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History of the Bible. define: bible “A book considered authoritative in its field: the bible of Kerala cooking ”

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Presentation on theme: "History of the Bible. define: bible “A book considered authoritative in its field: the bible of Kerala cooking ”"— Presentation transcript:

1 History of the Bible

2 define: bible “A book considered authoritative in its field: the bible of Kerala cooking ”

3 define: Bible ta biblia τα βιβλια

4 Bible Etymology Christians started using the term in 223 AD John Chrysostom, in 386 AD, was the first writer to use the term for the Old and New Testaments together

5 Number of Books How many books in the Old Testament? Hebrew/Protestant 39 Catholic 46 Eastern Orthodox 51

6 Number of Books How many books in the New Testament? 27

7 The Books Name all the Old Testament books

8 Old Testament Books 1.Genesis 2.Exodus 3.Leviticus 4.Numbers 5.Deuteronomy 6.Joshua 7.Judges 8.Ruth 9.1 Samuel 10.2 Samuel 11.1 Kings 12.2 Kings 13.1 Chronicles 14.2 Chronicles 15.Ezra 16.Nehemiah 17.Esther 18.Job 19.Psalms 20.Proverbs 21.Ecclesiastes 22.Song of Solomon 23.Isaiah 24.Jeremiah 25.Lamentations 26.Ezekiel 27.Daniel 28.Hosea 29.Joel 30.Amos 31.Obadiah 32.Jonah 33.Micah 34.Nahum 35.Habakkuk 36.Zephaniah 37.Haggai 38.Zechariah 39.Malachi Pentateuch 5 Books of Moses Historical Books Wisdom Books Major Prophets Twelve Minor Prophets

9 The Books Name all the New Testament books in order

10 New Testament Books 1.Matthew 2.Mark 3.Luke 4.John 5.Acts 6.Romans 7.1 Corinthians 8.2 Corinthians 9.Galatians 10.Ephesians 11.Philippians 12.Colossians 13.1 Thessalonians 14.2 Thessalonians 15.1 Timothy 16.2 Timothy 17.Titus 18.Philemon 19.Hebrews 20.James 21.1 Peter 22.2 Peter 23.1 John 24.2 John 25.3 John 26.Jude 27.Revelation Gospels Pauline Epistles General Epistles

11 Timing Over what period was the Old Testament written? 1500 BC to 400 BC Sparta vs Persia Catapult invented London founded Rigveda being written Mexico emerges Bronze helmet invented

12 Bible written Old Testament Chronology 4000 BC to 1 AD

13 Timing Over what period was the New Testament written? 60 AD to 90 AD Lions extinct in Western Europe Pompeii destroyed Book binding invented Buddhism reaches China

14 Timing What happened to scriptural writing between 400 BC to Jesus? 1 Esdras 2 Esdras Tobit Judith Additions to Esther Wisdom Ecclesiasticus (Sirach) Baruch Letter of Jeremiah Psalm 151 Song of the Three Children (Daniel) Story of Susanna (Daniel) Bel and the Dragon (Daniel) Prayer of Manasses 1 Maccabees 2 Maccabees 3 Maccabees 4 Maccabees Epistle to the Laodiceans Odes Deuterocanonical books (Apocrypha)

15 New Testament Apocrypha GospelsActs Gospel of the Ebionites Gospel of the Hebrews Gospel of the Nazarenes Gospel of Marcion Gospel of Mani Gospel of Apelles Gospel of Bardesanes Gospel of Basilides Gospel of Thomas Gospel of Peter Gospel of Nicodemus Gospel of Bartholomew Questions of Bartholomew Resurrection of Jesus Christ Acts of Andrew Acts of Barnabas Acts of John Acts of the Martyrs Acts of Paul Acts of Paul and Thecla Acts of Peter Acts of Peter and Andrew Acts of Peter and Paul Acts of Peter and the Twelve Acts of Philip Acts of Pilate Acts of Thomas Acts of Timothy Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca

16 New Testament Apocrypha EpistlesApocalypses Epistle of Barnabas Epistles of Clement Epistle of the Corinthians to Paul Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians Epistle to Diognetus Epistle to the Laodiceans Epistle to Seneca the Younger Third Epistle to the Corinthians Apocalypse of Paul Apocalypse of Peter Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius Apocalypse of Thomas Apocalypse of Stephen First Apocalypse of James Second Apocalypse of James The Shepherd of Hermas

17 New Testament Apocrypha MaryMiscellaneous The Home Going of Mary The Falling asleep of the Mother of God The Descent of Mary Apostolic Constitutions Book of Nepos Canons of the Apostles Cave of Treasures Clementine literature Didache Liturgy of St James Penitence of Origen Prayer of Paul Sentences of Sextus Physiologus

18 Length What is the longest book in the Bible? 1.Genesis 2.Jeremiah 3.Psalms 4.Ezekiel 38,267 words 42,659 words 43,743 words 39,407 words

19 Length What is the shortest book in the Bible? 1.Jude 2.3 John 3.Philemon 4.Obadiah 613 words 299 words 445 words 670 words

20 English Translations Name as many English translations as possible (either acronym or full name)

21 English Translations AcronymName AMPAmplified Bible ASVAmerican Standard Version CEBCommon English Bible CEVContemporary English Version DARBYDarby Translation DRADouay-Rheims ERVEasy-to-Read Version ESVEnglish Standard Version GNTGood News Translation/Bible GNVGeneva Bible GWGod's Word HCSBHolman Christian Standard Bible KJVKing James Version KNOXKnox Bible LEBLexham English Bible MSGThe Message

