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Heritage of World Civilization Prof. Kulwadee Makarabhirom.

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Presentation on theme: "Heritage of World Civilization Prof. Kulwadee Makarabhirom."— Presentation transcript:

1 Heritage of World Civilization Prof. Kulwadee Makarabhirom

2 Ancient Literature 1. Sumerian Literature 2. Egyptian Literature 3. Jewish Literature 4. Indian Literature 5. Chinese Literature 6. Greek Literature 7. Roman Literature

3 Cradle of World Civilizations: Four Important River Valleys of the Ancient World (Albert M. Craig. The Heritage of World Civilizations, p. 6) วรรณคดียุคโบราณ 33 โร มัน กรี ก จีน อินเดี ย ฮีบ รู อียิป ต์ ซุเมเรียน

4 Near East in the Ancient Times

5 Mesopotamian Literature ancient literature  oral literature (handed down by oral tradition)  written literature  difficult / impossible to date Sumerian Cuneiform

6 The Epic of Creation recorded on 7 clay tablets with the cuneiform

7 Epic of Creation Apsu + Tiamat  gods, goddess Ea VS Apsu Marduk VS Tiamat  Tiamat’s upper part  heaven Tiamat’s lower part  earth Tiamat’s bones  mountains Tiamat’s blood  rivers, oceans Marduk created man and animals from clay

8 Marduk creating heaven and earth in the Sumerian Epic of Creation

9 Epic of Utanapishtim Ea  Utanapishtim  7 storied ship / vessal Man of Shuruppak, son of Ubar-Tutu, Destroy thy house, build a vessel, Leave thy riches, seek thy life Store in thy vessel the seeds of all life, ………………………………………. Formerly Uta-Napishtim was a human being, Now Uta-Napishtim and his wife will be like unto us, gods.

10 Utanapishtim constructing a vessal as instructed by Ea

11 Epic of Utanapishtim Enlil, the rain god  rained for 6 days and nights  Utanapishtim’s vessel  Mt. Nisir  Utanapishtim  released birds 3 times  offered sacrifice to gods

12 Epic of Gilgamesh Ninsun + mortal man  Gilgamesh  Sumerian King (3,000 B.C.)

13 Gilgamesh hunting with Enkidu

14 Epic of Gilgamesh Enkidu, my friend, my little brother, who chased the panther of the desert, My friend who with me killed lions, My friend who faced with me all difficulties, His fate has overtaken him. Six days and six nights have I wept over him. Then when I afraid of death and I fled through the land. My friend whom I lived has become like unto mud. And I, must I too, lie down like him and never rise again ? …………………………………………………………….. O Gilgamesh, why dost thou run in all directions ? The life thou seekest thou shalt never find. When the gods created man They gave him Death. Life they kept in their own hands.

15 Gilgamesh on a journey to Utanapishtim in his search for the secret of immortality

16 Gilgamesh gathering herbs, the snake stealing the herbs

17 Egyptian Literature  Ancient Near East

18 Egyptian Literature Religious Literature  Hieroglyph Secular Literature  Hieroglyph

19 Religious Literature  hymns written on the inner wall of pyramids

20 Ra, the sun god depicted on the wall of a pyramid with hieroglyps narrating his story

21 bas-relief on the sacrophagus depicting dying Osiris dispenses his divine sperm to his wife, Isis

22 mummification illustrated in the Book of the Dead

23 Thoth, the moon god weighing a heart with Osiris on his throne, from a Book of the Dead

24 Secular Literature

25

26  proverbs adventurous stories fairy tales love stories

27 Secular Literature Now I’ ll lie down inside and act as if I’m sick My neighbors will come in to visit, and with them my girl. She’ ll put the doctors out For she’s the one to know my heart. (Annonymous Egyptian poet)

28 Jewish Literature  Christian Bible  The Old Testament  relationships + agreements between God and the Jews/ Hebrews  hymns  stories/ teachings of prophets  Jewish history  legends

