify purpose of verbal and visual features View and use visual; text to retrieve, interpret, organise and present information Identify important features of verbal and visual language and discuss how they can be combined for a particular purpose Understand that communication involves verbal and visual features Awareness of how words and images combine to make meaning View and use visual; text to gain information Diagnostic Teacher observes students Ability to show connections verbal/visual Ability to understand signs/symbols Presenting Combine verbal and visual features to communicate information Identify important features of verbal and visual language Identify and discuss ways in which verbal and visual features can be combined for a particular purpose View and use visual texts to retrieve, interprêt, organise and present information Formative Teacher observes students Ability to retell a story using visual images Students present their work and assess against set criteria Presentation of visual language 51

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Teaching and Learning Emphasis Teacher modelling and guidance of all the following Daily writing in a variety of styles and contexts Exploring language, thinking critically and processing information using shared texts, the children’s, the teachers and other authors’ writings as cameos of language Exploring language (grammar, punctuation, patterning of text, rhyme, rhythm, vocabulary, forms of differing genre, openings, endings etc.) Grammar Maintaining and mastering the habitual use of applicable grammar and appropriate terminology. Teach/model/guide habitual use at an appropriate level (in Context) Level One (awareness)Level Two (use)Level Three (habitual use) Nouns Verbs Adjectives Singular/plural Contractions Compound words Conjunctions Pronoun Irregular verbs Enhance and extend vocab Adverbs Subject Verb and object Comparative adjectives Belonging Apostrophe Enhance and extend vocab Active and passive verbs Modal auxiliaries Verb agreement (tenses) Adjective and adverbial phrases Alliteration/assonance Metaphor/simile Punctuation Maintaining and mastering the habitual use of applicable punctuation and appropriate terminology. Teach/model/guide habitual use at the appropriate level Level OneLevel TwoLevel Three Full stop Capital letters Exclamation marks Speech marks Question marks Paragraphs Commas Italics, bold Hypen –syllabification (high-er) or extra part to sentence Punctuation within speech (eg, place of comma in speech) Emphasis marks” Italics, for emphasis Colon, semi-colon Asterisks quotes – brackets or parentheses (workshop on where they go followed by practice) Children to identify own criteria for different writing genres of writing – forming writer’s check-list and teachers’ check-lists 52

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Thinking Critically Maintaining and mastering the habitual use of applicable punctuation and appropriate terminology. Teach/model/guide habitual use at the appropriate level Level One (awareness)Level Two (use)Level Three (habitual use) Interesting words Simple sentence structure Extension of sentences Varying of sentences Variety of sentences beginnings Beginnings of imagery to match description Comparison of styles (reports/poems) Mature choice of vocabulary Looking at layout (newspaper) Structure of more extensive genre Identify the purpose and context of text Identify the target audience Comparison of styles Mature choice of vocabulary Layout More extensive genre Identifying the purpose of the text Identify the target audience Thinking Critically – Skills Teachers will provide students with opportunities to develop skills to be able to: Level One (awareness)Level Two (use)Level Three (habitual use) Identify Discover Listen Ask Explore Teach Compare Construct Match Observe Find Record Assemble List Interview Investigate Record Report Sketch the image from text Classify Categorise Create Estimate Produce Compare/contrast Compose Calculate Interpret Outline Hypothesise Formulate Justify Assess Invent Design Judge the value of Argue Prioritise Predict Generate Select Verify Determine Construct Devise Debate Recommend Rate Processing Information Learning Outcomes may include: Level One (awareness)Level Two (use)Level Three (habitual use) Brain storming Story maps (captions, diagrams) Sequencing Time lines Graphing Flow chart Listing and labelling Research skills (computer/library) Retrieval chart Innovating on texts Simple structured overviews Brainstorming Listening/labelling Story maps Flow chart Timelines Picture diagrams Structured overviews Character maps Retrieval charts Sequencing Pyramid learning Skeleton outlines Brainstorming Story maps Timelines Flow chart Structured overviews Retrieval charts Pyramid learning Concept maps Sociograms Venn diagrams Data base and spreadsheets Advertising charts Posters Etc (relating to all curricular areas) 53

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By the end of Year 1 The writing standards After one year at school, students will create texts as they learn in a range of contexts across the New Zealand Curriculum within level 1. Students will use their writing to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. Key characteristics of students' writing at this level Students will plan for writing, using talk or pictures. They will independently write simple texts, drawing on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will help them achieve their purpose. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected at this level, including those needed for spelling and punctuation, are described in the Literacy Learning Progressions. The texts that students write will include, when appropriate: an idea, response, opinion, or question several sentences (including some compound sentences with simple conjunctions such as 'and') some key personal vocabulary and high-frequency words attempts at transferring words encountered in the writer's oral language or reading to their writing. sentences that run over more than one line but do not split phrases dialogue between easily identified speakers a range of punctuation, including speech marks and commas, to support phrasing and meaning. 54

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Year 2 After two years at school, students will create texts in order to meet the writing demands of the New Zealand Curriculum at level 1. Students will use their writing to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. Key characteristics of students' writing at this level Students will understand their purpose for writing and will write using a process and drawing on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will help them achieve their purpose. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected at this level, including those needed for spelling and punctuation, are described in the Literacy Learning Progressions. Students will independently write simple texts. These texts will include, when appropriate: experiences, information, and/or ideas that relate to a curriculum topic, supported by some (mostly relevant) detail and/or personal comment mainly simple and compound sentences that have some variation in their beginnings simple conjunctions correctly used mainly personal content vocabulary, as well as words and phrases that are drawn from the student’s oral vocabulary and from the book language that they know some attempts at variety and precision in the use of adjectives, nouns, and verbs. 55

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Year 3 After three years at school, students will create texts in order to meet the writing demands of the New Zealand Curriculum as they work towards level 2. Students will use their writing to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. Key characteristics of students' writing at this level Students will write for a range of different purposes linked to the curriculum, using a process and drawing on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will help them achieve their purpose. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected at this level, including those needed for spelling and punctuation, are described in the Literacy Learning Progressions.Literacy Learning Progressions. Students will independently write texts that are clearly directed to a particular audience. They will organise their texts according to a basic structure that meets their purpose for writing (for example, a story with a beginning, a middle, and an end). These texts will include, when appropriate: content, mostly relevant, that conveys several experiences, items of information, and/or ideas relating to a curriculum topic and that sometimes includes detail and/or comment mainly simple and compound sentences that vary in their beginnings and lengths and in the simple conjunctions used attempts at some complex sentences some specific vocabulary that is appropriate to the content of the text. 56

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Year 4 By the end of year 4, students will create texts in order to meet the writing demands of the New Zealand Curriculum at level 2. Students will use their writing to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. Key characteristics of students' writing at this level Students will write for a range of different purposes to meet the specific demands of the curriculum at this level, using a process appropriate to the task and drawing on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will help them achieve their purpose. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected at this level, including those needed for spelling and punctuation, are described in the Literacy Learning Progressions. Students will independently write texts, using language and a simple text structure that suit their audience and purpose (for example, when recounting, describing, narrating, reporting, or explaining). These texts will include, when appropriate: content that is mostly relevant to the curriculum task, covers a range of ideas, experiences, or items of information, and often includes detail and/or comment supporting the main points mainly simple and compound sentences that vary in their beginnings,structures, and lengths and are mostly correct grammatically attempts at complex sentences words and phrases, in particular, nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, that clearly convey ideas, experiences, or information. 57

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Year 5 By the end of year 5, students will create texts in order to meet the writing demands of the New Zealand Curriculum as they work towards level 3. Students will use their writing to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. The text and task demands of the curriculum are similar for students in year 5 and year 6. The difference in the standard for year 6 is the students’ increased accuracy and fluency in writing a variety of texts across the curriculum, their level of control and independence in selecting writing processes and strategies, and the range of texts they write. In particular, by the end of year 6, students will be required to write more complex texts than students in year 5 and to be more effective in selecting different strategies for different writing purposes. Key characteristics of students' writing at this level Students will write for a range of different purposes on topics and themes across the curriculum at this level, applying a process appropriate to the task and drawing on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will help them achieve their purpose. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected at this level, including those needed for spelling and punctuation, are described in the Literacy Learning Progressions.Literacy Learning Progressions Students will independently write texts, choosing language and overall text structures that are appropriate for their audience and purpose (for example, when recounting, describing, narrating, reporting, arguing, or explaining). These texts will include, when appropriate: content that is usually relevant to the curriculum task and includes detail and/or comment supporting the main points; paragraphs that group ideas; simple and compound sentences that are correct grammatically and some complex sentences that are mostly correct grammatically; words and phrases that are appropriate to the topic, register, and purpose, including subject-specific vocabulary. 58

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Year 6 By the end of year 6, students will create texts in order to meet the writing demands of the New Zealand Curriculum at level 3. Students will use their writing to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. The text and task demands of the curriculum are similar for students in year 5 and year 6. The difference in the standard for year 6 is the students’ increased accuracy and fluency in writing a variety of texts across the curriculum, their level of control and independence in selecting writing processes and strategies, and the range of texts they write. In particular, by the end of year 6, students will be required to write more complex texts than students in year 5 and to be more effective in selecting different strategies for different writing purposes. Key characteristics of students' writing at this level Students will write for a range of different purposes on topics and themes across the curriculum at this level, applying a process appropriate to the task and drawing on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will help them achieve their purpose. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected at this level, including those needed for spelling and punctuation, are described in the Literacy Learning Progressions. Students will independently write texts, choosing language and overall text structures that are appropriate for their audience and purpose (for example, when recounting, describing, narrating, reporting, arguing, or explaining). These texts will include, when appropriate: content that is usually relevant to the curriculum task and includes detail and/or comment supporting the main points paragraphs that group ideas simple and compound sentences that are correct grammatically and some complex sentences that are mostly correct grammatically words and phrases that are appropriate to the topic, register, and purpose,including subject-specific vocabulary. 59

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Year 7 By the end of year 7, students will create texts in order to meet the writing demands of the New Zealand Curriculum as they work towards level 4. Students will use their writing to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. The text and task demands of the curriculum are similar for students in year 7 and year 8. The difference in the standard for year 8 is the students’ increased accuracy and fluency in writing a variety of texts across the curriculum, their level of control and independence in selecting writing processes and strategies, and the range of texts they write. In particular, by the end of year 8, students need to be confidently and deliberately choosing the most appropriate processes and strategies for writing in different learning areas. Key characteristics of students' writing at this level Students will write for a range of different purposes on topics and themes across the curriculum at this level, selecting and applying a process appropriate to the task and drawing on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will help them achieve their purpose. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected at this level, including those needed for spelling and punctuation, are described in the Literacy Learning Progressions. Students will independently write texts, choosing language and a clear and logical text structure to meet the requirements of the curriculum task (for example, when writing personal narratives, poems, arguments, feature articles, character profiles, research reports, essays, responses to literature, and short answers). These texts will include, when appropriate: content that is concise and relevant to the curriculum task and that often includes detail and/or comment supporting or elaborating on the main points paragraphs within which the ideas are clearly related and links within and between paragraphs grammatically correct sentences words and phrases that are appropriate to the topic, register, and purpose, including expressive, academic, and subject-specific vocabulary. 60

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Year 8 By the end of year 8, students will create texts in order to meet the writing demands of the New Zealand Curriculum at level 4. Students will use their writing to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. The text and task demands of the curriculum are similar for students in year 7 and year 8. The difference in the standard for year 8 is the students’ increased accuracy and fluency in writing a variety of texts across the curriculum, their level of control and independence in selecting writing processes and strategies, and the range of texts they write. In particular, by the end of year 8, students need to be confidently and deliberately choosing the most appropriate processes and strategies for writing in different learning areas. Key characteristics of students' writing at this level Students will write for a range of different purposes on topics and themes across the curriculum at this level, selecting and applying a process appropriate to the task and drawing on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that will help them achieve their purpose. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes expected at this level, including those needed for spelling and punctuation, are described in the Literacy Learning Progressions. Students will independently write texts, choosing language and a clear and logical text structure that they have deliberately chosen for their specific audience and purpose, drawing on their knowledge of the conventions for particular text forms (for example, when writing personal narratives, poems, arguments, feature articles, character profiles, research reports, essays, responses to literature, and short answers). These texts will include, when appropriate: content that is concise and relevant to the curriculum task and that often includes detail and/or comment supporting or elaborating on the main points paragraphs within which the ideas are clearly related and links within and between paragraphs grammatically correct sentences words and phrases that are appropriate to the topic, register, and purpose, including expressive, academic, and subject-specific vocabulary. 61

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Handwriting Aim: To ensure that all students are able to write legibly, fluently, without strain and with sufficient speed. Handwriting is a valuable skill and with the development of an efficient, individual style depends on the mastery of basic skills. This can only be achieved through careful teaching and regular practice. Each teacher must understand the style used in New Zealand school 62

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Languages Maori Focus Objectives To listen and interact appropriately in a variety of situations Statement Te Reo Maori is unique to New Zealand and is a source of our nation’s self – knowledge and identity The Achievement objectives together with other elements of the curriculum guidelines, provide a flexible basis that allows teachers to use a wide range of different approaches to programme planning. Te Reo Maori and Tikanga Maori define Maori identity and are critical aspects of this country’s heritage. Learning Te Reo Maori in a New Zealand context has a very special significance for New Zealanders. Level 1: Achievement Objectives, Suggested Language Learning Contexts, and Language Modes Suggested Language Learning Contexts Level 1 Language Modes Suggested sociocultural themes Suggested topics Suggested text types Achievement Objectives Students should be able to: Whakarongo – Listening Pànui – Reading Màtakitaki – Viewing Kòrero – Speaking Kòrero – Speaking Whakaari – Presenting Ngà mihi (greetings) Te akomanga (the classroom) Te kura (the school) Te whànau (extended family) Te kàinga (home) Whànau, hapù, iwi My home My classroom My school Origin, identity, location Kìwaha (idioms) Pepeha (iwi-specific sayings) Waiata Màori (Màori songs) Whakataukì (proverbs) Captions for pictures and photographs Simple, short dialogues Greeting and leavetaking routines Class timetables 1.1 greet, farewell, and thank people and respond to greetings and thanks; 1.2 introduce themselves and others and respond to introductions; 1.3_communicate about number, using days of the week, months, and dates; 1.4 communicate about personal information, such as name, age, nationality, and home; 1.5 communicate about location; 1.6 understand and use simple politeness conventions (for example, ways of thanking people, apologising, excusing themselves, and complimenting people); 1.7 use and respond to simple classroom language (including asking for the word to express something in te reo Màori). By the end of level 1, learners can: identify the sounds of letters of the Màori alphabet (arapù), letter combinations, intonation, and stress patterns; recognise and understand simple, familiar spoken words, phrases, and sentences. By the end of level 1, learners can: identify letters of the Màori alphabet (arapù), letter combinations, basic written language conventions, and simple punctuation; recognise and understand simple, familiar written words, phrases, and sentences. By the end of level 1, learners can: recognise the communicative significance of particular facial expressions and other body language; interpret meanings that are conveyed in combinations of words and images or symbols. By the end of level 1, learners can: imitate the pronunciation, intonation, stress, and rhythm of te reo Màori words, phrases, and sentences; respond appropriately to simple, familiar instructions and simple questions; ask simple questions; initiate spoken encounters in te reo Màori, using simple greetings, questions, and statements. By the end of level 1, learners can: write letters and numbers; write vowels with macrons; reproduce letter combinations and punctuation for te reo Màori words, phrases, and sentences in familiar contexts; write simple, familiar words, phrases, and sentences using the conventions of written language, such as appropriate spelling and punctuation. By the end of level 1, learners can: use appropriate facial expressions, body language, and images to convey messages (with and without accompanying verbal language); use selected features of visual language to add meaning to simple written or oral text. Overview 67