22 English Translations AcronymName NABNew American Bible NASBNew American Standard Bible NCVNew Century Version NETNew English Translation NIrVNew International Reader’s Version NIVNew International Version NJBNew Jerusalem Bible NKJVNew King James Version NLTNew Living Translation NLVNew Life Version NRSVNew Revised Standard Version RSVRevised Standard Version TLBThe Living Bible TNIVToday’s New International Version WYCWycliffe’s Bible YLTYoung’s Literal Translation

23 English Translations Name an English translation before the King James Version NamePublished Wycliffe's Bible1395 Tyndale Bible1530 Cloverdale Bible1535 Matthew Bible1537 Great Bible1539 Taverner's Bible1539 Geneva Bible1560 Bishops' Bible1568 Douay-Rheims1610 King James Version1611 Reformation (1517)

24 Non-English Translations Peshitta Septuagint Tanakh Vulgate Greek Hebrew Latin Syriac Match the language to the translation

25 Hebrew Bible TaNaKh Torah Teaching Nevi’im Prophets Ketuvim Writings

26 21.Nahum 22.Habakkuk 23.Zephaniah 24.Haggai 25.Zechariah 26.Malachi 27.Psalms 28.Proverbs 29.Job 30.Song of Solomon 31.Ruth 32.Lamentations 33.Ecclesiastes 34.Esther 35.Daniel 36.Ezra 37.Nehemiah 38.1 Chronicles 39.2 Chronicles 1.Genesis 2.Exodus 3.Leviticus 4.Numbers 5.Deuteronomy 6.Joshua 7.Judges 8.1 Samuel 9.2 Samuel 10.1 Kings 11.2 Kings 12.Isaiah 13.Jeremiah 14.Ezekiel 15.Hosea 16.Joel 17.Amos 18.Obadiah 19.Jonah 20.Micah Hebrew Bible Torah Nevi’im Ketuvim

27 Hebrew Bible Masoretic Text Created by Masorete Jews between 700 AD to 1000 AD Used by Jews today as their scripture

28 Hebrew Bible Masoretic Text Controversy – Used corrupted texts (compared with DSS and LXX) – Used a different script – Added vowel points through oral tradition – Changes to prophecy and doctrine Paleo-Hebrew (1000 to 500 BC) Modern Hebrew or Assyrian script (500 BC +)

29 Hebrew Bible Dead Sea Scrolls Also called Qumran 972 texts discovered between 1946 and 1956 Found by Bedouin shepherds in jars in a cave

30 Hebrew Bible Dead Sea Scrolls Dated between 408 BC and 318 AD Written in Hebrew, Aramaic & Greek on parchment/vellum, papyrus and bronze Many texts similar (suggesting an ancestor with the Masoretic Text), but some substantially different

31 Septuagint Greek Old Testament dated ~200 BC Meaning: Translation of the seventy [interpreters] LXX is the abbreviation Commissioned by Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Greek King of Egypt – Many of the Alexandrian Jews weren’t fluent in Hebrew but in Greek

32 Septuagint Included some apocryphal books Early Christians used it and the New Testament apostles quoted it Jews started to abandon its use in around 200 AD because – It was associated with early Christianity – Some translation differences compared to contemporary Hebrew scriptures

33 Peshitta Means “simple version/straight” in Syriac

34

35 Peshitta The origins are unknown, but probably translated in 200 AD Old Testament translated from Hebrew/Septuagint New Testament translated from Greek(?)

36 Peshitta Widely circulated in the East – Manuscripts found in Middle East, Egypt, India and China Originally excluded 2 Peter, 2 & 3 John, Jude and Revelation but included by 500 AD

37 Vulgate Means “commonly used translation” Translated from 382 AD by St. Jerome

38 Vulgate Commissioned by Pope Damasus I Was originally intended to be a revision of existing Latin texts, but scope creep Supposedly first translation into Latin from Hebrew, but also used Septuagint among other translations Became the definitive version in Western Europe until 1530 AD

39 Vulgate Many Latin words were brought from the Vulgate into English: Creatio Salvatio Justificatio Tetamentum Sanctificatio Regeneratio Raptura Publicanus Apostolus Evangelium Angelus

40 Vulgate Many copy errors until advent of printing in 1400 AD – Usually took around 10 months to copy by hand – First major book printed in Europe – Many subsequent editions/revisions The latest in 1979 St. Jerome preferred excluding apocrypha, but deferred to church authority

41 Chapters/Verses What century were chapters introduced?

42 Chapters/Verses Hebrew Bible (Masoretic & DSS) originally divided into paragraphs –פ, ף ס In 1205, Archbishop Stephen Langton devised a system that is used today for chapters

43 Chapters/Verses In 1551, Robert Estienne came up with the modern verse numbering system

44 മലയാളം Translation 1811 Claudius Buchannan and Phillipose Ramban translated the Gospels 1841 Complete Bible printed by Anglican missionary, Benjamin Bailey 1872 Hemann Gundert updated Bailey’s version and also produced the first Malayalam-English dictionary

45 മലയാളം Translation Prior to 16 th century, St. Thomas Christians used a version of the Peshitta Official lectionaries of Mar Thoma church exclude the five New Testament books

46 So which Bible should you use?


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