29 The Creation of Adam

30 Eve tempted by Satan  fruit of the forbidden tree  original sin

31 Jewish Literature  Noah’s Ark  the great flood

32 Legend of Noah and the Great Flood: Noah building his ark

33 Noah releasing a dove from his ark

34 The third dove Noah released from the ark returned with an olive branch.

35 Legend of Noah’s Ark in Walt Disney’s Fantasy 2000

36 Jewish Literature  The Tower of Babel  inspired by Ziggurats of the Sumerians

37 ziggurat of Babylonia dedicated to Marduk

38 Indian Literature  Ancient Literature  Gupta Literature

39 Cradle of World Civilizations: Four Important River Valleys of the Ancient World

40 Ancient Literature  Sanskrit Literature  Pali Literature

41 Masterpieces of Sansakrit Literature  Vedas ( คัมภีร์พระเวท ) Ramayana ( รามายณะ ) Mahabharata ( มหาภารตยุทธ )

42 Sansakrit Literature  Vedas ( คัมภีร์พระเวท )  Rig Veda ( ฤคเวท ) Yajur Veda ( ยชุรเวท ) Sama Veda ( สามเวท ) Asamara Veda ( อาถรรพเวท )

43 Masterpieces of Sansakrit Literature  Ramayana Arayans vs Indian Natives  Rama, Lakshaman Ravana ( ทศกัณฐ์ ) monkeys demons ( ยักษ์ )

44 battle between Rama and Ravana

45 Mahabharata  Arayans vsArayans  Pandava Kauravas ( ตระกูลปาณฑพ ) ( ตระกูล เการพ )

46 Mahabharata Arjuna and Krishna, the eight avatar of Vishnu disguised as Arjuna’s charioteer, sounding their conches

47 Krishna riding Arjuna into the Battle of Kurukshetra ( ทุ่งกุรุเกษตร ) against the Kauravas

48 the most important motif of Mahabharata  Bhagavad Gita  three paths to salvation  Karma ( วิถีแห่งการกระทำ ) Gyan ( วิถีแห่งปัญญา ) Bhakti ( วิถีแห่งความภักดีและ เชื่อมั่น )

49 Pali Literature originated in the North of India mostly Buddhist Literature

50 Pali Literature  Tripitaka ( พระไตรปิฏก ) = three baskets/ three sections of teachings

51 Tripitaka   Sutta Pitaka ( พระสุตตปิฏก ) : dialogues between the Buddha and his followers  Vinaya Pitaka ( พระวินัยปิฏก ): rules of the monasteries  Abhidharmar Pitaka ( พระอภิธรรมปิฏก ): Buddhist philosophy

52 Pali Literature  Milinda Panha  dialogues  Menander, Indo-Greek King Nagasena, Buddhist philosopher

53 Pali Literature  Jataka Tales ( นิทานชาดก ) Bhutanese painting of Jataka Tales, 18th-19th century, Bhutan

54 Jataka Tale  Mahajanaka ( มหาชนก ) Mahajanaka being saved by Mani Mekhala ( นางมณีเมขลา ) from shipwreck

55 Gupta Literature Gupta Dynasty  greatest period of Indian poetry and drama  greatest poet and playwright  Kalidasa ( กาลิทาส )  The Cloud Messenger ( เมฆทูต ) Of Shakuntala Recognized by a Token

56 Of Shakuntala Recognized by a Token was translated by King Rama VI as ศกุนตลา Shakuntala with King Duhshanta ( ท้าวทุษยันต์ )

57 Cradle of Civilizations: Four Important River Valleys of the Ancient World

58 Chinese Literature  Ancient Times Chou Dynasty (1, B.C.) Han Dynasty

59 Ancient Chinese Story  The beginning of the universe  Pangu slept in the chaos for 18,000 years.  Pangu smashed through the chaos with his giant axe.  Pangu created sky, earth, etc.