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Level 2: Achievement Objectives, Suggested Language Learning Contexts, and Language Modes Suggested Language Learning Contexts Level 1 Language Modes Suggested sociocultural themes Suggested topics Suggested text types Achievement Objectives Students should be able to: Whakarongo – Listening Pànui – Reading Màtakitaki – Viewing Kòrero – Speaking Kòrero – Speaking Whakaari – Presenting Marae me hui marae (marae and marae gatherings) Te kura (the school) Te whànau (the extended family) Te wharekai (the dining hall) Whakapapa (genealogy) Whanaungatanga The marae: its people and places Whànau relationships (my family) My school Weather and seasons Food preferences Kìwaha (idioms) Pepeha (iwi-specific sayings) Waiata Màori (Màori songs) Whakapapa (simple family tree charts) Whakataukì (proverbs) Simple written forms Informal personal notes Photograph albums with captions Posters Questionnaires Simple email messages Simple, short dialogues Simple weather 2.1 communicate about relationships between people; 2.2 communicate about possession; 2.3_communicate about likes dislikes, giving reasons where appropriate; 2.4 communicate about time, weather, and seasons; 2.5 communicate about physical characteristics, personality, and feelings. By the end of level 2, learners can: identify sounds of letters of the Màori alphabet, letter combinations, intonation, and stress patterns; recognise and understand familiar spoken words even in some unfamiliar contexts; understand a range of short oral texts containing familiar phrases and sentences; get the gist of slightly more complex or less familiar te reo Màori phrases and sentences. By the end of level 2, learners can: identify letters of the Màori alphabet, letter combinations, and simple punctuation; recognise and understand simple, familiar written words, phrases, and sentences; understand short written texts consisting of familiar te reo Màori words, phrases, and sentences; get the gist of slightly more complex or less familiar te reo Màori phrases and sentences. By the end of level 2, learners can: respond appropriately to meanings conveyed through selected visual texts; understand and respond to combinations of visual and verbal language in selected texts. By the end of level 2, learners can: begin to use pronunciation, intonation, stress, and rhythm for emphasis and to distinguish meaning; respond appropriately to simple, familiar instructions and simple questions; ask simple questions and give simple information; initiate simple conversations in te reo Màori. By the end of level 2, learners can: write simple, familiar words, phrases, and sentences using spelling and punctuation conventions; convey simple te reo Màori messages in written form; write a series of sentences in te reo Màori describing the appearance or characteristics of something. By the end of level 2, learners can: produce visual texts to present information and/or ideas; combine visual and verbal language to present information and/or ideas. 68

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Assessment Appendix 1: Suggested learning and assessment activities The following learning and assessment activities are listed under relevant achievement objectives. The end of this appendix lists suggestions for: how teachers can monitor learners’ progress (on pages 63–65); how learners can monitor their own progress (on pages 65–66). Level 1 1.1 Greet, farewell, and thank people and respond to greetings and thanks and 1.2 Introduce themselves and others and respond to introductions Students could be learning through: observing greetings, introductions, and leave-taking (for example, on video) in different contexts and taking turns to role-play; filling in gaps in a familiar oral or written dialogue to complete the message; cutting up a dialogue into two segments (one for the first speaker and one for the second speaker) and, in pairs, each saying their part of the dialogue so that it is reconstructed; cutting up a dialogue into individual utterances, jumbling them up, and reconstructing the dialogue from the pieces; singing waiata about greetings and responses to greetings; filling in labels on pictures to indicate appropriate greetings, for example, tènà kòrua; playing a pronunciation-based board game involving picking up cards on which sentences are written and then saying these sentences as naturally as possible; reciting pepeha and identifying the iwi and/or hapù they are associated with. 1.3_Communicate about number, using days of the week, months, and dates Students could be learning through: playing number games involving adding, subtracting, and/or number patterning; singing simple number songs and songs about days and months; playing lotto or bingo; making calendars. 1.4 Communicate about personal information, such as name, age, nationality, and home Students could be learning through: simple role playing; conducting surveys, for example, asking one another about their age and other personal details and then filling these details in on computergenerated forms, or asking and answering questions using completed forms (one student role-playing the person named on the form); creating a form (for example, an ID card) with spaces for personal information details. 1.5 Communicate about location Students could be learning through: locating things according to the teacher’s directions; playing location games, such as identifying the location of assorted classroom objects located in various places around the room; ticking vocabulary items on a list or holding up word cards to show that they recognise Màori vocabulary spoken by the teacher; filling in the words on picture-based crossword puzzles; designing a code. 1.6 Understand and use simple politeness conventions (for example, ways of thanking people, apologising, excusing themselves, and complimenting people) Students could be learning through: listening to informal dialogues and identifying when participants are thanking someone, apologising, excusing themselves, or complimenting someone; filling in gaps in a familiar dialogue by providing appropriate expressions; wishing someone a safe journey, a happy Matariki, and so on, and making greetings cards for special occasions; learning and using appropriate kìwaha to praise others. 1.7 Use and respond to simple classroom language (including asking for the word to express something in te reo Màori) Students could be learning through: responding physically to classroom instructions (for example, “Haere mai”). 69

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LANGUAGES Why study a language? Languages link people locally and globally. They are spoken in the community, used internationally, and play a role in shaping the world. Oral, written, and visual forms of language link us to the past and give us access to new and different streams of thought and to beliefs and cultural practices. Te reo Māori and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) are official languages of New Zealand. Because of New Zealand’s close relationships with the peoples of the Pacific, Pasifika languages also have a special place. By learning an additional language and its related culture(s), students come to appreciate that languages and cultures are systems that are organised and used in particular ways to achieve meaning. Learning a new language extends students’ linguistic and cultural understanding and their ability to interact appropriately with other speakers. Interaction in a new language, whether face to face or technologically facilitated, introduces them to new ways of thinking about, questioning, and interpreting the world and their place in it. Through such interaction, students acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes that equip them for living in a world of diverse peoples, languages, and cultures. As they move between, and respond to, different languages and different cultural practices, they are challenged to consider their own identities and assumptions. As they learn a language, students develop their understanding of the power of language. They discover new ways of learning, new ways of knowing, and more about their own capabilities. Learning a language provides students with the cognitive tools and strategies to learn further languages and to increase their understanding of their own language(s) and culture(s). The achievement objectives in the Communication strand provide the basis for assessment. The two supporting strands, Language knowledge and Cultural knowledge, are only assessed indirectly through their contribution to the Communication strand. 70

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Learning-how-to-learn Partnership A learner’s language competence increases as responsibility for learning is transferred progressively from the teacher to the learner. To facilitate the development of language-learning skills, teachers need to: consistently build up students’ self-esteem in the context of learning French; Focus positively on achievements, acknowledging that students progress at different rates and that recognising their successes leads to further success and greater efforts in the future. continuously monitor students’ progress and respond positively to their individual and group needs; Be prepared to adapt plans and goals and to revisit material in different ways, recognising that the students are unlikely to make significant progress without a solid foundation. recognise that both accuracy and fluency are important; Create opportunities for uninterrupted fluency practice and find non- threatening ways to help the students correct errors when appropriate. understand that second languages are learned by different students in different ways; Provide a range of different kinds of activities, acknowledging that students learn in a variety of ways. accept that language acquisition is a continuous but uneven process; Remember that it is natural for students to appear from time to time to have lost ground as they go through the process of assimilating new knowledge and understanding in preparation for another period of growth and development. set clear, achievable goals with students and ensure that all the students understand their goals; Explain to the students the purposes of the different types of activities. create an effective, co-operative learning environment; Encourage the students to interact positively with one another as well as with the teacher and to actively show that they value one another’s contributions. plan activities where students work together in pairs and groups as well as individual and class activities; Provide many opportunities for the students to communicate with one another, and ensure that all students ask questions and make comments as well as responding to questions and providing information. encourage students to express their interests and preferences; Give the students opportunities to make informed decisions about their own learning and to engage with topics that they find interesting. use French for classroom management wherever possible; Encourage the students to use French to ask and respond to questions, to seek clarification, and to offer information and suggestions. recognise that not everything can be taught and that students may learn aspects of French language and culture that have not been explicitly introduced. Progressively nurture independent, self-motivated language learning. To succeed as learners of a second language, students need to: understand what they are trying to achieve in language learning; monitor their own progress towards their language-learning goals; be positive, active, and willing learners of language and culture; become aware of, and progressively build on, the language and languagelearning skills that they already have; discover and develop language skills and language-learning skills that are useful beyond the classroom; develop a range of skills to help them negotiate meaning; learn to use appropriate reference materials; feel confident in experimenting and taking risks with French as part of the language-learning process. 71

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An Approach to Programme Planning To create successful language programmes, teachers should use a planning cycle made up of a series of logical steps. (At all stages, assessment is an integral part of planning and teaching.) In planning their programmes, teachers will: identify the goals for the teaching and learning programme, including the philosophy and aims for teaching and learning French described in these guidelines; identify the needs, interests, and prior language-learning experiences of their students; identify, for each part of the programme, the achievement objectives and specific learning outcomes appropriate to the students’ needs; identify any special requirements or school policies relating to language learning; look at programme plans designed to realise shorter-term objectives (such as plans for units of work) in relation to longer-term programme-planning issues (such as school-wide timetables, levels sequencing, preparation for national awards, and possible links with programmes in other schools); look for ways of connecting language learning with other curriculum areas or specific subjects (for example, music, geography, history, or food preparation); identify suitable themes, topics, text types, structures, and vocabulary for each section of the programme; identify appropriate learning and assessment activities; decide how revision and extension activities will be integrated; select, gather, create, and adapt (where necessary) suitable resources; develop an assessment plan and a homework plan; carry through the activities; assess the students’ work against the planned outcomes; evaluate the learning programmes in terms of the planned goals; record assessment and report on results, giving clear and constructive feedback; make any necessary adjustments to the programme; revisit the philosophy and aims of the programme in the context of the adjustments made and continue on through the cycle. 72

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Level 1: Achievement Objectives with ExamplesLevel 1: Achievement Objectives with Examples, Suggested Language Focus, and Suggested Vocabulary 1.7 use and respond to simple classroom language (including asking for the word to express something in French). 1.2 introduce themselves and others and respond to introductions; 1.3 communicate using days of the week, months, and dates; 1.4 communicate about personal information, such as name, age, nationality, and home; 1.5 communicate about location; 1.6 understand and use a range of politeness conventions (e.g., ways of thanking people, apologising, excusing themselves, complimenting people); Ça va ? Ça va bien, merci. Et toi? Au revoir, Claudine. A bientôt. Merci, Jean. De rien. Bonjour. Je m’appelle Sylvie. Et voici Paul. Qui est-ce? C’est François. Aujourd’hui, nous sommes le jeudi cinq avril. Je m’appelle Sylvie. J’ai douze ans. Je suis néo-zélandaise. J’habite `a Gore en Nouvelle-Zélande. Je viens de Tonga. O`u est le livre? Sur la table. Merci beaucoup, Théo. Excusez-moi, madame, je suis en retard. C’est génial. S’il vous plaît, monsieur. Comment dit- on > en français? Ecoutez! Regardez! Répétez! Achievement Objectives Examples Students should be able to: 1.1 greet, farewell, and thank people and respond to greetings and thanks; 73

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French in the New Zealand Curriculum: Level French in the New Zealand Curriculum: Level 1 un livre français néo-zélandais(e), français(e), chinois(e), maori(e), tahitien(ne), belge l`a, ici tr`es, beaucoup le, l’, la, les un, une, des et, mais, o`u Aujourd’hui nous sommes le jeudi cinq avril. Bon anniversaire! Joyeux Noël! Bonne année! Il y a (cinq livres sur la table). ne … pas le livre, le stylo, la table … lundi, mardi, mercredi … mars, avril, septembre … Pâques, Noël, l’anniversaire … la France, la Nouvelle-Zélande, l’Australie, la Nouvelle-Calédonie, le Canada, l’Espagne sur, sous, devant, derri`ere, dans, entre `a (Wellington), en (Nouvelle-Zélande) je, tu, il, elle vous moi, toi, vous O`u est …? Qu’est-ce que c’est? C’est quoi ça?/C’est quoi? Comment tu t’appelles? Quel âge as-tu? O`u habites-tu? Quelle est la date, aujourd’hui? Tu es de quelle nationalité? Qui …? Comment dit-on …? avoir, être, s’appeler, habiter Ecoutez! Regardez! Répétez! 1–31 Suggested Language Focus Suggested Vocabulary Adjectives singular – agreement, position nationalities Adverbs location intensity Articles definite indefinite Conjunctions Formulaic expressions dates wishes for special occasions identification Negation basic Nouns classroom objects days of the week months festivals and other celebrations countries Prepositions location Pronouns – subject singular, (first, second, and third person) plural (second person) emphatic Question forms simple Verbs singular, plural (in formulaic expressions) imperative (for classroom instructions) Other letters of the alphabet numbers 74

