A river is a natural watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing toward an ocean, a lake, a sea or another river. In a few cases, a river simply flows into the ground or dries up completely before reaching another body of water. Small rivers may also be called by several other names, including stream, creek, brook, rivulet, and rill; there is no general rule that defines what can be called a river. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is said to be larger than a creek, but this is not always the case, due to vagueness in the language. A river is part of the hydrological cycle. Water within a river is generally collected from precipitation through surface runoff, groundwater recharge, springs, and the release of stored water in natural ice and snowpack (i.e., from glaciers). ( Wikipedia )
Rivers In India No.River BasinGeagraphical Area Catchme nt Annual Water discharge No of key Country States in IndiaLength Area: Sq. Km per qb.mt. per sq. mts Tributar y Km.In India 1Indus / Sidhu China, Afganistan, Kashmir, Himanchal, Punjab 8,8803,21,28976,9070.248 India India & Pakistan Rajasthan, Haryana, Chandigarh 1114 India 2Ganga China, Nepal, Himanchal, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, 2525 India 8,61,4045,09,7600.5970 India India & Bangladesh Uttarakhand, MP, Bihar, W.Bengal 3Brahmaputra China, Bhootan Sikkim, Arunachal, Assam, Nagaland, 2,8801,87,1134,99,9142.6739 India India & Bangladesh Megalaya & W. Bengal 918 India 4Godavari Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, 1,4653,12,8121,17,9970.3768 Karntaka & Andhra Pradesh
5Krishna Maharashtra, Karntaka & A. P. 1,4012,58,94862,7840.2551 6Mahanadi Chhattishgar h, Maharashtra 9651,41,58966,6440.4739 Bihar & Orrissa 7Narmada MP, Gujarat, Maharashtra 1,31298,79644,3310.45117 8Cauvery Kar ntaka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu 80087,90021,3600.2163 9Tapi MP, Gujarat, Maharashtra 75276,80017,9820.2848 10Pennar 55,213 0.123 11Barak India, Bangladesh & Assam, Tripura, Nagaland, Manipur, 902 India78,15041,188 21 Myanmar Mizoram & Meghalaya 12Ghaghar & Himanchal, Haryana, Punjab & 4671,309 2 Sarswati Rajasthan 13Bhima 861 30 14Shon 784 15Brahmani 39,033
16Mahi M P, Rajasthan Gujarat 58334,8427,7020.2214 17Tungabhadra 35 18Sabarmati Rajasthan & Gujarat 41821,6744,663 7 19Vaigai Tamil Nadu 2587,741 2 20Tamraparni Tamil Nadu 1125,482 4 21Kuchh 27 22Westren Coast Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka 150 Rivers Goa, Kerala & Tamil Nadu 23Eastern Coast W. Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa 76 Rivers Chhattishga rh, Andhra Pradesh Karnataka & Tamil Nadu Total 874 Source: Encyclopedia of Indian Rivers, Diamond Pub. Pune
Benefits from the River 1) Water & food for the survival of every types of life and plants / vegetation on the earth, 2) Maintaining soil fertility, 3) Recharging the ground water, 4) Energy (Hydropower) 5) Riverine Waterway ( transport and floating down the timber lot) 6) River-walk and water-sports
Threats to the River DAM:- which kills the natural flow of a river, disconnect & displace the people who are living all long the bank and its surroundings for centuries. Destroy its natural catchment, forest and biodiversity. Depletion of aqua foods and creates flash floods, desertification, decaying of water bodies. Spoiling diplomatic relations. URBANISATION & INDUSTRIALISATION: Which exploit & pollute the river, exploit the river sand, disturb the natural drainage, encroaching the river-bed for construction activities, CHEMICAL FARMING: Consume more Water and poison more Water,
Threats to the River TOURISM:- Exploits & pollutes the river water, PRIVATISATION: Dispossesses the people from ownership and the river culture, OWNERSHIP: Who own? The government or the people? The riparian countries or states or river originating country / state ? MODERN CIVILISATION: Stimulates the culture of consumption and pollution, GLOBAL WARMING: Melting of glaciers, rise in evaporation, less or more unpredictable rain,
Perception of Independent India The Constituent Assembly of India has just passed legislation for the setting-up of an Authority to develop the Damodar Valley. We have before us the model of the Tennessee Valley Scheme which has revolutionised the economy of the USA. Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister, 20 Feb 1948/ Letters to Chief Ministers The Hirakud Dam is part of the great Mahanadi Scheme of river valley development... it is out to change the whole face of the province. Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister, 15 April 1948/ Letters to Chief Ministers
The Future of The Rivers Building thousands of new river projects all over the country will sound the death knell for the rivers. In Himalaya alone 361 river projects are proposed / under construction. Due to the growing impact of the Global warming the glacier fed rivers will become extinct. This will accelerate the processes of desertification of Gangetic plain. Small but deceased rivers may become alive due to change in rain pattern in today’s drought hit area. River will gradually become a dumping canal for hazardous wastes, Rise of social unrest due to people’s deprivation of their right over River water. Similarly between the riparian states and countries. Continues struggle for Conservation by the people & Civil Society Org.
Peaceful Society’s Action Towards Protection of Environment Successful movement against eviction of Adivasi of Cotigaon due to a Wild Life Sanctuary in Goa in 1985-89, Organised a huge foot-march to Save the Western Ghats in 1987-88 Formed the Save the Western Ghats Movement, Undertook aforestation in Goa Formed ECO Forum to fight against Du-pont plant in Goa. Formed Koshi, Gandak and Ganga Consortium in Bihar to address flood related problem. Formed Save Iduki Campagn and Save Chaliyar Campain in Kerala Formed Indian River-Valley Network (IRN) in 1998 to promote people’s movement and initiatives towards protecting Rivers in India.
IRN & River Conservation Strengthening Koshi, Ganga, Gandak Consortium and Save Chaliyar & Iduki Cmapign, Organised 4 national level thematic River Coferences, in 1999, 2005, 2008 and 2009 Organised Interstate Dialogue between Civil Society Organisations from Kerala and Tamil Nadu on dispute over sharing of River Water. Organised series of awareness building activities on River related issues in 14 states.
Vision on IRN The sustainable conservation of the naturalness of all rivers, including from the Himalayan and other mountain ranges, and all other water sources, so as to maintain the traditional ways of co-existence of living being on Mother Earth.