60 Pangu swung his giant axe to smash through the chaos.

61 Chou Literature Confucious ( ขงจื๊อ )

62 Confucius  Wu Ching / Wu Jing (Five Classics)  norms for Chinese society, law, government, education, literature, religion

63 Lao Tzu  Tao Te Ching  Taoism  living in harmony with nature

64 Han Literature Han Dynasty ruled China for 400 years from 202 B.C.-220 A.D. According to Han chronicles  1,380 tales  15 books Confucian texts were rewritten and republished. Confucianism was revived. Confucianism  adopted by the Han Dynasty as the official ideology

65 Han Literature Wu Ching were used for the Chinese imperial examination, a civil service examination, as early as the Han Dynasty, to select candidates for the state Bureaucracy.

66 Greek Literature (1,200 B.C.)

67 Cradle of World Civilizations: Four Important River Valleys of the Ancient World

68 Greek Literature (1,200 B.C.)  1. Poetry 2. Drama 3. Prose

69 Greek Literature (1,200 B.C.)  Poetry  The Iliad  Trojan War  Homer  The Odyssey  adventures of Odysseus

70 The Iliad: Homer The Judgment of Paris, Peter Paul Rubens

71 The Iliad: Homer Paris and Helen, Jacques Louis David

72 The Odyssey: Homer Odysseus passing the island of the Sirens

73 Hesiod  The Theogony  origins and genealogy of Greek gods

74 The Theogony : Hesiod In the beginning there was only the formless confusion of Chaos.

75 The Titans  The twelve great Olympians

76 Works and Days  Hesiod  farmer’s almanac  agricultural instruction

77 Lyrics  Sappho  poet from Lesbos  love and sexuality

78 Greek Literature drama  dithyramb ( ลำนำกลอนสด )  Dionysus, the God of wine and fertility

79 Greek Drama 1.tragedy 2.comedy

80 Greek Drama  tragedy  Greek’s greatest tragedians  Thespis Aeschylus Sophocles Euripides

81 Greek Tragedian Thespis  the first actor in Greek drama, inventor of tragedy, the first to interweave choral song with an actor’s speeches

82 Greek Tragedian Aeschylus  the most successful dramatist in Athens  introduced dialogue and interacting characters to playwriting Orestes disturbed by the Furies after killing his mother, from Aeschylus’ Eumenides

83 Greek Tragedian Sophocles  Oedipus Rex  fated to kill his mother and married his own mother  Oedipus complex

84 Greek Tragedian Euripides  focus more on men than gods Electra  Electra Complex

85 Greek Comedy old comedy  Aristophanes middle comedy  Aristophanes new comedy  Menander

86 Greek Masks

87 Theatre of Dionysus, Athens: the world’s oldest theatre

88 Roman/ Latin Literature Roman territory during the Roman Republic

89 Roman/ Latin Literature Roman territory during the Roman Empire

90 Roman/ Latin Literature  1. Poetry 2. Drama 3. Prose

91 Poetry Epic  Aeneid  Virgil  Aeneas, a Trojan hero  Hesperia (Italy)  the ancestor of the Roman

92 Aeneid: Virgil Aeneas Fleeing from Troy

93 Poetry Horace  Art of Poetry  states the basic rules of classical writing  greatly influences poets of later periods

94 Poetry Ovid  Metamorphoses  mythological narrative describing the ages of man, the flood, transformations of the natural world: transformation of Daphne

95 transformation of Daphne, Apollo’s first love, into a laurel tree as narrated by Ovid in his Metamorphoses

96 Roman Drama  1.tragedy: Seneca 2.comedy: Plaustus, Terence

97 Tragedian  Seneca  Roman playwright, philosopher, politician  closet drama  written for recitation before a private audience, not for public performance

98 Comedian  Plautus  greatest Roman comedian  about 130 plays  musical comedy  based on works of Greek playwrights

99 Comedian  Terence  6 plays  adapted from Greek plays

100 Roman actors and musicians preparing themselves before performing

101 Mosaic of Roman masks for tragedy and comedy

102 Roman theatre

103

104 Roman amphitheatre

105 Roman amphitheatre: Colosseum

106 Roman amphitheatre

107 Roman Theatre Naumachia  sea battle, the place to perform the sea battle

108 The use of Colosseum as a naumachia

109 Prose  Cicero  master of Latin prose  letters, rhetorical treatises, philosophical works, orations


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