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French in the New Zealand Curriculum: Level 1 Level 1: Suggested Learning and Assessment Activities Achievement Objectives Students could be learning through: observing greetings, introductions, and leave-taking in different contexts (e.g., on videotape) and taking turns to role-play (C); filling in labels on pictures to indicate greetings for the time of day pictured (e.g., bonsoir) (G, I). 1.3 communicate using days of the week, months, and dates Students could be learning through: solving number puzzles involving adding, subtracting, and/or number patterning (C, G); singing simple number songs (C); playing Bingo (C); creating a simple school timetable (C, P, I); ticking dates in a calendar as they listen to the names of those dates or stating the dates shown on specified calendar entries (G, P). 1.4 communicate about personal information, such as name, age, nationality, and home Students could be learning through: simple role-playing activities (C, G); contacting native speakers of French in schools and colleges overseas, communicating information (including personal information) to them, and asking them suitable questions (I); creating a form (e.g., an identity card) with spaces for personal information details (G, P, I); carrying out surveying activities. For example, the students could ask each other about their age and other personal details and fill these details in on prepared forms. They could ask and answer questions using completed forms, with one student role-playing the person named on the form (G, P). Suggested Learning and Assessment Activities The following code indicates the context in which each activity is likely to be most useful: (C) = class activity; (G) = group activity; (P) = pair work; (I) = individuals work independently. 1.1 greet, farewell, and thank people and respond to greetings and thanks 1.5 communicate about location Students could be learning through: placing things according to the teachers’ instructions (C); picking up objects and putting them in a specific relation to the teacher, responding correctly to the teacher’s instructions, while being monitored by the class (C, I); ticking vocabulary items on a list or holding up word cards to show that they recognise French vocabulary spoken by the teacher (C, G, P); 1.2 introduce themselves and others and respond to introductions Students could be learning through: filling in gaps in a familiar oral or written dialogue to complete the message (C, I); carrying out listening activities. For example, the students listen to a short dialogue in which people are introduced to one another. They then compete in groups to reassemble the dialogue from a transcript cut into individual sentences. Each student could have just one sentence (G). 75

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French in the New Zealand Curriculum: Level 1 Teachers can monitor students’ progress when they are: identifying pictures to indicate the meaning of written or spoken words; solving number puzzles; locating things in response to phrases containing expressions of place; responding to oral or written questions about personal details. Students can monitor their own progress by: keeping portfolios (including audiotapes) of their work and comparing later entries with earlier ones; matching words like un stylo or une table with pictures of objects grouped in certain ways and using an answer key; using a checklist with items such as “I can introduce people.” 1.6 understand and use a range of politeness conventions (e.g., ways of thanking people, apologising, excusing themselves, complimenting people) Students could be learning through: listening to informal dialogues and identifying when participants are thanking someone, apologising, excusing themselves, or complimenting someone (C); filling in gaps in a familiar dialogue by providing appropriate expressions (P, I); wishing someone a happy birthday or anniversary in response to cue cards (I); creating an appropriate greetings card for a birthday or festival (I). 1.7 use and respond to simple classroom language (including asking for the word to express something in French) Students could be learning through: carrying out listening activities, such as Jacques a dit, following instructions spoken in French (C, G); responding physically to classroom instructions (e.g., by coming to the teacher when the teacher says Viens ici!) (C, G); responding to spoken descriptions of actions by selecting the picture (from a set of pictures) that shows the actions described (C); carrying out physical movement activities. For example, working in pairs, each student could select five picture cards from a series of ten that show actions that the teacher might ask them to do (e.g., open their books). One student could mime an instruction represented on one of their picture cards and the other student could perform the action they think is required. Then together, from a list of written requests, they could choose the sentence that best represents that request (P). Some of the activities listed, at all levels, could be carried out using simple computer-based word-processing packages and clip art and thus help to strengthen students’ computer skills. 76

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MATHEMATICS Focus Objectives. To recognise patterns and the general rule for any given pattern To explain the meaning of any given number To develop a sound knowledge of the metric system and to be able to apply this knowledge in practical situations. Statement Numeracy arises out of effective mathematics teaching. All the strands ion the mathematics curriculum are important in the pathway to numeracy. Number is central to this pathway although the relative emphasis on this strand changes with the stages of schooling. In the first four years of schooling the main emphasis should be on the number strand. In the middle and upper primary years of schooling the emphasis is spread across the strands of the curriculum Towards the end of schooling number sense becomes a tool for use across the other strands At all stages students should: Develop an understanding of numbers, the ways they are represented and the quantities for which they stand Develop accuracy, efficiency and confidence in calculating mentally, on paper and with calculators Develop the ability to estimate and to make approximations and to be alert to the reasonableness of results and measurements These achievement aims enable students to develop the ability and inclination to use mathematics to solve problems in a range of contexts. Strategy Stages Stage zero Emergent Stage One One to one counting Stage Two Counting on materials Stage ThreeCounting by Imaging Stage FourAdvanced Counting (counting on) Stage FiveEarly Additive Part-whole Stage Six Advanced additive part-whole Stage seven Advanced multiplicative Part-whole Stage eightAdvance proportional Part-whole 77

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Mathematics Standards After one year at school, students will be achieving at early level 1 in the mathematics and statistics learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum. Number and algebraNumber and algebra | Geometry and measurement | StatisticsGeometry and measurementStatistics The following problems and descriptions of student thinking exemplify what is required to meet this standard. Number and algebra In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: apply counting-all strategies continue sequential patterns and number patterns based on ones. During this school year, 'number' should be the focus of 60–80 percent of mathematics teaching time. Example 1 Imagine you have 4 teddies. You get 5 more teddies. How many teddies do you have now? The student gets the correct answer of 9 teddies by counting all of the objects: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. They may do so by imaging the teddies, preferably, or by using substituted materials (e.g., ﬁngers or counters). If they successfully use a more sophisticated strategy, such as counting on or doubling, they exceed the expectation. Example 2 Imagine you have 8 strawberries. You eat 3. How many strawberries do you have left? The student gets the correct answer of 5 strawberries by counting all the objects (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8) and then counting back (7, 6, 5). They may do so by imaging the strawberries, preferably, or by using substituted materials (e.g., fingers or counters). If they successfully use a more sophisticated strategy, such as immediately counting back from 8 or using known facts, they exceed the expectation. 78

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Example 3 Here are 3 kete. There are 3 kūmara in each kete. How many kūmara are there altogether? The student gets the correct answer of 9 kūmara by counting all of the objects: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. They may do so by imaging the kūmara, preferably, or by using substituted materials (e.g., fingers or counters). If they successfully use a more sophisticated strategy, such as skip-counting (3, 6, 9), they exceed the expectation. Example 4 Build up the pattern below with your animal cards, one animal at a time, in front of the student. Which animal comes next in the pattern? How do you know? The student identifies which animal comes next (the pig) by attending to its relative position in the repeating sequence: cow, pig, sheep. Geometry and measurement In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: compare the lengths, areas, volumes or capacities, and weights of objects directly sort objects and shapes by a single feature and describe the feature, using everyday language represent reﬂections and translations by creating patterns describe personal locations and give directions, using everyday language. 79

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Example 5 Provide water in an ungraduated jug or bottle and 3 containers that are similar in capacity. Use water to find out which container holds the most. The student pours water directly from one container to another to find out which holds the most. Example 6 Provide the student with a set of attribute blocks. Sort the blocks into families. What is the same about the blocks in each family? The student sorts the blocks by a feature of their choice and explains their sorting. The feature may be colour, size, shape, thickness, or some other characteristic, such as number of sides, symmetry, 'pointiness', or 'roundness'. Example 7 Sit with the student at their desk in the classroom. Imagine I am standing at the door. I need to get to where Rawiri sits. Tell me how to get to his seat. The student gives clear directions that lead you to Rawiri’s seat. They may tell you to move backwards or forwards and to turn right or left. If the student specifies distances in steps or metres or uses half- or quarter-turns, they exceed the expectation. Statistics In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: investigate questions by using the statistical enquiry cycle (with support), gathering, displaying, and/or counting category data. 80

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Example 8 Provide the student with the animal cards shown, randomly arranged. Arrange the cards so that someone else can see how many of each animal there are at the zoo. How many zebras are there? Which animal is there most of? The student sorts the animals into categories and displays the number of animals in each category, using a set grouping or pictograph as above. They correctly answer that there are 4 zebras and more monkeys than any other animal. 81

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After two years at schoolAfter two years at school, students will be achieving at level 1 in the mathematics and statistics learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum. Number and algebraNumber and algebra | Geometry and measurement | StatisticsGeometry and measurementStatistics The following problems and descriptions of student thinking exemplify what is required to meet this standard. Number and algebra In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: apply counting-on, counting-back, skip-counting, and simple grouping strategies to combine or partition whole numbers use equal sharing and symmetry to find fractions of sets, shapes, and quantities create and continue sequential patterns by identifying the unit of repeat continue number patterns based on ones, twos, fives, and tens. During this school year, 'number' should be the focus of 60–80 percent of mathematics teaching time. Example 1 Imagine you have 9 stamps and 12 letters. How many more stamps would you need to post all the letters? The student gets the correct answer of 3 stamps by counting on 10, 11, 12 and tracking the count of 3. Alternatively, they may count back 11, 10, 9, tracking the count of 3. If the student successfully uses a part–whole strategy, they exceed the expectation (e.g., '9 stamps and 1 more is 10, and that leaves 2 more stamps, which is 12', or '12 is 4 threes, and 9 is only 3 threes, so I need 3 more stamps'). 82

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Example 2 Imagine there are 49 birds sitting in the tree. Another 4 birds come along. How many birds are in the tree now? The student gets the correct answer of 53 birds by counting on 50, 51, 52, 53 and tracking the count of 4. They may track the count by imaging or using substitute materials, including fingers. If the student successfully uses a part–whole strategy (e.g., '49 and 1 is 50; that leaves 3 more birds, so there are 53 birds in the tree'), they exceed the expectation. Example 3 Here is a string of 12 sausages to feed 2 hungry dogs. Each dog should get the same number of sausages. How many will each dog get? The student uses equal sharing to distribute the sausages between the dogs. This might involve skip-counting ('2 sausages makes 1 each, 4 sausages makes 2 each... 12 sausages makes 6 each') while tracking the count mentally or with fingers, or it might involve halving, that is, dividing 12 into 6 and 6. (Note that 6 and 6 is a symmetrical partitioning of 12.) Example 4 Show the student a number strip with coloured cubes lined up along it, as in the diagram below. Provide extra coloured cubes. What colour cube goes on the number 13 in this pattern? 83

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Geometry and measurement In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: compare the lengths, areas, volumes or capacities, and weights of objects and the durations of events, using self-chosen units of measurement sort objects and shapes by different features and describe the features, using mathematical language represent reflections and translations by creating and describing patterns describe personal locations and give directions, using steps and half- or quarter-turns. Example 5 Place 3 pencils of different lengths end-on-end with gaps between them, as shown. Give the student a collection of white, red, and light green Cuisenaire™ rods. Place rods underneath each pencil to show how long it is. Without moving the pencils, can you tell me how much longer the orange pencil is than the blue pencil? The student places the same-coloured rods, with no gaps or overlaps, from one end to the other of each pencil. 84

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Example 6 The students work in pairs. One student has a picture of a group of attribute blocks laid out in a certain way. The other student has a set of actual attribute blocks. Without showing their partner the picture or pointing to the blocks, the first student describes to the second how to arrange the group of blocks so that it matches the picture, and the second student follows their instructions. The student giving the instructions uses the appropriate positional language and geometric terms for shapes, and they accurately describe colours and turns (half and quarter). The other student is able to assemble the figure correctly with no errors in position or orientation of shapes. Return to top Statistics In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: investigate questions by using the statistical enquiry cycle (with support), gathering, displaying, and/or identifying similarities and differences in category data describe the likelihoods of outcomes for a simple situation involving chance, using everyday language. Example 7 Provide the student with the graph. It’s readathon week. Five students make this graph to show how many books each of them reads during 85

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the first day. Each time they finish reading a book, they add a book to the graph. How many books does each student read in the first day? How many more books does Aroha read than Leilani? Do the girls read more books than the boys? The student is able to say how many books individual students read (e.g., 'Kate reads 6 books. Sione reads 7.'). The student finds the difference between the number of books read by Aroha and Leilani by counting on or back (e.g., 'Aroha reads 6 more books than Leilani. I just counted the extra ones.'). To compare the total books read by girls and boys, the student needs to recognise which names are girls’ names and which are boys’. (You may need to help.) They count up the total for both and compare them. If the student uses additive thinking rather than counting, they exceed the expectation (e.g., 'The boys read 8 books and 7 books. 8 + 7 = 15 because 7 + 7 = 14'). If the student realises that the comparison is not representative (or fair) because there are 3 girls and only 2 boys, they exceed the expectation. The student should be able to ask their own comparison questions about the data, for example, 'How many more books does Oliver read than Kate?' Example 8 Let the student watch as you put 4 blue cubes and 1 yellow cube into a paper bag. Put your hand in the bag and take out a cube, but don’t look at it. What colour will it be? The student identifies the two possible outcomes. If they omit one of them (e.g., 'It will be blue because there are more of them') or identify an outcome that is not possible (e.g., 'It will be green because that is my favourite colour'), they do not meet the expectation. If the student states that getting a blue cube is more likely than a yellow cube because there are more blue cubes than yellow cubes in the bag, they exceed the expectation. 86

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After three years at schoolAfter three years at school, students will be achieving at early level 2 in the mathematics and statistics learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum. Number and algebraNumber and algebra | Geometry and measurement | StatisticsGeometry and measurementStatistics The following problems and descriptions of student thinking exemplify what is required to meet this standard. Number and algebra In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: apply basic addition facts and knowledge of place value and symmetry to: - combine or partition whole numbers - find fractions of sets, shapes, and quantities create and continue sequential patterns with one or two variables by identifying the unit of repeat continue spatial patterns and number patterns based on simple addition or subtraction. During this school year, 'number' should be the focus of 60–80 percent of mathematics teaching time. Example 1 You have 18 turtles, and you buy another 8 turtles from the pet shop. How many turtles do you have now? The student could use 'making tens' (e.g., '18 + 2 = 20; that leaves 6 remaining from the 8; 20 + 6 = 26') or apply their knowledge of doubles and place value (e.g., '18 = 10 + 8; first add the 8, then the 10; 8 + 8 = 16, 16 + 10 = 26'). If the student responds very quickly because they know the fact 18 + 8 = 26, this also meets the expectation. If the student counts on, they do not meet the expectation. 87

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Example 2 87 people are at the pōwhiri (welcome). 30 of the people are tangata whenua (locals). The rest of the people are manuhiri (visitors). How many manuhiri are there? The student uses place value knowledge, combined with either addition or subtraction, to solve the problem. They may add on (30 + 50 = 80, 80 + 7 = 87) or subtract (80 – 30 = 50, so 87 – 30 = 57). If they use counting up or back in tens (e.g., 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 87), they do not meet the expectation. If they use a pencil and paper method to subtract 0 from 7 and 3 from 8, this doesn’t necessarily demonstrate enough understanding of place value to meet the expectation. If they use this method, they must show that they understand the place value of the digits and that they are not treating them all as ones. Example 3 Here is a string of 12 sausages to feed 3 hungry dogs. Each dog should get the same number of sausages. How many will each dog get? The student applies basic addition facts to share out the sausages equally between the dogs. Their thinking could be based on doubles or equal dealing – for example, 5 + 5 + 2 = 12, so 4 + 4 + 4 = 12 (redistributing 1 from each 5), or 6 + 6 = 12, so 4 + 4 + 4 = 12, or 2 + 2 + 2 = 6, so 4 + 4 + 4 = 12. If the student solves the problem by one-to-one equal sharing, they do not meet the expectation. If they solve the problem using multiplication facts (3 x 4 = 12 or 12 ÷ 3 = 4), they exceed the expectation. 88

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Example 4 Show the student the illustration below. What shape goes on the number 14 in this pattern? What colour will it be? The student identifies the two variables (shape and colour) in the pattern. They might look at the variables separately and identify the unit of repeat for each ('Yellow, blue, red' and 'Triangle, circle'). Or they might look at the variables together to identify the complete unit of repeat ('Yellow triangle, blue circle, red triangle, yellow circle, blue triangle, red circle'). They continue the pattern until they identify that the shape on number 14 is a blue circle. If the student recognises that multiples of 2 in the pattern are circles and multiples of 3 are red and uses this information to solve the problem, they exceed the expectation. Geometry and measurement In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: measure the lengths, areas, volumes or capacities, and weights of objects and the duration of events, using linear whole-number scales and applying basic addition facts to standard units sort objects and two- and three-dimensional shapes by their features, identifying categories within categories represent reflections, translations, and rotations by creating and describing patterns describe personal locations and give directions, using whole-number measures and half- or quarter-turns. 89

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Example 5 Give the student 3 pencils of different lengths and a ruler. Use the ruler to find the length of each pencil. How much longer is the green pencil than the red pencil? The student correctly measures the length of each pencil to the nearest centimetre: they align the end of the pencil with zero on the scale and read off the measure correctly. They apply basic addition facts to find the difference in length between the green and red pencils (e.g., for 12 centimetres and 9 centimetres: '3 centimetres, because 10 + 2 = 12, so 9 + 3 = 12'; or '3 centimetres, because I know 9 + 3 = 12'). Example 6 Give the student a circle of paper. Fold this circle into 8 equal-sized pieces. The student uses reflective symmetry through repeated halving to partition the circle into eighths. Example 7 Give the student a metre ruler or tape measure and show them the illustrations below. Write a set of instructions to explain to a visitor how to get from the library door to our classroom door. Make sure you include any right or left turns and distances in metres. You can use pictures to give the instructions, like this: You can also use pictures or descriptions of objects such as buildings or trees. The student provides a set of instructions that are accurate enough for a visitor to find their way to the classroom door from the library. If the student specifies compass directions or clockwise or anti-clockwise turns, they exceed the expectation. 90

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Statistics In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: investigate questions by using the statistical enquiry cycle (with support): - gather and display category and simple whole-number data - interpret displays in context compare and explain the likelihoods of outcomes for a simple situation involving chance. Example 8 Each student writes the number of people that usually live in their house on a square of paper or a sticker. How many people live in the houses of students in our class? Arrange the squares to find out. What can you say about your arrangement? 91

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The student The student sorts the whole-number data into groups. They may display the data in enclosed groupings or in a more organised display, such as a bar graph. The student makes a statement about the number of people living in students’ houses, based on their sorting of the data, for example, 'There are lots of different numbers of people living in houses, from 2 to 9' or '5 is the most common number of people'. Example 9 Let the student watch as you put 3 blue cubes, 2 yellow cubes, and a red cube into a paper bag. Put your hand in the bag and take out a cube, but don’t look at it. What colour is the cube most likely to be? What colour is it least likely to be? Explain why. The student classifies the probability of getting each colour ('Blue is most likely, and red is least likely'). They discuss the numbers and colours of cubes to explain their answer (e.g., 'There are 3 blue cubes and only 1 red cube'). If the student gives the probabilities as fractions (e.g., 'There is a one-half chance of blue'), they exceed the expectation. If they explain the likelihoods without reference to the number of cubes (e.g., 'Yellow is my lucky colour' or 'I always get red'), they do not meet the expectation. 92

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By the end of year 4, students By the end of year 4, students will be achieving at level 2 in the mathematics and statistics learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum. Number and algebraNumber and algebra | Geometry and measurement | StatisticsGeometry and measurementStatistics The following problems and descriptions of student thinking exemplify what is required to meet this standard. Number and algebra In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: apply basic addition and subtraction facts, simple multiplication facts, and knowledge of place value and symmetry to: - combine or partition whole numbers - find fractions of sets, shapes, and quantities create, continue, and give the rule for sequential patterns with two variables create and continue spatial patterns and number patterns based on repeated addition or subtraction. During this school year, 'number' should be the focus of 60–80 percent of mathematics teaching time. Example 1 Imagine you have 37 lollies and you eat 9 of them. How many lollies would you have left? The student gets to the answer 28 by mentally partitioning numbers (e.g., 9 = 7 + 2 in the first calculation) and by using tidy numbers (e.g., 10 in the second calculation). Source: Numeracy Development Projects. (2008). Book 2: The diagnostic interview, p. 8. Example 2 If there are 24 marbles in the bag, how many should each student get? 93

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The student applies their knowledge of symmetry or number facts to partition the set of 24 – for example, by using repeated halving or by using trial and improvement with addition facts. If the student knows or derives the fact 4 x 6 = 24, they exceed the expectation. 94

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Example 3 Here is a 3-section matchstick fence. How many matchsticks would it take to make an 8-section fence? The student continues the number pattern by using repeated addition, possibly in conjunction with written recording. If the student draws an 8-section fence and then counts the matchsticks, they do not meet the expectation. Using a multiplicative strategy (e.g., (7 x 3) + 4 = 25 or (8 x 3) + 1 = 25) exceeds the expectation. Geometry and measurement In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: measure the lengths, areas, volumes or capacities, weights, and temperatures of objects and the duration of events, reading scales to the nearest whole number and applying addition, subtraction, and simple multiplication to standard units sort objects and two- and three-dimensional shapes by two features simultaneously represent and describe the symmetries of a shape create nets for cubes describe personal locations and give directions, using simple maps Example 4 Give the student the 3 items shown and the torn measuring tape. Measure the lengths of the bookmark, snake, and ribbon, using the tape measure. 95

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Example 5 Give the student the diagram and attribute blocks as per the illustration. Put all the yellow blocks on Yellow Street. Put all the big blocks on Big Lane Which blocks should go in the intersection? The student simultaneously sorts the blocks by 2 features, size and colour, in order to place the blocks that are both big and yellow in the intersection. Example 6 Give the student cards with the letters shown below on them. The letter C has one line of reflective symmetry. The letter S has half-turn symmetry. What reflective and turn symmetry do these letters have? 96

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Statistics In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: investigate questions by using the statistical enquiry cycle independently: - gather and display category and simple whole-number data - interpret displays in context compare and explain the likelihoods of outcomes for a simple situation involving chance, acknowledging uncertainty. Example 7 Here are 2 graphs showing information on a group of children’s favourite junk foods. What percentage of children said biscuits were their favourite junk food? Which graph did you use to work this out? Why did you use that graph? Which junk food did half the children say was their favourite junk food? Which graph did you use to work this out? Why did you use that graph? The student answers questions 1 and 2 correctly by reading from one of the graphs. They justify their choice of graph by explaining how it provides the required information. For question 1, they will use the bar graph, which gives number information. The pie chart shows proportions and is therefore the easier display to use in answering question 2. However, the student may also use the bar graph, noting that 50 percent is the same as a half. 97

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Example 8 Ask the student to play the game ‘Will your parents let you?’ Give them 3 different-coloured dice with different mixes of yes and no faces. The red dice has 5 yes faces and 1 no face, blue has 3 yes faces and 3 no faces, and green has 1 yes face and 5 no faces. Show the student a number of coloured cards with illustrated scenarios, as in the following examples. The red cards show scenarios that parents are likely to say yes to; blue cards show scenarios that parents may or may not agree to; and green cards show scenarios that are unlikely to be allowed. The student chooses one card at a time. They roll a red dice if they have chosen a red card, a blue dice if they chose a blue card, and a green dice after choosing a green card. Once the dice gives them an answer, they put that card in a yes pile or a no pile. What do you notice about the colours of the cards in the yes pile and in the no pile? Can you explain this by looking at the 3 dice? Imagine there’s something you really want to do. Which dice would you use to find out whether you can do it or not? Will you get a yes when you roll that dice? The student should notice that the yes pile contains lots of red cards and the no pile contains lots of green cards. They should be able to explain that this is because the red dice has more yes faces than the green one. In answer to question 2, the student should reply that the red dice would be best because it gives the best chance of getting a yes. They should acknowledge that a no answer is still possible with the red dice, even though a yes answer is more likely. 98

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By the end of year 5, By the end of year 5, students will be achieving at level 3 in the mathematics and statistics learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum. Number and algebraNumber and algebra | Geometry and measurement | StatisticsGeometry and measurementStatistics The following problems and descriptions of student thinking exemplify what is required to meet this standard. Number and algebra In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: apply additive and simple multiplicative strategies and knowledge of symmetry to: - combine or partition whole numbers - find fractions of sets, shapes, and quantities create, continue, and predict further members of sequential patterns with two variables describe spatial and number patterns, using rules that involve spatial features, repeated addition or subtraction, and simple multiplication. During this school year, 'number' should be the focus of 50–70 percent of mathematics teaching time. Example 1 There are 53 people on the bus. 26 people get off. How many people are left on the bus? The student uses an efficient part–whole strategy for subtraction, such as subtracting in parts (e.g., 53 – 6 = 47, 47 – 20 = 27; or 53 – 20 = 33, 33 – 6 = 27) or subtracting a tidy number (e.g., 53 – 30 = 23, 23 + 4 = 27). If they count back or use repeated subtraction (e.g., 53 – 10 = 43, 43 – 10 = 33 …), they do not meet the expectation. If they use inverse relationships between subtraction and addition, such as adding on (e.g., 26 + 4 = 30, 30 + 23 = 53, 4 + 23 = 27, so 26 + 27 = 53) or doubling (e.g., 26 + 26 = 52, so 26 + 27 = 53), they exceed the expectation. If the student uses a written algorithm to solve the problem, they must explain the place value partitioning involved. Source: NumPA, Numeracy Development Projects, Book 2: The diagnostic interview, p. 8. Example 2 How much does it cost to buy 4 pairs of socks and 8 hankies? 99

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The student will generally use some form of written recording when working through this problem. Solving the problem using only mental calculations is also acceptable. The student uses multiplication facts and addition to correctly solve the problem. They may do so in any order and may work out the multiplication facts if they do not know them (e.g., by calculating 4 x 6 as double 2 x 6 or 8 x 3 as 10 x 3 – 6). The addition should make use of part–whole strategies (e.g., 24 + 24 = 40 + 8 = 48). Vertical algorithms should not be needed for this problem. If the student uses repeated addition (e.g., 6 + 6 + 6 + 6 + 3 + 3 …), they do not meet the expectation. If they use only multiplication (e.g., ‘4 x 6 = 8 x 3, so the total cost is 8 x 6 = 48’), they exceed the expectation. Example 3 Show the student the following illustration. Scooters need 2 wheels. Tricycles need 3 wheels. Pushchairs need 4 wheels. Cars with trailers need 6 wheels. Trucks need 8 wheels. 100

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The factory orders 48 wheels. How many of each toy can they make with the 48 wheels? The student uses known multiplication facts or builds up answers with addition and multiplication. For example, to find how many twos are in 48 (for scooters), they may use doubles knowledge (24 + 24 = 48). To find how many threes are in 48 (for tricycles), they may use addition and multiplication (e.g., 12 x 3 = 36, so 13 x 3 = 36 + 3 = 39, 14 x 3 = …). If they use properties of multiplication efficiently, they exceed the expectation (e.g., 48 ÷ 3 is the same as 30 ÷ 3 = 10 plus 18 ÷ 3 = 6, so 48 ÷ 3 = 16; or 48 ÷ 6 = 8 (known fact), so 48 ÷ 3 = 16). Example 4 Show the student the following patterns. How many tiles will be in pattern 4? How do you know? How many tiles will be in pattern 6? Explain how you know. The student identifies the rule for the pattern – that it is growing by four tiles each time because one tile is added to each arm. They use either addition (e.g., 5 + 4 = 9, 9 + 4 = 13) or multiplication (e.g., 4 x 3 = 12, 12 + 1 = 13) to find the number of tiles in pattern 4. To find the number of tiles in pattern 6, they may use repeated addition (e.g., 13 + 4 = 17, 17 + 4 = 21) or multiplication (e.g., 4 x 5 = 20, 20 + 1 = 21). If they use counting on combined with drawing, they do not meet the expectation. Geometry and measurement In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: measure time and the attributes of objects, choosing appropriate standard units and working with them to the nearest tenth sort two- and three-dimensional shapes, considering the presence and/or absence of features simultaneously and justifying the decisions made represent and describe the results of reflection, rotation, and translation on shapes create nets for rectangular prisms draw plan, front, and side views of objects 101

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Example 5 Give the student access to water, a capacity measure (e.g., a marked jug), a funnel, a 3 litre bottle, an unmarked 250 milli-litre plastic cup, and kitchen scales. Find out how much water the plastic cup holds. Without using the bottle, estimate how many cups you could pour from a: a) 1 litre bottle b) 3 litre bottle c) 1.5 litre bottle. Use the scales to find out the weight of the 3 litre bottle when it is full of water. How much would a full 1.5 litre bottle weigh? Use the scales to check your answer. The student correctly reads the scales on the capacity measure and the kitchen scales to the nearest whole number (e.g., 'The full 3 litre bottle weighs 3 kilograms') or the nearest tenth (e.g., when weighing a half-full 3 litre bottle). They use their knowledge of place value and multiplication to connect results (e.g., 'A 1 litre bottle holds 4 cups because 4 x 250 = 1000 mL' and 'A 3 litre bottle holds 12 cups because 3 x 4 = 12'). If the student uses their knowledge of conversions between units (e.g., '1 litre of water weighs 1 kilogram, so 1.5 litres weighs 1.5 kilograms'), they exceed the expectation. Source: adapted from Figure it out – Measurement, levels 2–3, p. 6. Example 6 Show the student the following illustration. Will the drawing look like A, B, C, D, or E when it is reflected in the mirror? Why? The student correctly identifies D as the answer. They explain their choice by referring to features that change or do not change, for example, ‘The dog has to be upside down’, ‘It has to be facing the same way’, ‘It must still have straight legs and a bent tail’. 102

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Example 7 Show the student the following illustration. What things are at B4 and C2 on the map? What is the location of the treasure? The pirate wants to use his compass to get back to his ship. In what direction should he go? The student correctly names the objects at B4 (a hut) and C2 (a tree) and gives the location of the treasure as G5. They state that the pirate must travel south-east to get to his ship, and they can trace his path. Statistics In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: investigate summary and comparison questions by using the statistical enquiry cycle: - gather, display, and identify patterns in category and whole-number data - interpret results in context order the likelihoods of outcomes for simple situations involving chance, experimenting or listing all possible outcomes. Example 8 Ask each student in the class to measure their height to the nearest centimetre and to record it on a sticker. Put the stickers onto a board or photocopy them as data cards. Sort and display the heights of the students in our class. What patterns can you find in the data? The student sorts the heights from shortest to tallest. They are able to group the measurements into intervals and use displays for comparison, with or without the use of computer technology. For example: The student makes statements about the data based on the ideas of middle, spread, and clustering, for example, ‘The middle height is about 133 centimetres’, ‘We are between 105 and 155 centimetres tall’, ‘Most people are between 130 and 150 centimetres tall’. 103

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Example 9 Students play the following game with a pack containing 10 digit cards (0, 1, 2... 9). Give the student these four scenarios and ask them to compare the chances of winning. The student compares the probabilities of winning in the various scenarios by assessing the likelihood of getting a number between the two that are exposed. They may list the possibilities: the number 5 for between 4 and 6; 3, 4, 5, 6 for between 2 and 7; and so on. To meet the expectation, the student orders the probabilities correctly, noting that 2–7 and 3–8 have equal likelihood. 4–6 is the least likely to win and 1–9 the most likely. If the student uses fractions to order the probabilities, they exceed the expectation (e.g., 'There is a one-half (4 out of 8) chance of getting a card between 2 and 7'). 104

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By the end of year 6By the end of year 6, students will be achieving at level 3 in the mathematics and statistics learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum. Number and algebraNumber and algebra | Geometry and measurement | StatisticsGeometry and measurementStatistics The following problems and descriptions of student thinking exemplify what is required to meet this standard. Number and algebra In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: apply additive and simple multiplicative strategies flexibly to: - combine or partition whole numbers, including performing mixed operations and using addition and subtraction as inverse operations - find fractions of sets, shapes, and quantities determine members of sequential patterns, given their ordinal positions describe spatial and number patterns, using: - tables and graphs - rules that involve spatial features, repeated addition or subtraction, and simple multiplication. During this school year, ‘number’ should be the focus of 50–70 percent of mathematics teaching time. Example 1 Mitchell had 231 toy sports cars. He sold 78 of them. How many cars did he have left? The student solves the problem by using an efficient strategy that involves mental calculation and place value understanding. They may draw on the inverse relationship of addition and subtraction, as illustrated in the speech bubble below. Use of recording is acceptable. If the student uses a vertical algorithm to solve the problem, they must explain the place value partitioning involved. 105

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Example 2 What fractions of the whole birthday cake are pieces A and B? Explain your answer. You have 60 jelly beans to decorate the top of the cake. If the jelly beans are spread evenly, how many of them will be on 4−10 of the cake? The student uses either rotational symmetry, mapping how many of A or B will fit into a full turn, or multiplication to correctly name the fractions (e.g., 'B is 1−5 of 1−2, so it is −10'). They use division and multiplication to find the number of jelly beans on four- tenths of the cake (e.g., '60 ÷ 10 = 6 jelly beans on 1−10, 4 x 6 = 24 jelly beans'). Example 3 This is how the tapatoru pattern grows. How many crosses will be in the 20th tapatoru pattern? Show how you worked out your answer. The student uses repeated addition or a multiplication rule in conjunction with a recording strategy. Alternatively, they might use spatial features of the pattern to solve the problem (e.g., by noting there’s an extra cross on each side as the pattern grows). Geometry and measurement In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: measure time and the attributes of objects, choosing appropriate standard units use arrays to find the areas of rectangles and the volumes of cuboids, given whole-number dimensions sort two- and three-dimensional shapes (including prisms), considering given properties simultaneously and justifying the decisions made represent and describe the results of reflection, rotation, and translation on shapes or patterns identify nets for rectangular prisms draw or make objects, given their plan, front, and side views 106

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Example 4 When you put a jar over a burning candle, the flame will soon go out. This is because the flame uses up the oxygen in the jar. Do this activity with a classmate. Before you start, draw up a table like this: Get five jars of different sizes. Using a stopwatch, time how long the candle flame takes to go out after you put each jar over it. Do this 3 times for each jar and then record the middle time on your table. Measure each jar’s capacity by filling it with water and pouring the water into a measuring jug. Record the measurements in your table. Can you predict how long the flame will take to go out if you know the capacity of the jar. Stick the candle in the base of an ice cream container. Put about 2 centimetres of water in the container. Put the jar over the lighted candle. Water rises up into the jar as the oxygen is used up. Estimate what fraction of the air in the jar was oxygen. The student carries out the investigation in an organized manner. They accurately measure both time and capacity, using appropriate units and devices. They use their measurement data to ‘generalise’ the time required for a candle flame to go out (about 3 seconds per 100mL of air). They estimate the fraction of the air in the jar that was oxygen as approximately one-fifth or 20 percent. (Note that the rise in water is due to a change in pressure, but it gives a reasonable estimate for the fraction of the air that was oxygen.) 107

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Example 5 Show the student the following illustration. Explain that they have to answer the question without physically cutting or folding the paper. How many of these nets will fold up to make the box? Which ones are they? The student correctly identifies that three nets – B, D, and E – will fold to make the cuboid model (a rectangular prism). They understand that the model must have four rectangular faces and two square faces, and they can visualise whether the faces overlap when folded and how the connected faces form parts of the model. 108

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Example 6 Provide the student with interlocking cubes and the following illustration. Here are drawings for 3 buildings. The projections (plan, front, and side views) and isometric views have been mixed up, and one of the isometric drawings is missing. Match the projections with the isometric views for 2 of the buildings. Then use the projections of the third building to assemble it, using interlocking cubes. If you can, draw an isometric view of this building. The student correctly matches the projections and isometric views for two buildings (building B with isometric view 2; building C with isometric view 1). They then accurately assemble a model of a building that agrees with the projections for building A. If they draw an accurate isometric view of their building, they exceed the expectation. 109

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Statistics In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: investigate summary and comparison questions by using the statistical enquiry cycle: - gather or access multivariate category and whole-number data - sort data into categories or intervals, display it in different ways, and identify patterns - interpret results in context, accepting that samples vary; order the likelihoods of outcomes for situations involving chance, considering experimental results and models of all possible outcomes. Example 7 Have each student in the class create a data card with answers to the following questions: Are you a boy or a girl? Can you whistle? Are you the oldest, the youngest, the only, or a middle child in your family? Which hand do you usually write with? Photocopy all the data cards onto A4 paper. Organise the students into pairs, hand out a set of data cards to each pair, and have them cut out all the data cards. Suggest some different types of questions that could be answered from the data – for example, summary questions like 'Can more people whistle than can’t whistle?' or comparison questions like 'Are more boys or girls left-handed?' Sort the class data to find the answers to your questions and display the results using graphs so that your classmates can clearly see the answers. 110

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The student The student asks summary and comparison questions that can be answered using the information provided by the data cards. They sort and present the data in ways that clearly answer their questions and communicate their findings. To highlight differences, they use pictographs or bar graphs (made from the data cards). To highlight proportions, they might use strip graphs or pie charts. Source: NZ mathsNZ maths Example 8 When you toss two coins together, you could get these results: Toss two coins 24 times. Each time you toss, put a new counter on a graph to show what you got, like this: What does the graph show? Draw a diagram to explain why this happens. The student’s results will almost certainly suggest that the likelihood of heads-heads or tails-tails is less than that of one head and one tail. To explain their results, they should develop a model of all possible outcomes. Suitable models include: 111

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By the end of year 7By the end of year 7, students will be achieving at level 4 in the mathematics and statistics learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum. Number and algebraNumber and algebra | Geometry and measurement | StatisticsGeometry and measurementStatistics The following problems and descriptions of student thinking exemplify what is required to meet this standard. Number and algebra In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: apply additive and multiplicative strategies flexibly to whole numbers, ratios, and equivalent fractions (including percentages) apply additive strategies to decimals balance positive and negative amounts find and represent relationships in spatial and number patterns, using: - tables and graphs - general rules for linear relationships. During this school year, 'number' should be the focus of 40–60 percent of mathematics teaching time. Example 1 There are 6 baskets and 24 muffins in each basket. How many muffins are there altogether? The student uses an efficient multiplicative strategy to solve the problem mentally. This might involve drawing on their knowledge of place value (e.g., 6 x 20 + 6 x 4), working 112

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Example 2 Tama has 4.95 litres of petrol in one can and 7.5 litres in the other can. How much petrol does he have altogether? The student demonstrates their understanding of decimal place value when combining the amounts. Appropriate strategies include using compensation (e.g., 4.95 + 7.5 = 4.45 + 8 = 12.45), working with tidy numbers (e.g., 5 + 7.5 = 12.5, so 4.95 + 7.5 = 12.45), or drawing on knowledge of place value (e.g., 4 + 7 = 11 and 0.9 + 0.5 = 1.4, so 4.95 + 7.5 = 12.45). If the student combines place values inappropriately (e.g., 4.95 + 7.5 = 11.100 or 4.95 + 7.5 = 11.145), they do not meet the expectation. If they use a vertical algorithm to solve the problem, they must explain the place value partitioning involved. Example 3 Show the student the following illustration. The Smith family and the Hohepa family are both driving home from their holidays. Which family has travelled the greatest distance? The student shows that they understand that the value of a fraction of an amount depends on both the fraction and the amount. They do so by calculating the distance each family has travelled, using multiplication and division (e.g., 1−3 of 180 = 180 ÷ 3 = 60). If the student recognises that 4−6 is equivalent to 2−3, the second calculation is considerably simplified ( 2−3 of 90 = 90 ÷ 3 x 2 = 60). If the student bases their answer on just the amounts (e.g., 'The Smiths because 180 is greater than 90') or just the fractions (e.g., 'The Hohepas because 4−6 is greater than 1−3'), they do not meet the expectation. If they notice and use the doubling and halving relationship ( 1−3 of 180 = 4−6 of 90 because 4−6 = 2 x 1−3 ), they exceed the expectation. 113

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Example 4 Show students the following illustration. Funky Furniture sells tables that can be joined together for large meetings. Tables and chairs are set up this way. If a line of 24 tables is set out like this, how many chairs will be needed? Can you give a rule for the number of chairs needed for any given number of tables? The student recognises that 3 extra chairs are needed for each extra table. They apply multiplicative thinking to calculate the number of chairs needed for 24 tables (e.g., '21 more tables x 3 = 63 extra chairs, 11 + 63 = 74 chairs altogether' or '5 chairs for table one + 23 tables x 3 = 74 chairs altogether'). The student devises a general rule for any number of tables (e.g., 'Multiply the number of tables by 3 and add 2'). If they give an algebraic equation (e.g., 'If x = tables and y = chairs, then y = 3x + 2'), they exceed the expectation. Geometry and measurement In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: measure time and the attributes of objects, using metric and other standard measures make simple conversions between units, using whole numbers use side or edge lengths to find the perimeters and areas of rectangles and parallelograms and the volumes of cuboids, given whole-number dimensions sort two- and three-dimensional shapes into classes, defining properties and justifying the decisions made identify and describe the transformations that have produced given shapes or patterns create or identify nets for rectangular prisms and other simple solids draw plan, front, side, and perspective views of objects describe locations and give directions, using grid references, simple scales, turns, and points of the compass. 114

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Example 5 Provide the students with coins and kitchen scales, as required for 1. below. The students at Springfield School made a coin trail using 20-cent coins to raise money for Daffodil Day. The length of the coin trail was 21 000 millimetres. What was its length in centimetres? What was it in metres? Here are 100 twenty-cent coins. Use the kitchen scales to find their combined weight. Using your answer, what would 1000 twenty-cent coins weigh? What would 10 twenty-cent coins weigh? For 1., the student reads the scales accurately to give the combined weight as 400 grams. They use their knowledge of place value, metric measures, and multiplicative strategies to correctly answer all other questions – for example, for 1., 'There are 10 millimetres in a centimetre, so 21 000 mm = 2100 cm; there are 1000 millimetres in a metre, so 21 000 mm = 21 m'; for 2., '1000 coins must weigh 10 times 400 grams, which is 4000 grams or 4 kilograms; 10 coins must weigh one-tenth of 400 grams, which is 40 grams.' Source: adapted from 'Coin trail' (MS2161) in the Assessment resource banksAssessment resource banks Example 6 Give the student the following collection of shapes. What is a common property of all these shapes? Identify a property that some of the shapes have and sort all the shapes into groups by that property. For 1., the student identifies at least one property that is common to all the shapes – for example, they all have 4 sides, 4 corners (vertices), or straight sides (that is, they are all polygons). For 2., the student identifies an appropriate property and sorts the shapes into classes by that property – for example, whether each shape has: 115

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Example 6 Give the student the following collection of shapes. What is a common property of all these shapes? Identify a property that some of the shapes have and sort all the shapes into groups by that property. For 1., the student identifies at least one property that is common to all the shapes – for example, they all have 4 sides, 4 corners (vertices), or straight sides (that is, they are all polygons). For 2., the student identifies an appropriate property and sorts the shapes into classes by that property – for example, whether each shape has: Example 7 Provide square grid paper, a ruler, and a protractor. Show the student the following illustration. Draw a net for each of these solids. You may try each net by cutting it out and folding it to make the solid. It may take several attempts to get it right. The student creates nets for the four solids by visualising the shape and size of each face and how the faces fit together. They describe the similarities and differences between the solids (e.g., rectangular faces, triangular versus square ends) and use this information to help construct the nets. The student must precisely measure the dimensions of the faces and orient them so that, when brought together, they form an accurate model of the original solid. It is acceptable to support the student by suggesting that, when drawing a net, they orient the solid’s faces on horizontal and vertical axes. 116

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Statistics In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: investigate summary, comparison, and relationship questions by using the statistical enquiry cycle: - gather or access multivariate category and measurement data - sort data and display it in multiple ways, identifying patterns and variations - interpret results in context, accepting that samples vary and have no effect on one another order the likelihoods of outcomes for situations involving chance, checking for consistency between experimental results and models of all possible outcomes. Example 8 Show the student the illustrations below. Here are the results from a class opinion poll, recorded on a tally chart and displayed in three different graphs. Look at the data gathered in the poll. Suggest some different types of questions that could be answered from the data, for example, summary questions like 'How many girls disagree that keeping animals in zoos is wrong?' or comparison questions like 'Do more boys or girls agree that keeping animals in zoos is wrong?' Now write down some 'I wonder' questions about people’s opinions on topics of interest to you, your friends, or your family. Work with one or two other students to use the statistical enquiry cycle to investigate one or more of your questions. 117

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Make sure your records of your investigation clearly show how you gathered, sorted, and displayed your data and what you interpreted from it. The student should move through all stages of the enquiry cycle. (Note that at times their findings may require them to go back to previous stages.) They may phrase the problem as a summary question (e.g., 'What do people feel about banning fireworks?'), a comparison question (e.g., 'Do boys and girls feel differently about banning fireworks?'), or a relationship question (e.g., 'Is there a link between people’s ages and how they feel about banning fireworks?'). In planning the investigation, the student should consider what data they need to answer the question and how they will collect and manage this data. This may involve finding a way of 'measuring' aspects such as people’s feelings or attitudes. Having collected the data, the student should consider how they will sort and display it to provide answers to their question. They should use tables and graphs and may access a computer program to create their displays. Their displays should be appropriate for the type of data, for example, bar or pie charts for category data, stem-and-leaf plots or dot plots for whole-number data, histograms for measurement data, and line graphs for time-series data. The student may use multiple displays to identify patterns and variations in the data. The student should interpret and report their results in context, using features of their displays to support The student should interpret and report their results in context, using features of their displays to support their findings and acknowledging that different samples might give different results 118

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Example 9 Show the student a bucket containing 2 red balls and 2 blue balls. What are all the possible outcomes when you randomly draw 2 balls from the bucket? What is the probability of getting 2 red balls? How many times would you expect to get 2 red balls in 60 draws? Now trial the situation by drawing 2 balls 60 times and recording your results on a tally chart. Then summarise your results on a frequency table, like this: How do your results compare with your prediction of how often you’d draw 2 red balls? Do the results make you change your prediction? If you repeated the trial with 60 draws, how many times would you get 2 red balls? The student creates a model of all the possible outcomes when 2 balls are removed from the bucket. From this, they identify that 2 red balls is one of 6 possible outcomes, and they predict that this outcome should occur about 10 times in 60 draws. 119

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By the end of year 8By the end of year 8, students will be achieving at level 4 in the mathematics and statistics learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum. Number and algebraNumber and algebra | Geometry and measurement | StatisticsGeometry and measurement Statistics The following problems and descriptions of student thinking exemplify what is required to meet this standard. Number and algebra In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: apply multiplicative strategies flexibly to whole numbers, ratios, and equivalent fractions (including decimals and percentages) use multiplication and division as inverse operations on whole numbers apply additive strategies flexibly to decimals and integers find and represent relationships in spatial and number patterns, using: - tables and graphs - equations for linear relationships - recursive rules for non-linear relationships apply inverse operations to simple linear relationships. During this school year, 'number' should be the focus of 40–60 percent of mathematics teaching timeBy the end of year 8, students will be achieving at level 4 in the mathematics and statistics learning area of The New Zealand Curriculum. Number and algebraNumber and algebra | Geometry and measurement | StatisticsGeometry and measurement Statistics The following problems and descriptions of student thinking exemplify what is required to meet this standard. Number and algebra In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: apply multiplicative strategies flexibly to whole numbers, ratios, and equivalent fractions (including decimals and percentages) use multiplication and division as inverse operations on whole numbers apply additive strategies flexibly to decimals and integers find and represent relationships in spatial and number patterns, using: - tables and graphs - equations for linear relationships - recursive rules for non-linear relationships apply inverse operations to simple linear relationships. During this school year, 'number' should be the focus of 40–60 percent of mathematics teaching time 120

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Example 1 Mani competed in the hop, step, and jump at the athletics sports. Her jump was 2.65 metres, and her step was 1.96 metres. The total of her triple jump was 5.5 metres. How long was her hop? The student applies their knowledge of decimal place value to correctly calculate the answer. They use a combination of mental and written strategies, which may include equations, vertical algorithms, or empty number lines. Example 2 Andre has ordered 201 tennis balls. They are sold in cans of 3 balls. How many cans should he receive? The student gets the correct answer of 67 and, when explaining their strategy, demonstrates understanding of division and place value. Their strategy might involve partitioning numbers into hundreds, tens, and ones, using tidy numbers (e.g., 210) and compensating, or using divisibility rules 121

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Example 3 With 26 matchsticks, you can make 4 fish in this pattern. How many fish can you make with 140 matchsticks? Write an equation that gives the rule for the number of matchsticks you need for a given number of fish. The student finds a linear relationship between the number of fish and the number of matchsticks, and they write an equation that expresses that relationship (e.g., y = 6x + 2). To solve the problem, they use a graph or apply inverse operations to their rule or equation, for example, 'undoing' or 'reversing' the 'six times the number of fish plus two' rule (140 – 2 = 138, 138 ÷ 6 = 23). If they simply continue a table to solve the problem (1 fish, 8 matches; 2 fish, 14 matches; 3 fish, 20 matches...), they do not meet the expectation. Geometry and measurement In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: use metric and other standard measures make simple conversions between units, using decimals 122

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Geometry and measurement In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: use metric and other standard measures make simple conversions between units, using decimals use side or edge lengths to find the perimeters and areas of rectangles, parallelograms, and triangles and the volumes of cuboids sort two- and three-dimensional shapes into classes, considering the relationships between the classes and justifying the decisions made identify and describe the features of shapes or patterns that change or do not change under transformation create or identify nets for rectangular prisms and other simple solids, given particular requirements draw or make objects, given their plan, front, and side views or their perspective views describe locations and give directions, using scales, bearings, and co-ordinates. Example 4 Give the student a ruler, a toy car to measure, and the illustration of boxes shown above. Use the ruler to measure as accurately as possible how long, how wide, and how high this car is. Give your answer firstly in millimetres and then in centimetres. Using the ruler, the student accurately measures the length, width, and height of the toy car to the nearest millimetre, and they are able to convert between millimetres and centimetres. They choose the most suitable box – that is, the one with dimensions that exceed the dimensions of the car by the least possible amount. 123

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Example 5 Is there a family that all 3 of these solid shapes belong to? Why? Is there another family of solid shapes that the Rolo packet could belong to? The student states that all three solids are prisms. They explain that a prism has a uniform cross-section and that this gives the prism its name (e.g., a 'triangular prism'). There is debate about the definition of a prism and whether a cylinder is a prism. If the student rejects the cylinder as a prism, explaining that it does not have rectangular faces like other prisms, they still meet the expectation. In answer to the second question, the student could place the cylinder in the family of curved solids that includes spheres and cones. Any other plausible possibility for an alternative family of solids is also acceptable (e.g., solids with circular faces). Example 6 Provide the student with a selection of shapes including squares, rectangles, diamonds, regular hexagons, regular octagons, circles, and equilateral, right-angled, and scalene triangles. Which of these shapes will tessellate? Why? The student explains that shapes that tessellate must fit together around a point and that therefore, for a regular shape, its interior angle must divide evenly into 360. For each shape, they refer to an angular measure to justify their conclusion as to whether it will tessellate or not (e.g., 'An equilateral triangle tessellates because 6 x 60° = 360°, so 6 triangles will surround a point'). 124

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Statistics In contexts that require them to solve problems or model situations, students will be able to: investigate summary, comparison, and relationship questions by using the statistical enquiry cycle: - gather or access multivariate category, measurement, and time-series data - sort data and display it in multiple ways, identifying patterns, variations, relationships, and trends and using ideas about middle and spread where appropriate - interpret results in context, identifying factors that produce uncertainty express as fractions the likelihoods of outcomes for situations involving chance, checking for consistency between experimental results and models of all possible outcomes. Example 7 Jane’s class was doing a unit on healthy eating. Jane wanted to see if the unit would make any difference to her classmates’ eating habits, so she developed a scale to measure the healthiness of the lunches they were eating. She applied the scale before and after the unit and created two dot plots to display the results. Jane concluded that because of the unit, her classmates were now eating healthily. Do you agree? Why or why not? The student uses data from the graphs to support and/or argue against Jane’s conclusion. For example, they should identify that more students are now eating healthier lunches and that all students are now bringing or buying a lunch. With prompting, they should be able to identify that although the spread of unhealthy to healthy lunches has not changed, the clustering of lunch scores has shifted to more above zero than below, and therefore the 'middle healthiness' has increased. The student should point out that Jane’s conclusion that 'her classmates were now eating healthily' is not supported by the data, which shows that a small group of students continue to eat unhealthy lunches. They should also recognise that without additional data (such as a larger sample across different days or information from interviews), the improvement in lunch healthiness is not necessarily due to the class unit. For example, the tuck shop may have changed its menu while the class was doing the unit. 125

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Example 8 This is a game you might use at the school gala. Put 2 red balls and 2 blue balls in a bucket. Without looking, a player takes out 2 balls. If the balls are the same colour, they win. If the balls are different, they lose. Carry out an experiment by playing 30 games and recording how often the player wins and loses. Draw a diagram to show all the possible outcomes when you draw 2 balls from the bucket. Does this help explain your results? How? If you played 30 more games, would the results be the same as or different from your first experiment? If they would be different, how? The student plays 30 games and organises their results systematically, for example, by using a table or tally chart. They notice that there are more losses than wins. (The results will generally be around 10 wins and 20 losses.) The student creates a model of all possible outcomes, for example, a network or tree diagram. From the model, the student concludes that the chances of winning and losing are one-third and two-thirds respectively. They accept that their results may not exactly reflect these likelihoods (e.g., 12 wins from 30 games is slightly more than one-third). The student understands that the first experiment does not influence the second. They explain that the results are likely to be around 10 wins and 20 losses but unlikely to be identical to the results from the first experiment – that is, they accept the variability and independence of samples. (In this case, the sample consists of 30 games.) 126

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Implementation Plan The Ministry of education Numeracy Project documents will be the basis of all classroom planning and teaching programmes. Numeracy will be the focus of all classroom work and the other strands will be used as a context for numeracy study. The overview for study will be based ion the Number Framework especially pages 10 – 16. planning will be based on the Getting Started booklets especially from pages 14 – 29. Content booklets will be used by the teachers to deliver the project strategies especially: Teaching Number knowledge Addition and Subtraction Multiplication and Division Fractions Decimals and Percentages As a general indication 70% of the project delivery will be on knowledge and 30% on strategy teaching. For an example of a typical teaching session refer to ‘Getting Started” pages 4 & 5. There should usually be three groups operating within a class and cross grouping is an option. Each classroom has been supplied with resources to support the implementation of the Numeracy Project. The equipment must be used to support the teaching sessions at all levels. Assessment and Evaluation Formative assessment of the children’s progress through stages will be recorded on the planners from Getting Started or similar tracking sheets. Summative assessment can be made using the I Can Sheets and or a selection of Snapshots or observations. The stages reached are recorded twice yearly on the school records. Guidelines Senior Term 1 Week 1-3 Myself – measurement. Problem solving, statistics Testing. Maths assessment of all students Weeks 4 – 11 Addition and Subtraction Term 2 Multiplication and Division Term 3 Fractions and Decimals. Addition and Subtraction and Multiplication and Division Term 4 Work on other strands with a number component included daily School wide data collection Two weeks of each term will be supplemented with other strand teaching. Junior Term 1 Weeks 1-3 Myself – measurement, problem solving, statistics. School wide assessment of all students. Weeks 4-11 Addition and Subtraction. Doublers to 10, skip counting 0-20 (2’s and 5’s) Term 2 Addition and Subtraction. Doublers to 10, skip counting 0-20 (2’s and 5’s) Term 3 Addition and Subtraction. Doublers to 10, skip counting 0-20 (2’s and 5’s) Multiplication using materials. Term 4 Addition and Subtraction. Doublers to 10, skip counting 0-20 (2’s and 5’s) Multiplication using materials. Fractions halves and quarters with equal sharing of sets. Work on other strands with a number component daily. School wide data collection. Two weeks of each term will be supplemented with other strand teaching. 127

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Stage Indicators 0 EmergentLevel 1 Beginning The child is unable to count a collection of items. 1One to one CountingLevel 1 Progressing The child is able to count a collection of objects but unable to solve addition and subtraction problems. 2Counting from One On MaterialsLevel 1 Progressing The child is able to solve addition and subtraction problems by counting from 1 using materials or fingers. 3Counting from One by Imaging Level 1 Achieved The child counts from 1 to solve addition or subtraction problems by visualising/imaging rather than using objects or fingers 4Advance CountingLevel 2 Progressing The child thinks about the biggest number and counts on or counts back to solve the addition or subtraction problems. 5 Early Part/Whole Thinking Level 2 Achieved The child can pull apart numbers to solve problems. The child may use knowledge of their facts to 10 and doubles to solve addition/Subtraction problems. 6. Advanced Part/Whole ThinkingLevel 3 Progressing The child is able to use a range of strategies to solve 2 and 3 digit problems 128

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48 Advanced proportion al 37 Advanced multiplica tive 36 Advanced additive 25 Early Additive 24 Advanced Counting 13 Counting by Imaging 12 Counting on materials 11 One to one counting 10 Emergent Lev el Stage0/12345678 129

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Learning Outcomes123456 Early Part- whole Child can skip count in 2’s, 3’s, 4’s, 5’s & 10’s from 0-100 Child identifies numerals 0-1000 range Child can say a forward and backward number sequences by ones, tens and hundreds 0-1000 Child gives number one more or one less, 10 more or 10 less, 100 more or 100 less: range 1-1000 Child orders the numbers in range 1-1000 and fractions with the same denominators e.g. ¼ and 2/4 Child knows the numbers that add up to 100 particularly multiples of 5 Child knows the numbers that add up top 100 particularly centuries e.g.400+600 Child automatically recalls multiplication facts for 2,3,5,10 times tables and matching divisions Advanced Counting Child can say the forward and backward number word sequences from 0-100 Child can recognise the numerals 1-100 Child can recognise the fractions ½, ¼, 1/3, 1/5 Child knows the number before and after a given number in the range 1-100 Child can order numbers in the range 1-100 Child can skip count backwards and forwards 0-100 in 2’s, 5’s, 10’s Child can rapidly recall doubles to 20 and corresponding halves Child knows the names for 10 and the ‘teen’ numbers as 10 and Child can recall groups within 20 e.g. 14+ 6, 20-5 Child knows the numbers of tens in decades e.g. how many tens in sixty? Counting/im aging Child can identify all the numerals in range 1-20 Child can say forward and backward number word sequence in range 1-20 Child can say the number before and after in the range 1-20 Child can order the numbers in the range 1-20 Children know groups within 5 e.g. 3+2 Children know groups with 5 e.g. 5+2 Children know groups within 10 Children know how to recognise patterns to 10 including finger patterns Children can recall addition and subtraction facts to 5 Child can recall doubles to 10 Children can skip count forwards and backwards in 2’s, 5’s and in the range 1-20 Counting on materials Children can identify all the numerals in the range 1-10 Children can identify symbols for unit fractions ½, ¼ Children can say forward and backward number word sequences in the range 1-10 Children can order numbers in the range 1-10 Children can recognise patterns to 5 including finger patterns Children can say the before and after numbers in the range 1-10 One to OneChildren are able to count a collection of items in the range 1-10 Our goal is for all children to have achieved all the learning outcomes and become a part-whole thinker by the end of Year 3 130

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Mathematics Achievement Statement: Statistics Year 1 Can sort for colour, shape, size. Can sort to a given attribute. Predict what is certain. Collect and sort everyday objects and state why. Make a statement about a graph. Year 2 Gather information using a variety of recording items. E.g. tally marks. Classify or group. Interpret a simple graph. Year 3 Construct a bar graph. Collect data and read information. Recognise other graphs – pie, dot, plot, strip etc. Year 4 Collect and sort objects into categories Count objects in each category, display and discuss results Classify events from their experiences in chart form and graphs Year 5 Collect and display category and whole number data in line graphs, pictographs, tally charts and bar graphs as appropriate Talk about features of their own data displays and others Compare events and order them on a scale from least likely to most likely Year 6 Plan a statistical investigation Make sensible statements on the evidence of statistical plan Use a schematic approach to count a set of possible outcomes Predict the likelihood of outcomes on the basis of a set of observations Year 7 Able to plan statistical investigations Able to construct frequency tables and bar graphs Able to compare findings Abler to construct frequency tables, bar graphs and histograms Able to construct and use tree diagrams Year 8 Able to evaluate data gathered Able to construct and interpret graphs involving time series data Able to list all possible outcomes 131

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Mathematics Achievement Statement: Algebra Year 1 Copy a colour patter ( 1 to 1) Copy a shape pattern ( 1 to 1 ) Copy a position patter ( half turn ) Show a relationship ( 1 to 1) Copy a repeating pattern ( 3 elements) Copy a sequential pattern ( 2 elements) Use = in number sentences to 10 Year 2 Continue a pattern ( shapes ) Describe a pattern Able to use more, less, big, small etc when looking at sets etc. Recognise calculators – know functions on/off basic use of number keys Year 3 Continue a repeating pattern Count in number patterns to 100 ( 2, 5, 10 etc) Use signs +, -,, = Year 4 Continue a repeating pattern Write number sentences from story contexts Describe repeating patterns Year 5 Use mathematical symbols to show relationships Continue a sequential pattern and describe the rule Use graphs to illustrate relationships Year 6 Make up a rule to create a sequential pattern Use a rule State a general rule for similar problems Use graphs to represent a number or relations Solve problems of the type --- + 15 = 39 Year 7 Able to continue number sequences Able to describe rule for number sequence Able to use graphs to show relationships Able to graph familiar situations Year 8 Able to discuss strategies for finding rules Able to interpret relationships illustrated on graphs 132

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Mathematics Achievement Statement: Geometry Year 1 Use positional language (above, below, around, beside) Identify circle, triangle, square, oblong Recognise 3D shape. Ball/box Able to create a geometrical pattern Able to follow a simple direction Year 2 Able to identify 2D basic shapes Identify and describe as seen in real life Year 3 Recognise 2D shapes in everyday life situations Recognise lines of symmetry Rotation of shapes, clockwise, anticlockwise, half and quarter turns Year 4 Can recognise 2 and 3 Dimensional shapes and distinguish between them Square rectangle, oblong, triangle, parallelogram, circle, hexagon, octagon Cube, prism, pyramid, cylinder Know what symmetry is and give examples Know what repeating patterns are and construct Make clockwise and anticlockwise turns Year 5 Can design containers and 3D shapes from net Can describe and interpret position using language of direction and distance Able to identify a draw acute angles, obtuse and right angles Able to draw / sketch 3D shapes such as pyramid and cube Year 6 Can enlarge shapes using grids Translate shapes using grids Know about 3 basic triangles: Equilateral, isosceles and right angle Make 3D shapes from own nets Specify location using grid references Year 7 Can draw simple shapes using instruments Can design and construct 3D model to specifications Can recognise symbols and grid references Year 8 Can create shapes and designs Can construct net for own shapes Can design and construct a variety of polyhedra Can draw and use coordinates for location 133

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Mathematics Achievement Statement: Measurement Year 1 Can compare 2 objects using maths terminology ( length, mass, volume) Use unconventional measures Use language of time (faster, yesterday, tomorrow) Time (O’clock analogue) Recognise coins Year 2 Recognise coins and notes Use unconventional measures (String, feet, cup etc) Recognise small and large ruler, (cm, m ) State the days of the week and months of the year Read clock face. (O’clock and half past) Quarter turn and half turn Year 3 Recognise how far a kilometre is Use a ruler starting from 0 Estimate before measuring Read prices and give change to $1.00 Time analogue and digital ( o’clock, half past, quarter past and quarter to) Year 4 Compare the value of notes and coins Read prices Read digital time Recognise standard measures ( cm, l, kg, km ) Year 5 Carry out practical measure tasks using metric units for length mass and capacity Give change for sums of money Represent sums of money by different combinations of notes and coins Read time and know units of time (minute, hour, week, month, year) Estimate measurements Year 6 Estimate and measure length, mass, area, volume and temperature Show analogue time as digital and vice versa Read and interpret everyday statements about time Year 7 Demonstrate ability to estimate cm, m and km accurately Measure length in everyday situations Convert analogue to digital and 24 hour time Read and use a timetable or chart Calculate perimeter of triangle Calculate area of square Use simple scales Year 8 Demonstrate ability to estimate cm, m and km accurately Measure length in everyday situations Convert analogue to digital and 24 hour time Read and use a timetable or chart Calculate perimeter of triangle Calculate area of square and rectangle Explore measuring of qualitative data Measure circumference of circle 134

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Opua School Expectations for Numeracy ExpectationsYear 1Year 2Year 3Year 4Year 5Year 6Year 7Y e ar 8 NUMBER SENSE Reading and writing and ordering numbers 0 -1010-2020-100100-999999-10,00010,00-1,000,000Everyday numbers Shoe sets and digits. Number recognition Read, write and order. Place value tens and ones Read, write and order. Place hundreds, tens and ones Read, write and order. Place value thousands, hundreds, tens and ones Place value to millions Explain and use positive and n.egative numbers. Integers Rote count to 100Rote count to 1000 Rote count from any number to 10,000 Understand 1 decimal place Understand 2 decimal places Explain and use powers of numbers in everyday use NUMBER OPERATIONS Addition subtraction multiplication division + & - to 10+ & - to 20= & - to 100+ & - 1000+ & - to 10,000 including 1 decimal place = & - to millions+, -, x, / in everyday situations. Divide any number by single digit Verbalise and use equipment Verbal, written and with equipment X2, x5, x10X3, x4X6,x7,x8,x9All times tables with division All basic facts immediate response DoublesBasic addition subtraction facts to 20 Counting by 2’s, 10’s 135

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Suggested Content Overview Level 1 4 weeks Term 1Term 2Term 3Term 4 Exploring NumberEstimation and computationExploring NumberEstimation and computation Can order sets of objects Can use 1 to 1 matching Can find place of a number in sequence Can rote count to 10. Maori 10 Can state 1 more/1 less Can use ordinals Can write numerals to 10 Can recognize number patterns to 10 Can state match and record number of objects in a set Can read and write numbers to 20 Can solve addition problems to 20 Can use, and = Can count to 20 using 1 or 2 Can count back from 20 using 1 Can recognize, say and write number to 20 Can recognize and use 0 Can show Can do above to 50 Can add to 10 Can show, to 10 Can record equations to 20 using + and – Can show place value to 20 Can show half and quarter in shapes. 3 Weeks Term 1Term 2Term 3Term 4 Length/AreaAlgebra/PatternMeasurement/MoneyMass/capacity Can use longer than, shorter than Can use unconventional unites to measure length Can use unconventional units to measure area Can associate metre and Km with length and metre and cm with height Can match, copy and make simple patterns An use language more, less, same Can recognize and describe relationships in a pattern Can copy and complete sequential pattern. Can recognize coins and notes Can order coins in value Can give simple change Can read prices to $20.00 Can use unconventional units to measure volume and capacity Can use appropriate language heavy, light, more, less, same Can compare 2 or more with mass volume capacity 3 Weeks Term 1Term 2Term 3Term 4 Geometry/ ShapeStatistics/GraphingGeometry/MovementStatistics/Probability Can recognise and name triangle, square, circle, rectangle, hexagon Can recognise and name side, corner, straight, face, edge Can follow instructions backward/forward Can identify by shape, colour, size Can give instructions to move or follow Can sort and describe objects to colour, shape, size and texture Can sort and explain why Can explain picture graphs Can use picture, bar or tally marks and explain Can find reflective symmetry in shapes and objects Can cover with shapes that tessellate Can do half and quarter turns Can show reflection and rotation in objects and shapes Can classify events as yes, no, and maybe Can classify and certain, possible or impossible. 136

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Suggested Content Overview Level 2-4 StrandTerm 1Term 2Term 3Term 4 StatisticsStatistical investigations Gathering data Interpret data Graphing, bar, picot, stem, tally Discuss features of display Make statements about data Exploring probability Classify events as certain possible or impossible, least likely, most likely Predict likelihood of outcomes List possible outcomes Statistical Investigations Plan a statistical investigation Collect and display data, strip, dot, plot, Use own language to talk about investigation Construct quality data displays Collect and display time series data Make statements about implications Exploring probability Continue from term 2 and build up experiences with probability and prediction NumberComputation and estimation Make sensible estimates and check reasonableness of answers Addition and subtraction to 30,000 Multiplication to 3 decimal places Fractions decimals and percentages Exploring number Number stories to 90 Sets to 20 Rote count to 50 Read and write whole number decimals powers Explore meaning of digits Order numbers Continue from term 1 Continue from term 2 MeasurementDeveloping concepts of time, rate change and money Read aspects of time days of the week, clocks to hour and half hour. Read prices,give change Read time analogue and digital. Read 24 hour clock Read timetable, charts and scale Estimating and measuring Length and area Order and compare lengths Informal measures using non-standard lengths Measure using m, cm, mm Measure to the nearest graduation Measure and calculate area Estimating and measuring mass Order and compare mass Informal measure using non-standard mass Measure using kg and g Read scales to nearest graduation Measure and calculate mass Estimate and measure Capacity Order and compare capacity Measure using litre. Ml, cubic metre Read scales to nearest graduation Measure volume of cube Read temperature AlgebraExploring equations and expressions Write number sentences using = Use, = Solve problems e.g. ? + 15= 39 Solve word formula for given situation Solve simple linear equations Exploring patterns and relationships Make and describe repeating and sequential patterns, continue Illustrate and talk about relationships Use graphs to illustrate relationships Use rule to describe pattern Use rule to make prediction Use d graphs to interpret everyday situations Exploring equations and expressions Continue from term 1 Exploring patterns and relationships Continue from term 1 Geometry Exploring shape and space Identify own language and language of geometry Triangle, square, oblong, rectangle, circle, oval, pentagon, hexagon. Classify by shape everyday objects Follow and give sequence of instructions direction and movement Exploring symmetry and transformation Talk about symmetrical and repeating patterns Quarter and fifth turns clockwise and counterclockwise Create patterns which repeat and have rotational symmetry Exploring shape and space Describe features of 2D and 3 D Make containers to specific requirements Model and describe 3D objects Draw 3D objects front, back, sides Construct circles and triangles using instruments Exploring symmetry and rotation Describe patterns in terms of reflection, symmetry and translation Describe rotational and reflective symmetry Enlarge and reduce shapes. 137

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SCIENCE Focus Objectives. To design, implement and carry out fair tests To be able to investigate changes to properties and apply this knowledge to other situations Statement The achievement objectives are presented in five strands The Nature of science. The students learn what science is and develop the skills attitudes and values that provide the foundation for further study. The Living World. Biology exploring living things and how they interact with each other and the environment. The emphasis is on the biology of New Zealand Planet Earth and Beyond. The cyclic process that occur on Earth and in space and the interactions between them. The Physical World. Physics is the study of matter and the interactions between the basic components of the universe. Physics covers a wide range of phenomena including light, sound, heat, electricity, magnetism, forces and motion. The Material World. Chemistry is the study of properties and reactions of materials in terms of the particles that make up matter. Overview Level One Nature of Science Understanding about Science Students will appreciate that scientists ask questions about our world that lead to investigations and that open-mindedness is important because there may be more than one explanation Investigating in Science Students will extend their experiences and personal explanations of the natural world through exploration play and asking questions. Communicating in science Students will build their language and develop their understandings of the many ways that the natural world can be represented Participating and contributing Students will explore and act on an issue that links their science learning to their daily living Living World Life processes To recognise that all living things have certain requirements so that they can stay alive Ecology To recognise that living things are suited to their particular habitat Evolution Recognise that there are lots of different living things in the world and that they can be grouped in different ways Explain how we know that some living things from the past are now extinct 138

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Planet Earth and Beyond Earth Cycles Observe and describe local natural features and how they can change Astronomical Cycles Share ideas and observations about the sun and the moon and their physical effects on the earth Interacting cycles Describe how natural events and human actions can affect the local environment Physical World Physical Inquiry Extend their experience of physical phenomena, such as movement, forces, electricity and magnetism, light and sound and heat Seek and represent patterns in physical phenomena Material World Properties of materials Observe and describe properties of familiar materials and group materials in different ways based on their properties Chemical reactions Observe and describe temporary and permanent changes to familiar materials Level Two Nature of Science Understanding about Science Students will appreciate that scientists ask questions about our world that lead to investigations and that open-mindedness is important because there may be more than one explanation Investigating in Science Students will extend their experiences and personal explanations of the natural world through exploration play and asking questions. Communicating in science Students will build their language and develop their understandings of the many ways that the natural world can be represented Participating and contributing Students will explore and act on an issue that links their science learning to their daily living Living World Life processes To recognise that all living things have certain requirements so that they can stay alive Ecology To recognise that living things are suited to their particular habitat Evolution Recognise that there are lots of different living things in the world and that they can be grouped in different ways Explain how we know that some living things from the past are now extinct Planet Earth and Beyond Earth Cycles Observe and describe local natural features and how they can change Astronomical Cycles 139

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Share ideas and observations about the sun and the moon and their physical effects on the earth Interacting cycles Describe how natural events and human actions can affect the local environment Physical World Physical Inquiry Extend their experience of physical phenomena, such as movement, forces, electricity and magnetism, light and sound and heat Seek and represent patterns in physical phenomena Material World Properties of materials Observe and describe properties of familiar materials and group materials in different ways based on their properties Chemical reactions Observe and describe temporary and permanent changes to familiar materials Level Three Nature of Science Understanding about Science Students will appreciate that science is a way of explaining the world and that science knowledge changes over time They will identify ways scientists work together and provide evidence to support their ideas. Investigating in Science Students will build on prior experiences, working together to share and examine their own and others’ knowledge They will ask questions, and carry out appropriate investigations to develop simple explanations Communicating in science Students will begin to use a range of scientific symbols, conventions and vocabulary. They will engage with a range of text types and begin top question the purposes for which the texts are constructed. Participating and contributing Students will use their growing science knowledge when considering issues of concern to them. They will explore various aspects of the issue as they make decisions about possible actions. Living World Life processes To recognise that there are li9fe processes that are common to all living things and that these occur in different ways. Ecology Explain how living things are suited to their particular habitat and how they respond to environmental changes Evolution Begin to group plants, animals and other living things into science –based classifications 140

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Explore how the groups of living things we have in the world have changed over long periods of time. Some living things in New Zealand are quite different from living things in other areas of the world. Planet Earth and Beyond Earth Cycles Investigate the cause, rate and signs of change of natural features. Astronomical Cycles Make observations of the moon, sun and other planets starting to develop a sense of the vastness of the solar system Share Interacting cycles Identify the conditions that allow life to exist on Earth at this moment in time Physical World Physical Inquiry Use some scientific ideas to explain physical phenomena such as movement, forces, electricity, light, waves, sound and heat. Consider describe and represent patterns and trends in physical phenomena and use simple scientific models. Material World Properties of materials Group materials in different ways based on their physical and chemical properties. Relate properties to their uses. Distinguish between pure substances and compounds Chemical reactions Identify the different ways in which chemicals can undergo permanent or temporary changes in everyday situations Particles Begin to develop and understanding of the interaction of particles in phase changes and chemical reactions. Level Four Nature of Science Understanding about Science Students will appreciate that science is a way of explaining the world and that science knowledge changes over time They will identify ways scientists work together and provide evidence to support their ideas. Investigating in Science Students will build on prior experiences, working together to share and examine their own and others’ knowledge They will ask questions, and carry out appropriate investigations to develop simple explanations Communicating in science Students will begin to use a range of scientific symbols, conventions and vocabulary. They will engage with a range of text types and begin top question the purposes for which the texts are constructed. Participating and contributing Students will use their growing science knowledge when considering issues of concern to them. They will explore various aspects of the issue as they make decisions about possible actions. 141

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Living World Life processes To recognise that there are li9fe processes that are common to all living things and that these occur in different ways. Ecology Explain how living things are suited to their particular habitat and how they respond to environmental changes Evolution Begin to group plants, animals and other living things into science –based classifications Explore how the groups of living things we have in the world have changed over long periods of time. Some living things in New Zealand are quite different from living things in other areas of the world. Planet Earth and Beyond Earth Cycles Investigate the cause, rate and signs of change of natural features. Astronomical Cycles Make observations of the moon, sun and other planets starting to develop a sense of the vastness of the solar system Share Interacting cycles Identify the conditions that allow life to exist on Earth at this moment in time Physical World Physical Inquiry Use some scientific ideas to explain physical phenomena such as movement, forces, electricity, light, waves, sound and heat. Consider describe and represent patterns and trends in physical phenomena and use simple scientific models. Material World Properties of materials Group materials in different ways based on their physical and chemical properties. Relate properties to their uses. Distinguish between pure substances and compounds Chemical reactions Identify the different ways in which chemicals can undergo permanent or temporary changes in everyday situations Particles Begin to develop and understanding of the interaction of particles in phase changes and chemical reactions. 142

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Overview of Science Odd Years Term OneTerm TwoTerm ThreeTerm Four ThemeEarthworksDefying GravityEnergyGreen Earth Rooms 1 & 2 Dinosaurs (LW< PEB) Structure and function Classification Geological change & history Compare to mammals 4, 5, 39, 52, 55 Floating and Sinking Standing Up Structures 37, 51, 30 Torches Electricity and light Simple circuits and safety Sources reflection, shadows 9, 10 Exploring sound Producing sound/vibrations 18 Growing plants Structure and function Reproduction Environments Classification Insects/bees 25, 35, 63 Room 3 The Changing landscape Local geology Volcanoes, earthquakes Weathering Soil composition Types of particles Fossils 1, 2, 6, 12, 40, 41, Pic pack– Fossils, 52 Falling and Flying The air around us Floating Wind The Push of air. Gliders and Planes 30, 34, 38, 50, 17 Temperature changes Sources, temperature, conduction Insulation Radiation Convection Cooking, sand Metals 32, 33 14, 19, 36, 46, 47 Our Bush Structure and function Life processes Protection mechanisms Ecosystems Endangered species Kiwi, Kauri 3, 7, 25, 35, 39, 45, 52 Room 4 Earth’s formation Structure of the earth Tectonic plates Volcanic rock Local landscape Sedimentary rock, soil studies, water/soil pollution 1, 2, 6, 12, 40, 41, 52 Air Force Floating The Push of air Density and sinking/Upthrust Gases and Movement and Pressure Gravity, air resistance, friction Streamlining, parachutes, flight, buoyancy 30, 34, 38, 42, 50, 17 Seeing is Believing Properties of light Reflection, lenses, magnification, applications The human eye Lenses, colours 10, 11 Protecting our environment Ecosystems Biodiversity Requirements of organisms Food chains/webs Interdependence, sustainability Plant/animal studies 4, 7, 26, 39, 45, 52, 62 Key ResourcesMBS of PEB, LW, MW Ready to read Undersea Gardens MBS of PW, LWMBS of PW. MWMBS of LW, EE EE resources 143

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Overview of Science Even Years Term OneTerm TwoTerm ThreeTerm Four ThemeThe BeachMachinesHome ChemistryChanges Rooms 1 & 2 The Rocky Shore Structure and function Biodiversity Protection mechanisms The Rock Pool 5, 21, 39 Simple machines/toys Forces and motion Levers, ramps and wheels Solids and Liquids Changes in state Dissolving Mixtures Rates of change Water, drinks, milk 15, 16, 58, 57 Our Place Recognising patterns in our environment Tracking change Day and night, Sun and moon, Seasons, Shadows 9, 20, 43, 46 Room 3 Ocean Life The Breath of Life structure and function: Respiration Food Chains Reproduction Fish, whales, dolphins 4, 21, 22, 39, 55 Getting things going Forces and motion Electricity Levers, mechanical and electrical/electronic systems Changing substances Mixtures Physical change Chemical change Rates of reaction Milk, clay, concrete, slime,Dyes, breadmaking, recycling 15, 16, 56, 60, 61 Our weather The atmosphere Light angles, uneven heating, conduction of heat Seasonal changes, Major weather patterns 20, 29, Weather pic pack, 31, 43, 44, 50 Room 4 The Rocky Shore Structure and function The ecosystem Tolerance Adaptation The Rock Pool 21, 22 Getting things going Forces and motion Electricity Magnetism Gearing, motors, electro-magnets 49, 54, 59 Permanent changes Physical change Chemical change Variables effecting rates of change Fizzing and foaming, corrosion, Food preservation 15, 23, 24, 53, 64 Our solar system Earth’s relationship with sun and moon Other planets Other bodies Day and night, Moon phases, Tides, Seasons, orbits, Our Galaxy, Life elsewhere. 8, 20, 27, 28, 29, 44 Key ResourcesMBS of LWMBS of PW Simple machines - Sunshine MBS of MWMBS` of PEB 144

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Overview Odd Years Students will develop a knowledge and understandings of: Level OneLevel TwoLevel ThreeLevel Four Term 1 objectivesPeople belong to particular groups for reasons People have different roles rights and responsibilities Formal and informal groups make decisions that impact on their communities Leadership of groups is acquired and exercised in ways that have consequences for communities Suggested topicsStarting school Moving house My life Our class Whakapapa Special occasions Family events Ceremonies Celebrations Medieval life Our school/Area Sports/games Emergencies Voluntary groups Helping organizations Natural disasters Samoan Matai System General elections Coaches/captains Royal Families Boards Treaty of Waitangi ANZAC Day Bay of Islands A\Whalers and sealers Gumdiggers Historical/ sacred sites Gold mining Term 2 objectivesStudents learn about the past events, experiences and actions and their changing interpretation over time. To understand about past, present and future The past is important to people Students learn about the past events, experiences and actions and their changing interpretation over time. To understand about past, present and future Time and change affect people’s lives Students learn about the past events, experiences and actions and their changing interpretation over time. To understand about past, present and future Events have causes and effects Students learn about the past events, experiences and actions and their changing interpretation over time. To understand about past, present and future People pass on and sustain culture and heritage for different reasons Suggested topicsMonuments Holidays National Parks Our district Aborigines/Rock art Maori carvings Marae Place names Mapping My Place BOI Marae/ Pa sites Pacific Islands Local community Inventions/Inventors Transport Leaders Pioneers Explorers Whalers/Sealers Voyages of discovery Pioneer family Disasters Refugees Civil defence Wars Air/sea rescue Whale rescue Helping agencies e.g. UN Famine/plague SOCIAL STUDIES Focus Objectives. To gain knowledge of people and their interaction with each other To identify, discuss and respect other views, values and cultures. Statement Through social studies programmes students at Opua School will develop knowledge and understandings of the people in their community, New Zealand and the world. Opua School will empower students to participate as confident, informed and responsible citizens in a changing society. Overview 145

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TECHNOLOGY Focus Objectives. To investigate and explain in some detail technological processes and their uses. To be able to evaluate and modify designs and outcomes to meet set criteria Statement : The programme In every unit all strands will be covered where possible There will be a minimum of two units taught each year. The choice of unit may be based on an area, or a real; identified need or opportunity which could be based on a school event or requirement. Technology units may be planned separately from other curriculum areas. Units are generally taught in four to five week blocks with links to other curriculum areas within this time frame. Year 7 & 8 will be involved with the technology curriculum at Moerewa School. Resources Major resourcing will be allocated to designated technology areas throughout the year depending on needs. The annual technology budget will include consumables. This needs to be spent prudently as the overall budget is limited. Thought should be given to alternative sources of materials or by encouraging students to adapt or change designs to fit available resources. Materials and structures and mechanisms have been linked together for planning and use of equipment Five Year Overview 2007 production and Process 2008Biotechnology 2009Food technology 2010Information and communication 2011structures and Mechanisms/materials Staff Development Each year, based on staff interest, resources all teachers will have the opportunity for teacher development. This may include; Staff meetings, staff visits, Advisory support, staff strengths, workshops. Planning The two syndicates, (Junior/ Senior) will plan units based on the one compulsory area. The choice of the other area will either be syndicate based or individual teacher based. Points to remember when planning: Incorporate an authentic need or opportunity Students must produce something that is tangible, a product, system or environment. All units must include design and graphics Teachers should consider their own knowledge base a and decide whether the chose topic is appropriate for then to enhance the children’s learning. 146

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Assessment Assessment must be a part of the process of learning and should build on the assessment from the students previous learning in Technology Technological skills and conceptual gateways should be identified at the beginning of the unit./ These will drive the assessment process Negotiated or unplanned or unexpected gateways should be allowed for. Safety Teachers along with students in the classes must complete a risks analysis management matrix. This should be displayed on the wall and added to as the unit progresses. Refer to the Safety in Technology handbook. A safe and hygienic environment must be provided 147

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School Overview 2012 Northland is unique. We have the responsibility to look after it. Places Change. People make choices. Our history and heritage are important. Northland is an important part of New Zealand History. The sea is important to Northland Term 1 Our Sea - The Living World Treaty and settlement Term 2 Our Past Our History - Earth and Beyond Term 3 Our Culture recreation – Sport The Physical World Term 4 Ourselves - The Material World - Grandpa’s Day WHAT Rocky shore Ocean Beaches Mangroves Fishing WHAT Environments Dinosaurs Disasters Local history Conservation WHAT Olympics Sports/games Hobbies /pastimes Tourism Growing food Recreation Transport Homes/ Habitats Reserves Healthy Living Uniforms Tech Books/powerpoints Migrations Picture frames Graphics Bread making Different Lands Boxes Design/marketing Hangi Laws/Rules/ Cultures Biotechnology Materials Uses/Places/environments/resources THINKING Pollution Wildlife conservation Reserves Reduce Reuse RecycleFlags Symbols Change Growing Literacy Description- Rocky Shore Recount My trip to the shore Research- Fact finding Letters Description Dinosaur factual reports Narrative Explanations Sports recounts Recipes Poetry Narratives Arguments Poetry Factual reports Arguments Recounts Mathematics Counting Geometry / Shapes Measurement Tables Graphs Statistics Patterns Relationships Templates/nets Statistics Probability Measurement Time Statistical Investigations Health and fitness Water safety Relationships Dancing Healthy eating Home safety Dancing Road safety Laws/rights/responsibilities Water safety Bike safety Caring for ourselves - Personal safety Swimming Athletics Small ball Large ball Gymnastics Winter sports Tapuwae Cross country Winter sports Swimming athletics Small ball Arts Drama Music Visual Paint/ Crayon Dance Music Crayon/ Pastel Dance Music Printing/Graphics Drama Music Murals/ mosaics Collection of data Target groups Meet the teachers night Comparative data Samples/ sample folders Parent teacher student interviews Comparative data Clubs night Sample folders Summative data Annual reports Class lists / sample folders 148

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PageNumberPageNumberPageNumber Strategy2Kapa Haka21Mathematics78 Vision3Visual Arts23After 1 Year78 Strategic Plan4Health and Physical Education28After 2 Year82 Outline5Swimming32After 3 years87 Curriculum6English40After 4 years93 Key competencies7Reading Year 140After 5 years99 Good Teachers8Year 241After 6 years105 Targets9Year 342After 7 years112 Delivery10Year 443After 8 years120 Guidelines11Year 544Implementation127 Assessment12Year 645Stages128 Reporting13Year 746Statistics131 Content14Year 847Algebra132 Success Criteria15Writing Year 154Geometry133 Learning Intentions16Year 255Measurement134 Arts17Year 356Expectations135 Music19Year 457Science138 Year 558Social Studies145 Year 659Technology146 Year 760Overviews148 Year 861 Handwriting62 Languages67 149

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